Human Trafficking: Applying Research, Theory, and Case Studies


Noël Bridget Busch-Armendariz, Maura Nsonwu & Laurie CookHeffron

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    The Primer: An Introduction and Understanding Context

    National Human Trafficking Resource Center 1-888-373-7888

    Introduction and Overview

    This textbook is aimed to engage students about the complex and troubling practices of human trafficking in persons within the context of human rights and social justice perspectives. While human trafficking as a human atrocity is not a new phenomenon, recently discovered awareness of this problem has made it a focus of public concern. In the past five years, academic attention on the topic has increased apace. In the year before writing this textbook, we found that 98 out of 108 (91%) Research 1 universities in the United States held a seminar, workshop, or other educational forum addressing human trafficking; 48 of 108 (44%) have offered a course focused solely on trafficking in persons. Human trafficking was most frequently taught as a 14-week upper-division undergraduate and/or graduate-level course. With no academic prerequisites other than academic standing, the course was typically 50 to 100 students, taught once or twice per year. This has undoubtedly increased since we originally evaluated the learning environment.

    Also, as of this writing, there are slightly more than a dozen books on human trafficking or modern slavery that might serve as a core or supplemental text at the university level. In addition, there are dozens of exposés, journalist reporting–style narratives, or books available as support materials. We have cited many of these scholars and writers in this textbook and have used many of these resources in our own classrooms and seminars when teaching on the topic. This text is set apart from these existing resources in several ways. First, for nearly a decade we have been heavily involved in the development of empirical knowledge about human trafficking through original data collection and peer-reviewed publications. Our research has included interviews and surveys with victims and survivors, law enforcement, prosecutors, social workers, victim advocates, and policy makers, among others. We have also presented extensively to professionals, taught college students, served as expert witnesses, and supervised research practica on this topic. All chapters include our learning thus far on human trafficking, although we continue to develop our knowledge on this complex and evolving topic.

    Building on an understanding of the meaning and scope of human trafficking, the text addresses specific vulnerabilities of human trafficking victims, medical-psychosocial needs of victims, and issues related to direct service delivery. Specific attention focuses on the identification of human trafficking crimes, traffickers, and the impact of this crime on the global economy. Legal and criminal justice issues, types of human trafficking, and typologies of traffickers are provided. Finally, the text provides information on national and international antitrafficking policies and prevention and intervention strategies, including offering clarity on the laws in place to protect victims and promising practices to combat human trafficking. Throughout the text, detailed case examples of human trafficking will illuminate real situations, responses of law enforcement, service providers, organizational challenges, and the cost of trafficking to human well-being. In addition, the text offers discussion questions and interactive classroom exercises and projects designed to deepen student understanding and application. Factual cases worked by social workers and law enforcement as well as prosecuted cases are the focus of case studies.

    The text provides students with an ecological and intersectionality perspective that ties poverty, gender, prostitution, undocumented workers, and unpaid immigrant labor to the issue of human trafficking. The fundamental framework is built on a contemporary human rights perspective.

    Audience and Our Perspective as Authors

    The topic of human trafficking is related to a variety of fields of study. For this reason, this textbook is structured to optimize its use for instructors and students in a variety of fields such as social work, education, anthropology, criminology, women’s and gender studies, sociology, social psychology, nursing, communication and rhetoric, law, criminal justice, foreign policy, economics, public affairs, peace and conflict studies, cultural studies, and foreign policy. It is intended to serve as a core text for a human trafficking course for either undergraduate or graduate students but could be used as supplemental reading in any human rights, violence against women, or law school clinic course.

    We are challenged in two primary ways to bring a variety of voices and perspectives to this text. While we have extensive teaching and research experience in multidisciplinary human trafficking and other teams and much of this has been in other countries, we are U.S.-trained social scientists, academics, and licensed social workers. We have included materials throughout the text about the important international antitrafficking efforts in the world, perspectives that are unique to law enforcement, prosecutors, and social services providers, for example, while acknowledging that our perspectives are as American social workers and applying the relevant theories and research of our discipline to our allied professions.

    The Challenge of Teaching This Content

    The major challenges in teaching about human trafficking arise because of the breadth of the topic—from forced labor to commercial sexual exploitation and from understanding supply-side economics to social service delivery. A full taxonomy of the modern slavery—the ways in which human beings exploit other human beings—is much more difficult than perhaps originally conceived. Another challenge is the wide range of individuals impacted by the crime—from runaway homeless youth in the United States to migrant workers and adults and children. The liabilities of teaching this content are also its strengths. We have found that the major challenges facing students include the explicit nature of the crime and the breadth of the topic across disciplines such as social services, health, economics, and criminal justice. Attention to these critical issues is important.

    Terminology: Survivor—Victim? Trafficker—Exploiter? Modern Slavery—Human Trafficking?

    This textbook uses the terms victim and survivor interchangeably to refer to trafficked individuals, although neither label is meant to be demeaning or judgmental, to weigh passivity or agency, or to give the perception that it is an accurate label for any particular individual. On the contrary, it is important to consider that people trafficked have endured a significant trauma, usually a combination of physical and emotional abuse through threats, power and control, and/or sexual violence and trauma. Likewise, trafficked persons often simultaneously utilize tremendous strength, resilience, and choice. The term victim is often used in the criminal justice system and may reflect the provision of services under legislation in some states or those services that are protected by state law. The term survivor is often used by social workers and other human service practitioners and trafficked individuals themselves. Most notably, this term took hold by practitioners in the field of domestic and sexual violence. As social workers, our profession guides us to acknowledge individuals and how they choose to talk about their experiences (Busch-Armendariz, Nsonwu, & Heffron, 2014; Busch, Fong, Heffron, Faulkner, & Mahapatra, 2007). It is important for instructors and students to consider the terms and labels that describe people (victims and their offenders) as they learn about this topic. Terms, values, and labels are further discussed in Chapter 3.

