Human Resource Development


David McGuire

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    About the Author

    David McGuire, PhD, is senior lecturer in human resource development at Edinburgh Napier University. A graduate of the University of Limerick and National University of Ireland, Galway, David teaches undergraduate and postgraduate classes in the areas of HRD, leadership and managing diversity. A former Fulbright and Government of Ireland scholar, David is Associate Editor of Advances in Developing Human Resources. He sits on four editorial boards (Human Resource Development Quarterly, Advances in Developing Human Resources, Journal of Change Management and European Journal of Training and Development). In 2008, David received the Early Career Scholar award from the Academy of Human Resource Development. He is Chief External Examiner at Staffordshire University. His e-mail address is:


    Human resource development (HRD) is an evolving, dynamic, ever-changing field. It is shaped by the global environment and the people and organisations that work within it. To comprehensively capture the field of HRD within the confines of one book is an impossible task – so herewith is a snapshot of the field, opening up to you, the reader, opportunities and possibilities for further investigation and research.

    This textbook seeks to introduce readers to the key debates and challenges within the field of HRD. It aims to cover the key aspects of the field and provide a useful synthesis of research across 15 disciplinary areas. While the textbook is principally oriented towards research and a critical viewpoint, there is much within the text to satisfy the interests of practitioners. To this end, the textbook should inform evidence-based practice and open up a menu of possibilities for advancing organisational practice.

    From a pedagogical point of view, each of the chapters includes a set of learning objectives, two ‘talking points’ (which are brief case vignettes, designed to show HRD in action and provoke dialogue and discussion), an end-of-chapter case study (which in most cases provides an organisational application of the concepts discussed in the chapter) and a set of discussion questions, whereby readers can test their knowledge of the contents discussed in the chapter.

    Chapter 1 sets out to unearth the foundations of human resource development. It traces the origins of HRD and looks at the early struggles to clearly define and demarcate the field. In doing so, it explores the multidisciplinary nature of the field and examines differences in emphasis between the US and Europe. It identifies the practical challenges facing the field and identifies the need for HRD to develop its empirical base as well as providing practitioners with useful tools to strengthen the competitiveness of organisations. Finally, the chapter discusses critical dimensions of HRD – a theme that is followed up in subsequent chapters.

    The remainder of the textbook is organised into three sections recognising that HRD operates at the individual, organisational and community/societal level of analysis.

    Part 1 of the textbook explores the value and application of HRD at the individual level. It recognises that people lie at the heart of HRD's effectiveness and that people are an organisation's most important resource.

    Chapter 2 explores how adults learn. It provides a synopsis of the three key schools of learning, namely cognitivism, behaviourism and humanism. It reviews the key tenets underpinning each of the three schools, examining the learning and development implications that emerge. The final section examines critical theory approaches to learning and critiques the role of individuals, educationalists and professional bodies in the learning process.

    Chapter 3 recognises the importance of creativity in human resource development. It examines barriers to employee creativity in the workplace and outlines a framework for fostering creativity around the three dimensions of positionality, perspective and perception. Positionality considers the situatedness of creativity and its connectedness to individual identity and historic and cultural context. Perspective acknowledges that creativity is an outcome of one's cognitive style, experiences and risk-taking disposition, while perception sees creativity as being influenced by the work environment, level of leader support and employee motivation. The chapter concludes that further research needs to focus on how to empower employee creativity and investigate group and team creativity in more depth.

    Chapter 4 examines the concept of careers and how the notion of career has changed in the last three decades. It looks at how careers are defined and outlines the key principles underpinning five career concepts, namely boundaryless career, protean career, authentic career, kaleidoscope career and the portfolio career. The chapter then goes on to look at the importance of career counselling, focusing in particular on two well-known and widely used instruments – Schein's Career Anchors Inventory and Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory. The chapter concludes with a brief exploration of the benefits of continuing professional development.

    Chapter 5 investigates the importance of identity and diversity issues in HRD. For too long, the field of HRD has neglected employee difference and this chapter provides a useful commentary on the role that HRD can adopt as a diversity champion in the workplace. The chapter examines the spread of diversity training in the workplace, exploring the objectives, rationale and social and organisational goals underpinning such training. In particular, the chapter explores the obstacles faced by employees arising from their gender, race or sexuality and identifies interventions that can be used to promote openness to diversity in the workplace.

    Part 2 of the textbook examines how HRD operates at the organisational level. It seeks to build an understanding of how HRD can help employees interact with organisational systems, structures and processes more effectively. It recognises that learning and growth lies at the heart of HRD and that investment in employees is critical if organisations are to attain competitive advantages in the marketplace.

    Chapter 6 examines one of the core aspects of human resource development – namely training and development. Rather than review a range of training interventions in isolation, this chapter seeks to compare a selection of commonly used interventions across eight separate training dimensions: learning theory; knowledge–skills mix; training transferability; degree of learner involvement; locus of initiation; degree of reflection; individual/social interaction; and cost. This approach is designed to help practitioners make a more informed choice in their selection of training interventions.

    Chapter 7 reviews the literature on training evaluation. It assesses the core function of evaluation as one of understanding cause-and-effect in making more effective organisational decisions. It briefly considers evaluation from ontological and epistemological perspectives and moves on to look at Kirkpatrick's Four Levels typology and other commonly used evaluation models in the literature. The final two sections of the chapter examine the concepts of benchmarking and the balanced scorecard and highlight the value of these approaches to practitioners.

    Chapter 8 embarks upon an analysis of the role of HRD in performance management. It investigates the adoption of competency-based approaches to managing learning and development in organisations. It then looks at the role of line managers and assesses the range of responsibilities falling upon line-manager shoulders in downsized and devolved organisations. The chapter then briefly examines the three concepts of coaching, mentoring and employee counselling before exploring talent development and how leaders can positively affect the performance management process.

    Chapter 9 focuses attention on the area of strategic HRD. It first examines the global setting for HRD and the factors affecting how organisations are operating and structuring themselves in today's uncertain economic environment. A synthesis is provided of six of the key strategic HRD models that have been developed over the last two decades. This is followed by a discussion of the barriers affecting the successful implementation of strategic HRD approaches in organisations.

    Chapter 10 discusses the literature on organisational learning. It focuses on the significance of organisational learning, highlighting in particular the contribution of Argyris and Schon and examining single-, double- and triple-loop learning. The chapter moves on to look at the learning organisation concept, taking as its starting point Senge's Five Disciplines. It then explores other perspectives on the learning organisation and steps that organisations can take to embed learning at the heart of their processes.

    Chapter 11 provides an overview of the theory and practice in the area of knowledge management. It explores the emergence of the knowledge economy and the central role played by knowledge workers. It examines the significance of knowledge in organisations and defines the concept of the ‘ba’. It then considers knowledge creation and knowledge conversion processes before identifying four forms of knowledge that exist in organisations. The role of HRD in knowledge management is then considered.

    Chapter 12 produces a synthesis of the literature on leadership development. The chapter reviews research on four prominent leadership approaches (trait, behavioural, contingency, transformational), looking specifically at the developmental implications flowing from each leadership approach. The chapter argues that to date, much discussion on leadership theories has clearly distinguished various traits and characteristics that effective leaders need to have, but has provided little detail on how such traits and characteristics should be developed. The chapter concludes that leadership remains an elusive concept, being shaped and affected by a range of forces. In turn, leadership development is thus a complex process necessitating leadership development consultants to work across all four leadership approaches in developing and delivering well-rounded and effective interventions.

    Part 3 of the textbook acknowledges the role of HRD at the community/societal level. In recent times, it is increasingly recognised that HRD has an important role to play in building and developing communities and operating on a cross-national and international basis.

    Chapter 13 focuses on the emerging field of international HRD. It examines the cross-cultural applicability of HRD concepts and how HRD interventions can be usefully exported across national boundaries. It presents a framework for examining international HRD, identifying four separate phases in the internationalisation process (multi-domestic, international, multinational and transnational). For each phase, the framework examines the characteristics of the organisation under the headings of structural issues, cultural issues and HRD issues. The chapter concludes that HRD has an important role to play in the internationalisation process and in ensuring the maximisation of organisational efficiencies.

    Chapter 14 looks at the role that HRD can play in advancing awareness and understanding of the challenges posed by climate change. It presents a framework though which HRD tools and interventions can be deployed to further organisational sustainability goals and advances the notion of ‘Green HRD’ – namely a mechanism for transforming self, others and the organisation as prudent users of natural and human-made resources for the benefit of present and future generations.