    Understanding the Ecological Perspective: Macro, Mezzo, and Macro

    The social work profession is most often described as firmly rooted in an ecological perspective that addresses social and economic (in)justices. According to Hutchison (2010), “Social workers have always thought about the environment as multidimensional. As early as 1901 [with] Mary Richmond . . .” (p. 13). The ecological perspective as first described by Bronfenbrenner (1979) suggests that human beings are “nestled in a set of influential structures” (p. 3), but previously Germain (1973) took it a bit further to describe the ecological perspective as a process that involves the “adaptive fit of organisms and their environments and with means by which they achieve dynamic equilibrium and mutuality” (p. 326). And so, a social worker’s ecological perspective is best applied as strengths based (Saleebey, 2002) and “relies heavily on ingenuity and creativity, courage and common sense, of both client and their social workers” (Saleebey, 2002, p. 1). In an earlier piece on this topic, we mused:

    A social work perspective, this implies two things. First, our understanding is based on the notion that individuals and systems are in continuous interaction with each other and that this dynamic interaction is either overtly understood by clients and systems or may be more clandestine. Nevertheless, this implies that social workers must also focus the analysis of the impact of those dynamics and coordination of them as it relates to improving clients and systems. In our human trafficking in persons research, the social worker’s ecological perspective aptly fits with survivors and the professionals that serve them as it seeks to analyze these structures and bring harmony through the increased understanding and coordination among coalition members and between survivors and professionals. (Busch-Armendariz, Nsonwu, & Heffron, 2014, p. 15)

    This text is built on these social work perspectives, where the ecological perspective offers the scaffolding of the textbook’s framework and strength-based narrative is predominant. Although Bronfenbrenner suggests four levels of systems in the ecological perspective, we have collapsed our understanding and presentation to three commonly used categories: micro, mezzo, and macro.

    The micro system involves direct practice with individuals, families, and small groups. Mezzo-system practice includes work with institutions, organizations, and larger communities such as school systems, health departments, or professional groups. The macro system is typically described as practice that includes working toward change focused on the broad cultural perspective and on governmental policies and legislation. The eco-systems perspective is not as neatly outlined as we may have suggested. Mary (2008) opines, “Social structures shape human activity, but participants in any type of social encounter continually create and re-create these structures” (p. 48). Although we have presented the micro, mezzo, and macro systems as somewhat mutually exclusive, it is merely for efficiency. It is much more compelling and accurate to consider their interrelatedness and dynamic nature that Mary (2008) refers to as the “web-of-life” (p. 47).

    Social workers are often considered “bleeding hearts” and presumed to lack empirical judgements. As social workers and scholars, our intent is quite the opposite. Our goal was to provide a framework that is deeply engaged, broadly encompassing, informed by evidence, and with the resolution of exigency that this issue requires. Our readers will determine if we met this goal.

    Attention to the Issue and Practice of Marginalization

    On a related note to exigency, it is also important to call attention to truths that intentionally or unintentionally cause institutional betrayal, bias, and oppression. There are many examples of this throughout the criminal justice and social service systems, and with individuals. This text will address these issues throughout the discussion.

    Infusion of Conceptual Frameworks

    One of the unique aspects of this textbook is the integration of one or more theories or frameworks at the beginning of each chapter. To expose students to new ways of examining human trafficking and new ways of understanding its complexities and controversies, theoretical considerations are infused throughout this textbook. Integrating chapter content with theoretical frameworks propels students to think critically about the descriptive nature of the scope of human trafficking and to evaluate the responses to this crime through the policies and services that have developed. Theory infusion generates curiosity, questions, and discussion, as well as perhaps offering inspiration for students to explore the use and application of theoretical perspectives in other parts of their studies.

    A variety of broad and overarching theoretical considerations were selected to conceptualize the social and economic injustice of human trafficking, including human rights perspective, Critical Race Theory, feminism, and intersectionality. Applied, or practice-based, approaches are also incorporated, including the ecological approach, strengths-based approach, trauma-informed approach, and transnational theory. The selected theoretical framework(s) are briefly explained at the beginning of each chapter to serve as a catalyst for understanding the chapter content and to provide the opportunity to explore with some depth human trafficking from this standpoint.

    This textbook targets a wide range of academic disciplines, so students’ understanding of the individual theories that are presented and practice with theoretical application will vary. Instructors and students will undoubtedly determine that a different theory may have been more useful than the one presented in a particular chapter to better understand human trafficking. We encourage and would appreciate this critical examination and feedback.

    Infusion of Case Studies

    Six chapters include case studies. These are not the typical case studies used in textbooks because they are decision cases collected and written through a specific methodology between the textbook author, case writers, and case reporters or practitioners. Decision cases are factual situations encountered by practitioners. In this textbook, the protagonist may be a social worker, law enforcement officer, prosecutor, immigration attorney, or a member of a coalition, among others. In decision cases, students must, as Barnes (1989) reflects, “untangle situations that are complex and undefined and impose a coherence of their own making” (cited by Wolfer, 2006, p. 6).

    Unlike descriptive cases, decision cases are specifically designed to engage students both horizontally (across disciplines, for examples) and vertically (critical decision making). Faculty use the cases to help students, as Lundeberg (1999) describes, “to identify, frame, or find a problem; consider problems from multiple perspectives; provide solutions for problems identified; and consider the consequences and ethical ramifications of these solutions” (p. 8). In this way, decision cases provide the faculty with class discussions, assignments, and other structures for more “sophisticated decision-making abilities” (Wolfer, 2006, p. 10). Widely used in schools of law, business—and growing in social work, social sciences, and other disciplines—decision cases are reported by a protagonist (called a case reporter) about their lived experiences and written by an author(s) using a specific methodological framework. We have incorporated decision cases in this textbook from a variety of case reporters (social workers, law enforcement, and a prosecutor). The case reporters recounted their professional experiences working with a particular human trafficking case and the challenges that they encountered in the United States.

    All the information presented in every case is factual. That is, no details were changed or modified to fit a particular outcome or lesson, with the exception of the names and locations that were changed to protect our protagonists’ and victims’ identities.

    The renewed attention to this global issue has created perhaps unintended consequences in this field. It is helpful to have critical conversations to examine hyperbole that misstates or overstates any issues. At the same time, we have seen that critical analysis sometimes lacks substantiation, which can become problematic. Empirical research on human trafficking is still relatively scarce. As we have said in the past, while these issues are important to the dialog, our focus as social workers, scholars, and educators has been to continue to call for additional research about the impact of victimization including risk factors and vulnerability; the impact of trauma and assault; and needed resources for restoration and prevention strategies, strategies that promote or hinder coalition building among those who primarily respond to survivors, and the considerations of root causes. Research continues to be challenging because this is a hidden, highly controlled, victimized group.

    The case writers are the primary authors of the decision cases. The textbook authors were responsible for and involved in recruiting cases, collection, disguising case details, securing final approval from practitioners, and making final revisions.