    Chapter 15 considers the role of HRD at the community and societal level. It looks at the increasing levels of attention being given to the issue of corporate social responsibility in organisations, before moving on to examine ethics in HRD. The transformative role of HRD at the national and international level is then examined, with particular emphasis given to the tools that HRD possesses which can be applied effectively at the societal level.

    Conclusion and appendix

    The conclusion to the textbook presents some thoughts on the state of the field of HRD. It reviews the proposition that HRD exists at the individual, organisational and societal level, and advances a vision for the future of HRD. It argues that HRD is in a constant state of evolution, responding to organisational and environmental change. It identifies a need for the field to develop its empirical base and to continue to foster dynamism and promote diversity of thought.

    An appendix to the textbook provides advice and guidance to students undertaking HRD examinations. It showcases examples of examination answers to two HRD questions – these examples are graded at a high, medium and bare-pass level. In presenting these examples along with examiner feedback, it is hoped that students will be able to identify the hallmarks of effective examination answers.

    In wrapping up this preface, it is important to recognise that human resource development is a powerful tool empowering individuals, organisations and societies to compete effectively in a global marketplace. It harnesses the latent capabilities of individuals helping them achieve real progress in the organisations, communities and societies where they live. In so doing, HRD practitioners through the application of their skills and talents can make a real difference to the lives of people across the world.


    I wish to thank my gorgeous wife Fiona and beautiful daughter Amie for their constant love and support during the writing of this book. I am also grateful to the McGuire and Baxter families for their kindness, support and friendship. I would like to acknowledge the advice and insights provided by colleagues at Edinburgh Napier University and former colleagues at Queen Margaret University and Oakland University, Michigan. I would like to thank Dr Thomas Garavan (Edinburgh Napier University), David O'Donnell (Intellectual Capital Institute of Ireland) and Prof. Maria Cseh (George Washington University) for being mentors to me and introducing me to the field of HRD. I would like to acknowledge with appreciation the contributions of Kenneth Mølbjerg Jørgensen and colleagues for their valuable inputs to the first edition of the textbook. Thanks to Robin Grenier for her help and support in writing the creativity chapter. I am grateful for the support and encouragement of Kirsty Smy and Nina Smith (Sage Publishing) and Jane Fricker (copyeditor), who all did a wonderful job. Finally, a word of gratitude to my friends and colleagues within the AHRD and UFHRD for the hand of friendship offered to me over the last 15 years. You are a great bunch of people!

    Dr David McGuireEdinburgh Napier University

    Guided Tour

    Chapter Objectives Bulleted lists of objectives at the start of each chapter outline what you can expect to learn.

    Talking Points Case vignettes highlight HRD in action and provoke critical analysis and discussion.

    End of Chapter Case Studies with Questions Case studies of high profile organisations will help you to relate theory and real-world practice.

    Discussion Questions Test your understanding of the chapter and are ideal for revision.

    Appendix Provides advice and guidance to students undertaking HRD examinations, including examples of examination answers graded at a high, medium and bare-pass level, along with examiner feedback.

    About the Companion Website

    Human Resource Development, second edition, by David McGuire is supported by a companion website.

    Visit to access the following resources:

    For Lecturers
    • Instructor's Manual: containing tutor notes for each chapter to support your teaching.
    • PowerPoint Slides: including key points from each chapter.
    For Students
    • Additional Case Studies: Engaging and relevant case studies to help illustrate the main concepts in each chapter.
    • Web Links: Explore topics further with a selection of useful websites and videos.
    • SAGE Online Journals: Deepen your understanding by engaging with relevant SAGE journal articles.
  • Preparing for HRD Examinations

    Appendix objectives

    The objectives of this appendix are to:

    • provide advice on how to prepare for HRD examinations;
    • showcase examples of examination answers (high, medium and low);
    • identify hallmarks of effective examination answers.