    How to Use the Decision Case Model

    To help students develop practical experience in open-ended, problem-based learning and critical thinking skills, Wolfer and Scales (2006) propose general goals for the decision case method as follows:

    • Pre-Read the Case. The first reading should be a quick run-through of the case and second or third should include understanding and gathering data and facts. The instructor and student move from a mere inventory to actual overview of the problem.
    • Develop Awareness and Empathic Understanding. Examine the problem from multiple perspectives and try to understand other points of view.
    • Define the Problem and Key Issues. Think of defining the problem as a starting point, identify key issues broadly, from multiple perspectives, and constantly reframe and revise to accommodate new insight.
    • Take a Stand and Draw Conclusions. Brainstorm and make recommendations tempered by analysis of alternate viewpoints. Look to support your conclusion while remaining open minded.
    • Behaviors to Encourage and Avoid. Best teaching and participation practices include active listening and sharing of ideas and discouraging disrespect for other ideas or bias, diversion, domination, or withdrawal from discussion.
    • Trust the Decision Case Process and Experiential Learning. Mastery of problem-solving skills is cumulative and develops over time. As in real life, decision cases are complex and ambiguous. Focusing on “here and now” allows for openness and learning new skills.
    • Maintain Perspective and Focus on Long-Term Outcomes. Often, decision cases are unsettling for participants due to diverse opinions and emotions. Keep as the goal gaining practical skills and the learning process.
    Classroom Ideas for How to Teach Decision Cases

    A full discussion of the decision case may take one or more class periods, depending on the class length. Our experience teaching decision cases is that the application may take a full 2 or 3 hours of class discussion. If this is a new learning format, students may be divided into small groups and assigned a specific case. The expectation is that small-group members fully understand the case details and may conduct additional research about its elements to add to the class discussion. To fully utilize these cases, all students should read and be prepared to fully discuss the case that is assigned.

    During the discussion, it is helpful if the instructor divides the discussion by four areas (facts, analysis, action, and reflection). The facts of the case should be fully reviewed. If this is a new teaching format, instructors may be surprised that to achieve an agreement about the case, facts will take fully vetted conversation. Instructors may choose to start the discussion by asking a student to quickly summarize the case (as in the first read mentioned above). It is often helpful to write the “facts” on the board. Once all the important facts have emerged and been agreed upon, the instructor could move students into an analysis discussion. During the analysis, students may opine elements of relevance to the case and/or add research about those elements to the discussion. Before moving to action, the class should work toward a clear and concise problem statement (see below). The action discussion should lead students into a discussion about all the possible options for the protagonist and the strengths and limitations of each of these actions. The class may have to choose between “goods” or choose between the lesser of the challenges. After the case discussion, students should be given the opportunity to reflect on how they individually and collectively performed. This is often the most enlightening discussion and provides for intralearning reflection for students. The instructor may address conflicts, colluding, values, and/or collaborations that happened throughout the case discussion. In a class that has deepening trust for the learning process, instructors are able to bring controversial issues into the reflection discussion. The controversies may be about the application of materials on human trafficking or about the class dynamics (students who are underprepared and depend on others to carry the heavy load, how students handle tensions on controversial issues, students who do not participate in the discussion, when it is obvious that students have not done the reading, etc.).

    Teaching notes on each case are available for instructors. Since cases do not have “right” or “wrong” resolutions, the teaching notes are developed to assist instructors in guiding the discussions. Teaching notes can be acquired through e-mailing SAGE Textbook Technical Support at

    Encouraging Critical Thinking and Engaged Learners

    It has been important for students to be critical thinkers and engaged learners about the topic of human trafficking. Hyperbole, embellishment, and exaggeration are well documented in the field of human trafficking, and, as such, students should learn to beware and skeptical of zealots, fundamentalists, and perhaps celebrities and professionals in the field. Discussions about the emancipator and emancipation, sexual violence as a tactic of war, prostitution versus human trafficking, and the portrayal of women and children as disempowered victims are complex and central in human trafficking scholarship. Students learn best when given the opportunity to be compassionate while at the same time censoring information without becoming paralyzed by its heaviness.

    Text and Chapter Organization

    This textbook has three major sections. Section I: A Holistic Approach to Understanding Human Trafficking; Section II: A Holistic Approach at Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Levels; and Section III: A Holistic Approach to Taking Actions.

    The chapters include learning objectives, summary of the applied theoretical framework(s), active learning exercises and discussion questions, suggestions for further learning (books, policies, websites, and films), and ideas for homework/assignments/projects. This textbook also includes practical and relevant case examples (e.g., cases as reported in the news) and nonfictional decision cases told from professionals working in the field of human trafficking as discussed above. Decision cases were collected for inclusion in this textbook to highlight the learning objectives, theory, policy, and other key elements for students. Further discussion about decision cases is provided below.

    Chapter Summaries

    Section I includes four chapters; Chapter 1: A Primer to Human Trafficking: Understanding Scope and Dimensions; Chapter 2: Understanding the Context of History; Chapter 3: Understanding Terms, Definitions, and Intersectionality; and Chapter 4: The Economics of Human Trafficking.

    Chapter 1 is a comprehensive overview of human trafficking. It introduces the scope and dimensions of human trafficking. Chapter 2 provides a historical context that is particularly focused on the United States. Chapter 3 defines terms and concepts in human trafficking and examines the value-laden terms and intersectionality with other issues. Chapter 4 considers the economic impact and analysis of human trafficking.

    Section II includes three chapters; Chapter 5: Understanding, Disruption, and Interventions at the Micro Level; Chapter 6: Understanding, Disruption, and Interventions at the Mezzo Level; and Chapter 7: Understanding, Disruption, and Interventions at the Macro Level. Chapter 5 focuses on direct work with individuals, families, and groups. Chapter 6 examines human trafficking efforts from institutional and organizational perspectives. Chapter 7 looks at policy and sociopolitical efforts in this field. Micro, mezzo, and macro terms are further defined previously.

    Section III includes Chapter 8: Understanding Collective Impact and Individual Action. It turns our attention to action and a discussion about the capacity of individuals and communities to address human trafficking.

    As licensed social workers and social scientists, our aim is to be scientific, practical, and meaningful. Our hope is that students and instructors agree that this textbook reflects the depth of our knowledge, teaching, and perspectives rooted in empirically grounded scholarship and survivor-centered practices. Human trafficking is an emerging science and field of study that is burgeoning with new information. We appreciate any feedback that you might choose to provide.

     Warm regards,

    Noël Busch-Armendariz, Maura B. Nsonwu, and Laurie Cook Heffron

     January 2017

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    Busch, N. B., Fong, R., Heffron, L. C., Faulkner, M., & Mahapatra, N. (2007). Assessing the needs of human trafficking victims: An evaluation of the Central Texas Coalition Against Human Trafficking. Retrieved from The Institute on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault website
    Busch-Armendariz, N., Nsonwu, M. B., & Heffron, L. C. (2014). A kaleidoscope: The role of the social work practitioner and the strength of social work theories and practice in meeting the complex needs of people trafficked and the professionals that work with them. International Social Work, 57(1), 718. doi:
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    Hutchison, E. D. (2010). Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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    ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
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    ed., pp. 3-14). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Wolfer, T. A., & Scales, T. L. (2006). Tips for learning from decision cases. In T. A. Wolfer, & T. L. Scales (Eds.), Decision cases for advanced social work practice: Thinking like a social worker (pp. 1725). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.


    We are deeply grateful to the survivors of trafficking with whom we have worked over the past decade. You have helped us listen with deep understanding and intent about your lived experiences. It is a privilege for us to be able to inform others through our writings. Our greatest hope is that we have accurately portrayed these lessons.

    We have learned equally from the professionals working in this field. Their resolve to bring attention to this issue and provide competent and holistic services and responses is inspiring and humbling. The field of anti-human trafficking is fortunate to have the commitment of these individuals and organizations.

    We are also grateful to our students, who have been consistent catalysts for this work, demonstrating intellectual curiosity and commitment to social justice by demanding increased opportunities to learn about human trafficking in the classroom and through engagement with research.

    We are indebted to our many feminist mentors who continue to shape our understanding, serve as valuable sounding boards, and challenge and expand our theoretical and conceptual horizons. Women leaders have been particularly influential to us. One such leader is Hillary Clinton, the first woman to be nominated for the United States presidency by a major political party, who has worked tirelessly for equity of women’s rights around the world and in the United States. She once said, “human rights are women’s rights, and women’s rights are human rights.”1

    We want to express our deepest gratitude to Kathy Hill and Mariel Dempster for their superb editorial assistance. Kathy and Mariel came into this project during a time when we were in great need of their skills and commitment. You have been integral to this textbook’s completion. Thank you for helping make this project a reality.

    Our appreciation is extended to the team of decision case writers Dr. Terry Wolfer, Dr. Diane McDaniel Rhodes, and Dr. Elizabeth Goatley, and to the multiple professionals who shared their cases with our team. The cases enrich this textbook and provide insight to the application of the many topics and issues that we discuss. The labor of our case writers and protagonists represents tremendous commitment to the education of current and future professionals working against human trafficking.

    Our heartfelt thanks goes to our dear colleagues, Dr. Bruce Kellison and Dr. Matthew Kammer-Kerwick, for their willingness to coauthor one of the important chapters of this textbook. Your continued collegiality and friendship and expertise have contributed greatly to this project.

    We want to recognize the generous support and guidance that we received from John Teleha, Steven Bollinger, and Nina Exner, librarians at North Carolina A&T State University who assisted us with our research. Your expertise was instrumental to springboarding and organizing our writing.

    A very special thanks to Nakia D. Parker, a doctoral student in history at the University of Texas at Austin and a national graduate student representative for the Association of Black Women Historians, for reviewing the history chapter. Your comments have been invaluable to helping us accurately convey an important and indelible era for the United States and across the globe.

    Finally, let us express our appreciation and gratitude to our original editor, Kassie Graves, and our current editor, Nathan Davidson, and the supportive staff at SAGE Publications, who advocated endlessly to make this book a reality in effort to educate the next generation of students to this cause. We also thank the many reviewers who lent their expertise to the evaluation of this project: Cathryne L. Schimtz, University of North Carolina Greensboro; Ericka Kimball, Augsburg College; Manuel F. Zamora, Angelo State University; Nancy L. Bridier, University of West Florida; Kali Wright-Smith, Westminster College; Manuel F. Zamora, Angelo State University; Nadia Shapkina, Kansas State University; Roksana Alavi, University of Oklahoma; Sue E. Spivey, James Madison University; Tazreena Sajjad, American University; and Wendy P. Stickle, University of Maryland. Their insight contributed greatly to the quality of this textbook.

    I am inspired by those who have shared their stories of suffering, strength, and resistance; the vows to break the silence of oppression; and the commitment to ensuring that their stories may create new avenues toward an end to violence and exploitation.

    I am profoundly grateful for the many colleagues, advocates, and activists who have offered inspiration, guidance, and support to me during my career and who continue to share their wisdom, frustrations, laughter, and visions for social change. In particular, I greatly admire and continue to benefit from Noël’s and Maura’s flexible and gracious mentorship, respect for family, and generosity of spirit and ideas.

    I want to recognize the tremendous support of my family and their patience with a general onslaught of discussion and information about the world’s deeply painful injustices. Thank you for your interest and your compassion and for keeping me firmly rooted in mama mode and in hope.

    —Laurie Cook Heffron

    I recognize and value the position that I have been given to hear poignant, profound, and agonizing stories of human trafficking that detail injustice and oppression. My hope is that our book will serve to educate others to take action as “social justice warriors” and to honor survivors’ courage and professionals’ advocacy.

    My collaboration with Noël and Laurie has spanned a decade; I have felt immense admiration for their wisdom, creative perspective, feminist philosophy, and incredible work ethic. I cherish our sisterhood.

    I am forever grateful for the unconditional love of my parents, Drs. Chris and Mary Anne Busch, who have always served as my teachers, mentors, editors, and sounding board. Their commitment to social justice issues has instilled the core values and beliefs that have led and grounded me in my profession. Their unwavering faith has allowed me to thrive and has secured me during challenging times.

    I appreciate the support of my entire family. I am especially thankful for the love, laughter, and encouragement of my husband, Victor, and our children, Amaka, Robert, Zik, and Adora. My family has loved and supported me from season to season. Rooted together, we have nourished each other and have weathered and celebrated these changes. They remind me to tend to the garden of life, appreciate the various blossoms, and beckon me to strive for balance. I am so fortunate to feel your immense love. A fulum gi na anya.

    —Maura Nsonwu

    I am privileged to be working with my two coauthors, who are incredibly dedicated and skilled social workers and scholars, in the journey of this textbook. Maura and Laurie, I am fortunate to have had you as influential teachers throughout my career and in my life.

    I am eternally grateful to my friends, colleagues, sheroes and heroes, and mentors all over the world who work in the field of social work and to end interpersonal violence as a life journey. After two decades, I continue to be astonished and inspired by the thousands of survivors, practitioners, feminists scholars, and policy makers who tirelessly persist, despite the obstacles and skepticism. Your individual and collective pursuit of justice and enduring resolve that every individual has the right to live free of violence touches me deeply every day.

    I will undoubtedly do an injustice to the immense gratitude I feel for my family in North Carolina. When I think about all my privileges, it is the family to which I was born and my extended family that is among my greatest privileges. My parents and all my siblings have taught me to be a community member, admit my mistakes, and speak up when something is wrong. It is my current family of my husband, Larry, and my son, Daniel, who have so profoundly and positively shifted my life and perspectives of this world. I seek to pause daily and breathe in deeply the gratitude I have for you. It’s hard to believe that I am deserving of your love, commitment, and enduring support for me and my life’s work.