    Examinations can be stressful, nerve-wracking occasions. For many students, they are all-consuming, holding a central position in their thoughts, dreams and preoccupations in the days and weeks before the main event. While academics sometimes tell students that examinations are valuable opportunities to showcase their knowledge and learning, the pressure induced by examinations can cause students to freeze and clam up. Careful preparation and good technique can help mitigate the tensions caused by examinations. The purpose of this short appendix is to provide guidance and advice on how best to prepare for HRD examinations. It provides examples of examination questions and answers to help you clearly distinguish the key hallmarks of effective examination answers.

    Advice on preparing for HRD examinations

    The following six key pointers are worth careful consideration when getting ready to sit HRD examinations:

    Answer the question you are asked, not the question you'd like to be asked

    Many students have preprepared answers to expected examination questions and really do not engage with the question posed. Some key advice would be to start your answer by addressing the question directly. When you have answered the question, only then tell us everything else you know about the wider topic.

    An examination answer is not a summary of a particular lecture

    Many students in answering examination questions adopt a very linear approach. They feel that they need to start an answer by defining key terms and giving a history of a particular topic before addressing the question posed. While in some cases definitions and a history of the topic may be required by the examination question, this is not always the case. Structuring your answer as a summary of a particular lecture misses the point. The purpose of a lecture is most often to introduce the student to a particular topic and lecturers will often cover many aspects of the topic within their lecture. An examination question is likely to focus on only one or two specific aspects of the topic – not the whole topic itself.

    Make a plan

    This may sound obvious, but formulating a plan will keep you structured and will ensure you stay on track. It helps the readability of your answer and ensures that key components/models or theories are included as part of your answer. Making a plan helps you signpost the reader by including an introduction, middle section and conclusion. You may also decide to incorporate case examples or practical illustrations of models and theories.

    Watch your timing

    Good examination practice requires you to keep an eye on your time and make sure you devote enough time to each exam question that you attempt. At the start of the exam, decide how much time you will allocate to each question – and once the time expires, move onto the next question.

    Showcase your knowledge of the research literature

    The best examination answers always make reference to key research contributions and leading thinkers within a particular field. Being able to quote and critique key authors helps show the examiners that you understand the topic and can apply relevant knowledge to a case problem or examination topic. Citing key contributions means that you will need to be able to recall such contributions and understand the academic and practical implications of models, theories and frameworks.

    Develop a critical writing style

    As a student, your role in an examination is not just to reproduce or describe key models, theories or frameworks, but to critique these contributions and identify strengths and weaknesses. You should be able to demonstrate the relevance and utility of theories and models and how a discipline has developed over time. In developing a critical writing style, you need to recognise that authors’ contributions can and should be validly critiqued. It is only through valid critique that a discipline grows and develops.

    Examples of examination questions and sample answers

    In this section, two sample HRD examination questions are provided, along with three sample (high pass, mid-range pass and borderline pass) solutions for each question. The purpose of providing sample answers is to help you distinguish the higher order learning required to achieve top grades. The key objective of this section is to help you prepare more completely for written examinations. Students should, however, be aware that academic standards and expectations can differ across academic institutions, so please check with your own professors, lecturers and tutors in relation to what they are looking for in any examination. The sample solutions provided are based upon real examination answers provided by students at a UK university under normal examination conditions.

    Question 1

    With the advent of boundaryless careers and staff mobility and turnover, critically examine why organisations should engage in employee career development?

    Answer 1

    A career can be described as a ‘succession of related jobs arranged in a hierarchy of prestige, through which persons moved in an ordered (more or less) predictable sequence’ (Wilensky, 1964), which is a definition which may have been appropriate at the time it was written, but is something that is almost unrecognisable in today's organisations.

    Due to a number of factors, including the recession, causing companies to downsize and make redundancies or the creation of flatter organisational structures, the pattern of careers described by Wilensky is very rare today. There is a great deal of lateral career moves as there are fewer opportunities of rising up the hierarchical pyramid of the organisation. Indeed, increasingly common is backward movement due to high unemployment and increasing competition for jobs. A job for life has become very rare with many employees only staying with a company a few years before moving on. With this thought, it would be understandable why organisations may choose not to engage in career development.

    Notions of career are also changing. The traditional notion of career development took a very paternalistic approach in that the company took a lot of responsibility for its employees’ career development. This echoes back to the idea of a job for life where employees could expect to stay with the same company and as a reward for their loyalty would be promoted up the ranks. However, this is less common now and is something which is more likely to be seen in the public sector.