    —Noël Bridget Busch-Armendariz

    About the Authors

    Noël Bridget Busch-Armendariz, PhD, LMSW, MPA Dr. Busch-Armendariz has more than 20 years of experience working to end interpersonal violence. She is the University Presidential Professor at the School of Social Work and Associate Vice President for Research at the University of Texas at Austin. Noël teaches graduate courses in domestic violence, research, and social policy and an undergraduate course on modern slavery. Noël is the founding and current director of the UT Austin Institute on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (IDVSA), a collaboration of the School of Social Work, the School of Nursing, the School of Law, and the Bureau for Business Research with more than 150 affiliate community organizations. Since joining UT, Noël has directed research totaling more than $8.3 million dollars in external funding for the National Institute of Justice, the Office for Victims of Crime, the Office on Violence Against Women, the Office of the Attorney General of Texas, the Texas Association Against Sexual Assault, and the Texas Health and Human Services, to name a few. Her areas of specialization are interpersonal violence, refugees, asylees, survivors of human trafficking, and international social work. She is regularly called as an expert witness in criminal, civil, and immigration cases and directs statewide and national trainings on the topic. She is well published and has been recognized by her colleagues and students with many awards. Noël is a returned Peace Corps volunteer and a licensed social worker. She is happily married to Larry Armendariz and takes the utmost joy in parenting her son, Daniel. She is a survivor of sexual assault.

    Maura Nsonwu, PhD, MSW, LCSW Dr. Nsonwu is an associate professor and interim bachelor of social work program director at North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University in the Department of Sociology and Social Work. Over the last 2 decades, she has also held previous teaching and administrative positions at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and High Point University. For over 25 years, Maura has practiced as a clinician, educator, and researcher in the areas of refugee resettlement, human trafficking, health care, child welfare, and social work education. Since 2004, Maura has been a research fellow with the Center for New North Carolinians at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, where her research has focused on working with refugee and immigrant communities and issues of human trafficking. Her collaborative work, on a number of interdisciplinary projects, has been recognized as the recipient of awards. She was the 2010 recipient of the Sister Gretchen Reintjes award, which recognizes persons who have made outstanding contributions to refugee and immigrant communities. Maura has conducted multiple funded research projects with coauthors Noël Busch-Armendariz and Laurie Cook Heffron at the University of Texas at Austin in evaluating the delivery of social services to human trafficking victims and creating typologies of traffickers. Their research team has presented at conferences throughout the United States and has numerous publications. Maura lives in Greensboro, North Carolina, with her husband, a Nigerian immigrant. They have three adult children.

    Laurie Cook Heffron, PhD, LMSW Dr. Cook Heffron is an assistant professor of social work in the School of Behavioral and Social Sciences at St. Edward’s University in Austin, Texas. She has interest and expertise in the areas of forced migration, domestic and sexual violence, and human trafficking. Laurie has both direct social work practice and research experience with a variety of communities, including refugees, asylum-seekers, trafficked persons, and other immigrants. Her recent research explores the experiences of, and relationships between, violence against women and migration, with a focus on migration from Central America to the United States. Laurie studied Linguistics at Georgetown University and earned a master of social work (MSW) and doctorate in social work from the University of Texas at Austin. Laurie is, above all, a mother of two energetic and creative children.

    About the Case Writers

    Elizabeth Goatley, PhD, MSW Dr. Elizabeth Goatley joined the Baylor University’s Diana R. Garland School of Social Work (GSSW) as a lecturer in 2012. Today, she is an assistant professor in the school, where her research focuses on emerging community responses to human trafficking. Entering as a lecturer and transitioning to tenure track position has afforded Dr. Goatley the opportunity to teach across the three degree programs within GSSW, even allowing her to create new courses in both the bachelors and doctoral programs. Dr. Goatley is advancing scholarship in the area of human trafficking, having published in several social work and community journals. Dr. Goatley is a 2015 recipient of the Big XII Faculty Fellowship award and has recently been awarded a grant by the Dallas Women’s Foundation to continue her research. Prior to working at Baylor University, Dr. Goatley served as the program director and victims’ advocate for the Human Trafficking Unit at the Sandy Springs Police Department in Sandy Springs, Georgia. Dr. Goatley has additional professional experience in community mental health. Dr. Goatley currently serves on the board for The Cove and The Heart of Texas Human Trafficking Coalition steering committee. She currently serves as Student Development chair in the GSSW and is active with Girl Scouts of America. She earned her PhD in social policy and administration in social work from Clark Atlanta University in 2012; an MSSW from the University of Louisville in 2006; and a BA in psychology from Spelman College in 2004.

    Diane McDaniel Rhodes, PhD Dr. McDaniel Rhodes is a lecturer at the University of Texas at Austin, where her areas of research include partner violence, family violence, and social constructions of intimate violence with a focus on the presentation of partner violence in young adult fiction. Her teaching history includes Voices Against Violence, Domestic Violence, Introduction to Social Work, the Foundations of Social Justice, Social Work Practice in Organizations and Communities, and Leadership in Human Services Organizations. She has 28 years of social work professional experience including senior management roles in domestic violence and sexual assault prevention agencies.

    Terry A. Wolfer, PhD, MSW Terry A. Wolfer, MSW (1984, Ohio State), PhD (1995, Chicago), is professor and PhD program coordinator at the University of South Carolina College of Social Work (CoSW). Dr. Wolfer developed a case-based MSW capstone course, which has been taught at the CoSW since 2000. For more than 15 years, Dr. Wolfer has been writing decision cases and teaching other educators how to use the case method of teaching. To date, Dr. Wolfer has coedited or coauthored six collections of decision cases, including most recently Decision Cases for Advanced Social Work Practice: Confronting Complexity (Columbia University Press, 2013). Currently, he is coauthoring a set of decision cases for educating social work field instructors. He has published several journal articles and book chapters about teaching with decision cases. He has also led faculty development workshops for the Council on Social Work Education and several universities. For his work on case method teaching and case writing, he was awarded the C. R. Christensen Award for the Outstanding Teaching Case by the North American Case Research Association, the Garnet Apple Award for innovative teaching by the University of South Carolina, and the Distinguished Recent Contributions in Social Work Education Award 2009 by the Council on Social Work Education.

    About the Chapter Authors

    Matt Kammer-Kerwick, PhD Dr. Matt Kammer-Kerwick is a research scientist at the Bureau of Business Research, the University of Texas at Austin. His research interests focus on decision making under uncertainty, mathematical optimization, quantitative analysis, and applications in information, logistics, and manufacturing systems. He is currently using mixed-methods research for problems in the domains of sexual assault prevalence, the economic impact of human trafficking, and consumer preferences in mobile advertising. Together with coauthors Noël Busch-Armendariz and Bruce Kellison, he is leading an ambitious research initiative to assess case readiness and improve law enforcement capabilities and prosecutorial outcomes in domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) cases by developing an algorithmic decision support system. He is a coauthor on “Responding to Domestic Minors Sex Trafficking (DMST): Developing Principle-Based Practices,” with Karin Wachter, Laurie Cook Heffron, Noël Busch-Armendariz, and Bruce Kellison, forthcoming from the Journal of Human Trafficking in 2017. He has presented his research on modern slavery to a number of roundtables and working groups in the antitrafficking community, including a presentation on Texas statewide prevalence estimates to Allies Against Slavery’s Slave-Free City Summit in 2016. Kerwick is coprincipal investigator of a multiyear grant from the Texas Office of the Governor to study the prevalence and impact of human trafficking in Texas. He is also founder and president of Visionary Research, Inc., a research and strategy consultancy. His consulting clients have included a wide range of start-ups and established corporations, including Dell, IBM, General Motors, and Johnson & Johnson.

    Bruce Kellison, PhD Dr. Bruce Kellison is associate director of the Bureau of Business Research (BBR) at the University of Texas at Austin. He is responsible for strategic planning and research for the bureau, an applied economic research center, and a member of the Texas State Data Center network. With coauthors Noël Busch-Armendariz and Laurie Cook Heffron, he codeveloped and taught the course “Women for Sale: The Economic, Social, and Political Proposition of Human Trafficking” at the University of Texas at Austin. His trafficking research focuses on estimating the economic impact of modern slavery on victims and society, especially at the state and local level. Together with coauthors Karin Wachter, Laurie Cook Heffron, Noël Busch-Armendariz, and Matt Kerwick, he is coauthor of “Responding to Domestic Minors Sex Trafficking (DMST): Developing Principle-Based Practices,” forthcoming from the Journal of Human Trafficking in 2017. Kellison is coprincipal investigator of a multiyear grant from the Texas Office of the Governor to study the prevalence and impact of human trafficking in Texas. He currently is president-elect of the Association for University Business and Economic Research, a leading professional organization devoted to improving the quality and application of research in public policy and business economics. The BBR is a research partner of the Institute on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault, School of Social Work, the University of Texas at Austin, and Kellison has contributed economic impact analyses on studies not only on human trafficking but also on sexually oriented businesses, the rape kit backlog crisis, and sexual assault.

  • Appendix A 2015 NHTRC Annual Report

    National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) Data Breakdown

    United States Report

    1/1/2015 – 12/31/2015

    Overview of Incoming Signals

    The following information is based on incoming signals made to the NHTRC from January 1, 2015 – December 31, 2015 about human trafficking cases and issues related to human trafficking in the United States and U.S. territories. Signals refer to incoming communications with the NHTRC and can take the form of phone calls, online tip reports, or emails. Signals regarding topics unrelated to human trafficking are not included in this report. In 2015, the NHTRC received a total of 24,757 signals nationwide.

    Location of Potential Trafficking Cases (Where Known)*

    *These maps only reflect cases in which the location of the potential trafficking was known. Some cases may involve more than one location and are not reflected in this map.


    Important Note: The data displayed in this report was generated based on information communicated to the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline via phone, email, and online tip report. The NHTRC cannot verify the accuracy of the information reported. This is not a comprehensive report on the scale or scope of human trafficking within the state. These statistics may be subject to change as new information emerges.

    Appendix B Survey to Assess Student Knowledge Regarding Human Trafficking

    Survey to Assess the Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes of Social Work Students Regarding Human Trafficking

    For the purpose of this survey, human trafficking is defined as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt, of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse or power or of position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving or payments of benefits to achieve the consent of person having control over the other person for the purpose of exploitation.”1

    Demographic Questions

    Please circle your responses

    • Gender: Female Male
    • Age: 18–22 23–27 28–32 33–37 38–42 43–47 48–over
    • Major: Social Work Non-Social Work: ________________________
    • Classification: Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate
    • I have prior training in human trafficking. Yes No
    • I have dealt with human trafficking in my professional responsibilities. Yes No

    Please indicate your degree of agreement or disagreement with the following statements. If you are uncertain or undecided circle “neutral.”

    • Human trafficking is a problem for society at large.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Human smuggling is synonymous with human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Prostitution is synonymous with human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Human trafficking is a worldwide problem.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • There are two categories of human trafficking—labor and sex.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Human trafficking primarily involves individuals from other countries.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Social work services should be readily available to every victim of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • American citizens are not victims of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I am able to empathize with victims of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I know enough about human trafficking to serve human trafficking victims.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I have a working knowledge of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Human trafficking is a growing problem in America.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I am able to assess whether a person is a victim of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I know the risk factors for victims of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • All victims of human trafficking are receptive to receiving social services.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • My social work curriculum has adequately prepared me to work with victims of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Greater funding should be allocated to assist human trafficking victims.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I know how to provide long-term counseling for human trafficking victims.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I have a basic understanding of the different needs of human trafficking victims.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I have an understanding of the psychological effects of human trafficking that allows me to effectively work with victims.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I would be reluctant to provide social services to a victim of trafficking because of my personal beliefs.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I can appropriately advise human trafficking victims about available services and resources.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • I am aware of the safety concerns of social workers when working with human trafficking victims.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Women and children are the primary victims of human trafficking.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • Internationally trafficked victims use their position to gain secure legal status in the US.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    • All human trafficking victims voluntarily disclose their situation to professionals.

      Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

    Thank you for contributing to this survey.

    © 2015 Nsonwu, M.B., Welch-Brewer, C., Heffron, L.C., Lemke, M., Busch-Armendariz, N., Sulley, C., Cook, S., Lewis, M., Watson, E., Moore, W., & Li, J.

    Appendix C Human Trafficking Video Resources

    Appendix D Syllabus for Undergraduate Modern-Day Slavery Course

    The University of Texas at Austin School of Social Work Undergraduate Studies Signature Course Program Modern-Day Slavery: Trafficking in Persons

    Course Information
    I. Course Description

    This course will explore trafficking in persons within the context of social justice, human rights, and feminist perspectives. The course will engage students in discourse around historical and contemporary dialog, theoretical debates, data and research findings, issues related to direct service delivery, and local, national, and global policy responses. Specific attention will be given to an analysis of traffickers and the impact of this crime on the global economy. The scope of the problem (nationally and internationally), medical, psycho-social needs of human trafficking victims, legal and criminal justice issues, vulnerabilities of victims, types of trafficking, typologies of traffickers, and community and policy responses are also included.

    Students may encounter human trafficking—or modern-day slavery—in a variety of settings. This course provides an overview of contemporary issues designed to empower students with the conceptual frameworks and knowledge base necessary for effective responses.

    II. Course Objectives

    Upon completion of this course, student will be able to

    • Use a variety of theoretical human rights perspectives to understand human trafficking and its relationship to other forms of violence against women, vulnerable adults, and children
    • Understand the psychological, social, physical, legal, and financial consequences of human trafficking on victims, the community, and society as a whole.
    • Identify relevant social policies and their intended and unintended consequences for human trafficking victims and those working on their behalf.
    • Assess and identify appropriate individual, group, family, agency, community and societal responses.
    • Identify the complex social service delivery system developed around services for human trafficking victims.
    • Identify ethical dilemmas faced when addressing the needs of human trafficking, in particular, the issues of social control, self-determination, and confidentiality.
    • Improve writing and primary/archival research skills.
    • Engage in service learning projects to enhance classroom learning.
    III. Teaching Methods

    Course content will be presented through a variety of teaching strategies. For example, case studies, discussions, videos, small group work, service learning projects, book groups, news articles, examinations, readings, paper assignments, and lectures will be utilized. Videos will be used as tools for addressing key concepts in the course. The goal is to stimulate critical thinking, intellectual creativity, and sharing of knowledge and skills with and through the class. Students will be responsible for material presented through all these activities. Assigned readings are for the week in which they are listed and students should complete the readings prior to class and be prepared to discuss them.

    Seminars provide students with a small-group setting to further discuss what is learned during the lecture and larger class setting. Seminars are MANDATORY—that is, attendance is not optional.

    IV. Required Texts

    Students will be assigned a set of required readings for this course. Assigned readings may be purchased at the Co-Op or online. Other readings will be available on Canvas.

    Required texts:

    • Batstone, D. (2010). Not for Sale: Return of the Global Slave Trade and How We Can Fight It. Harper-Collins: New York, NY.
    • Kristof, N. and WuDunn, S. (2010). Half the Sky. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group: New York, NY.
    • Ken, P., & Hunter, K. (2008). Pimpology: The 48 Laws of the Game. Simon Spotlight Entertainment: New York, NY.
    • Lloyd, R. (2011). Girls Like Us: Fighting for a World Where Girls Are Not for Sale, An Activist Finds Her Calling and Heals Herself. Harper Collins: New York, NY.
    V. Course Outline/Agenda

    Course requirements consist of graded papers, service learning, class participation, and attendance. Specific details for the written assignments will be distributed in class.

    Assignment #1: Supply Product Chain Paper

    20 points

    Assignment #2: Primary Source Research Paper

    25 points

    Assignment #3: Service Learning

    15 points

    Final Exam Book Club & Presentation

    30 points

    Attendance & Participation

    10 points


    100 points

    Detailed prompts will be distributed for each graded assignment to guide the specific objectives of that course assignment. To do well, students should start early, revise drafts, follow instructions, use the university’s writing and departmental writing labs, and ask questions. All papers and assignments are submitted on Canvas. Brief descriptions of the assignments are provided below:

    • Product Supply Chain Paper (20 points): The economics of human trafficking are straightforward: cheap labor lowers the cost of production, increases profit margins for producers, and lowers prices for consumers. Students will chose a product and trace its product roots. All paper topics need to be reviewed and approved in advance by the instructor. A detailed paper prompt will be provided.
    • Primary Source & Comparative Analysis Research Paper (25 points): Students will write a comparative paper on modern day slavery and historical slavery by utilizing a primary or archival source material along with the course readings and other research conducted. This paper builds on the product supply paper. The primary source needs to be reviewed and approved by the instructor. A detailed paper prompt will be provided.
    • Public Awareness & Education for Service Learning (15 points): As a required part of this course, students will engage a service learning activity. The activity will provide a learning opportunity for students in addition to serving as a benefit or contribution to our local community about trafficking & anti-trafficking. Activities may include community awareness, fundraising, and/or resource-building activities. More information about this activity will be provided.
    • Final Exam Book Club & Class Presentation (30 points): Students will work with their seminar groups to take a deep dive into one of the four assigned books. During the seminar and on their own time students will organize a book discussion and make a class presentation. More information about the format will be provided.
    • Participation (10 points): Students are expected to actively contribute to the class discussions and learning in and outside the classrooms and will be evaluated according the criteria listed below.
      • Preparation – Are you prepared for class and seminar by reading the assignments? What have you learned outside of class that enhances our learning together?
      • Quality of Participation – To what extent is your contribution to course discussions and small group activities meaningful? Does your participation in course discussions advance the depth of course learning? This includes your participation in the seminars sessions. Are you engaged even if you are not talking? Are you texting, reading non-class related materials?
      • Attendance & Engagement – Have you attended class regularly? Are you on time to class? Do you leave early? If you need to miss class do you communicate with the instructor and TA? Do you get missed materials from colleagues or TA?
    Course Calendar Overview

    See Canvas for course calendar including the assigned readings.

    VI. Grading Policy

    Class Policies

    Attendance & Participation

    • Students are expected to attend all class meetings, to read all the assigned readings, and to participate in class discussions. Students are expected to be on time for class. There are no “excused” absences. See university policy on missing class for a religious holiday.
    • Students missing three or more class sessions may receive a 10% reduction in their overall course grades. Students missing more than five class sessions may receive an “F” for the course. The instructor may use her discretion.
    • If a student is going to miss class, the instructor expects that the student will e-mail her and the TA as soon as they know they are going to miss class.

    Submitting Assignments & Receiving Credit

    • Students are expected to submit all assignments electronically before 2 pm on the due date to the TA.
    • All assignments need to be submitted through Canvas.
    • Assignments are to be submitted according to the schedule. All late assignments will receive a five (5) percent penalty per day (weekend days will be included).
    • Assignments turned in after the beginning of class will be considered late.
    • Students must earn a ‘C-’ or above to be given credit for this course. If you receive anything below, you will need to retake a UGS course of your choosing.

    Writing Assignments

    • The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) is the style manual to be used for all assignments. Incorrect APA style will result a deduction of points on assignments.
    • Appropriate referencing is required. Failure to use quotation marks for direct quotes or citation for indirect quotations or others ideas may result in a “0” for the paper and/or an “F” for the course.
    • All papers are to be word-processed, double-spaced, 12-point font, and normal margins.

    Amendments to Syllabus

    Any modifications, amendments, or changes to the syllabus and/or assignments are the discretion of the instructors. Changes will be announced in class and posted in Canvas. It is the responsibility of the student to inquire about any changes that might have been made in his/her absence.

    Concerns for Safety, Confidentiality, Scholastic Dishonesty

    • Issue of Safety: As part of this course, students will have assignments working with and for agencies and/or in the community. As such, these assignments may present some minimal risks. Sound choices and caution may lower risks. It is the student’s responsibility to be aware of and adhere to policies and practices related high ethical principles. Students should also notify instructor and TA about any safety concerns.
    • Issue of Confidentiality and Personal Disclosure: Personal disclosure is not an expectation or a requirement of this course. However, it might be appropriate for students to talk about personal information during class only as it relates to our learning about a particular topic. Students are expected to adhere to strict standards of confidentiality during the semester.
    • According to university policy, when a student discloses sexual assault and sexual harassment to the instructor or TA a report to university authorities will be made.
    • Scholastic dishonesty may result in a report to the Graduate Program Director, the Dean of the respective school, and/or the Dean of the Undergraduate or Graduate School. Students may receive an “F” for the course and other sanctions in accordance with university policies.
    University Policies
    • Religious holy days: A student who misses classes or other required activities, including examinations, for the observance of a religious holy day should inform the instructor as far in advance of the absence as possible, so that arrangements can be made to complete an assignment within a reasonable time after the absence.
    • Students with Disabilities: You will need to provide documentation to the Dean of Student’s Office so the most appropriate accommodations can be determined. Specialized services are available on campus through Services for Students with Disabilities (SSB 4.104, 471-6259). Any student who requires special accommodations must obtain a letter that documents the disability from the Services for Students with Disabilities area of the Division of Diversity and Community Engagement (471-6259 voice or 471-4641 TTY for users who are deaf or hard of hearing). Present the letter to the professor at the beginning of the semester so that needed accommodations can be discussed. The student should remind the professor of any testing accommodations no later than five business days before an exam. For more information, visit
    • Policy on Scholastic Dishonesty: Students who violate University rules on scholastic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary penalties, including the possibility of failure in the course and/or dismissal from the University. Since such dishonesty harms the individual, all students and the integrity of the University, policies on scholastic dishonesty will be strictly enforced. For further information, please visit the Student Judicial Services web site at
    • Use of E-mail for Official Correspondence to Students: All students should be familiar with the University’s official e-mail student notification policy. It is the student’s responsibility to keep the University informed as to changes in his or her e-mail address. Students are expected to check e-mail on a frequent and regular basis in order to stay current with University-related communications, recognizing that certain communications may be time-critical. The complete text of this policy and instructions for updating your e-mail address are available at
    • University of Texas Core Values and Honor Code: The core values of the University of Texas at Austin are learning, discovery, freedom, leadership, individual opportunity, and responsibility. Each member of the university is expected to uphold these values through integrity, honesty, trust, fairness, and respect toward peers and community. As a student of the University of Texas at Austin, I shall abide by the core values of the University and uphold academic integrity.
    Signature Course Mission & Course Essentials

    The Signature Courses at The University of Texas at Austin will connect students with distinguished faculty members in unique learning environments. By way of this rigorous intellectual experience, students will develop college-level skills in research, writing, speaking and discussion through an approach that is interdisciplinary, collaborative, experiential and contemporary.

    This course will address the Signature Course essentials in the following ways:

    • Information Literacy is achieved throughout the course but particularly in our instruction by the university librarian and the assigned papers.
    • University Gem: We will visit the LBJ Presidential Library for a lecture on the use of primary source data that connects with the second paper assignment.
    • Writing: This course has several writing components, including two graded papers.
    • Oral Communication: Students will engage in a dynamic final exam group project in which students will present the contents of one of the assigned books.
    • University Lecture Series Events: Students are invited to the March.
    Ethics and Leadership Flag

    This course carries the Ethics and Leadership Flag. Ethics and Leadership courses are designed to equip students with skills to make ethical decisions in their professional roles. Therefore it is expected that a substantial portion of the course discussion and evaluation involves ethical issues and the application of ethical reasoning to real-life situations.

    Human Rights and Social Justice BDP Certificate

    This course qualifies for the requirements of the Human Rights and Social Justice section of the Bridging Disciplines Program (BDP). The BDP introduces students to the interdisciplinary study and practice of human rights at home and around the world. Students in this BDP will learn about the forms of oppression, marginalization, and violence that concern human rights researchers and practitioners. Through coursework drawn from the humanities, social sciences, law, fine arts, and public policy, students will develop their knowledge of the issues and debates that dominate human rights and social justice scholarship today, including an understanding of the regional contexts within which contemporary human rights violations take place. At the same time, students in this BDP will learn about the historical, theoretical, and institutional underpinnings of international human rights advocacy and social justice movements, from the legacies of colonialism and imperialism to the international institutions that were formed in the wake of World War II. Finally, through the connecting experience component of the program, students will have the opportunity to complement their coursework with hands-on experience in an organization working on human rights and social justice concerns. Students will work with their BDP advisor and the faculty panel to design an interdisciplinary strand that allows them to pursue their interests, and at the same time exposes them to multiple areas of concern for human rights researchers and practitioners.

    The Human Rights and Social Justice BDP is offered in collaboration with the Bernard and Audre Rapoport Center for Human Rights and Justice at UT Austin. An interdisciplinary faculty panel guides students in selecting courses and participating in connecting research and internship experiences, which students are encouraged to pursue through study abroad opportunities.

    Additional References

    Akpan, U. (2008). Say you’re one of them. Chicago: Little, Brown & Company.

    Bales, K., & Soodalter, R., (2009). The slave next door: Human trafficking and slavery in America today. University of California.

    Goldfine, A. A., Hoerrner, L. K., Batstone, D. (2008). Not for sale: The return of the global slave trade—and how we can fight it. New York, NY: Kennesaw State University & the University of San Francisco.

    Hughes, M. D., (2000). The “Natasha” trade: The transnational shadow market of trafficking in women. Journal of International Affairs. (53)2, 625–651.

    Kara, S., (2008). Sex trafficking: Inside the business of modern slavery. Columbia University Press.

    Kristof, N. & WuDunn, S. (2010). Half the sky. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

    Lloyd, R. (2011). Girls Like Us: Fighting for a World Where Girls Are Not for Sale, An Activist Finds Her Calling and Heals Herself. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

    Pearce, L., Q., (2007). Young heros, Given Kachepa. KidHaven.

    U.S. Department of State. (2011). Trafficking in persons report (11th ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking. (2010). List of goods produced by child labor or forced labor. Washington, DC.

    Wheaton, M. E., Schauer, J. E., Galli, V. T. (2010). Economics of human trafficking. Journal of International Migration. 48(4), 114–141.

    Zheng, T., T. (2010). Sex trafficking, human rights, and social justice (Routledge research in human rights). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Noël Busch-Armendariz, 2016 ©

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