    More common is the notion of a boundaryless career where employees can move freely between employers. This is a notion which was encouraged by Thatcher when she was in power as it would spread skills and knowledge between companies. The UK as a country is no longer seen as a boundary either due to globalisation and improved technology. Employment can be sought all over the world. This can benefit employers and employees as it allows knowledge and skills to be developed which can then be transferred.

    However, an employer may be reluctant to engage in career development due to this as they would be investing in an employee who may at any time decide to leave the organisation, taking with them all the skills and knowledge they have learned. Despite this, there are still a number of reasons why employers should participate in their employees’ career development.

    By engaging in an employee's career development, the company shows that they are willing to invest in that employee, thus showing their loyalty and trust in that individual. This will enhance the employee's psychological contract with the company resulting in them feeling more engaged and possibly increasing their loyalty. Also, if they feel that the employer is buying into their career development, it could make them feel more secure in their position. So, by showing an interest in an employee's career, the employer may be able to encourage the employee to continue their employment and be more engaged.

    A company who actively is involved in their employees’ career development will also be more appealing to potential new employees which could make it easier to recruit high quality employees. Therefore, bringing in new knowledge and skills which could help enhance the overall organisation.

    The processes which are used in career development can also be considered. Hirsch's (2003) model shows:

    Figure A1

    By considering each of these things, it is possible to put a plan in place, which employees are involved with, so they can see what they need to do to achieve their goal. Getting the employee to take responsibility for their career, but ensuring that the employer will support them will again make the employee feel more secure and should increase their performance.

    From this career plan, the organisation will be able to take part in succession planning and talent management. By doing this, the organisation can ensure that they have employees lined up with skills to take over when other employees leave the organisation.

    Succession planning as part of career development allows the organisation to prepare other employees to have the necessary skills to be able to fill key roles within the organisation. This can prevent any large holes being created when an employee leaves. However, this in itself may cause problems as employees may feel pushed out if they think another employee is being trained to take their position or if an employee is given the skills to be able to take on a role but never promoted to believe it, they may leave.

    Talent management will allow the company to see employees which they think are going to have the skills which will benefit the organisation to be identified. They can then encourage that employee to stay with the company by showing they are willing to invest in them by participating in their career development. If they are able to show a talented individual what they could achieve with the company and put things in place to allow them to reach that, it should keep them engaged.

    However, there could be an issue with this if employers do get involved with their career development. They must ensure they can fulfil their promises, otherwise they risk breaking the trust between employer and employee as well as the psychological contract. So from that respect, it could be considered that career development should be left as the responsibility of the individual employee.

    Career development is something which employers should consider; the notion of boundaryless careers should not prevent them and may help retain and attract talent. It does not have to be at a huge financial cost to the company, but one which could help increase employee engagement and better performance. The boundaryless career can also be seen as an advantage for companies as new employees will bring with them a wealth of knowledge and experience from previous employers which can be used in their new employment.

    Examiner's comments

    Satisfactory but underwhelming answer. Greater detail could be provided on the boundaryless career. Many of the concepts are discussed in general terms and you need to show a greater degree of depth in your discussion. In particular, you also could cite more research. Some adequate arguments made in relation to reasons why organisations should engage in career development, but cite more examples and research!


    Borderline Pass

    Answer 2

    Traditionally, careers saw people move through the hierarchy for extrinsic rewards (Rosenbaum, 1978), however careers no longer move in a linear trajectory (Sullivan and Baruch, 2009). Career development was a key element of a traditional career, where progression was predictable (McDonald et al., 2009), long service was rewarded and the workplace was more focused on staff loyalty rewarded by job security. Careers have changed with the emergence of boundaryless (where careers transcend more than one organisation), protean (where employees drive their careers due to their desire for self-fulfilment), portfolio (where individuals contract their skills and services to different organisations giving them mobility and freedom, while the onus is on them to ensure that their knowledge and skills are marketable) (Arnold, 2001) and hybrid careers (where employees want self-fulfilment, the ability to move organisations and job security). Because of these changes, it is important for organisations to determine if they should still offer career development to employees.

    Careers have changed for many reasons. Due to the recession, the labour market is more buoyant allowing organisations to buy in skills instead of developing them internally. Some organisations would argue that buying in pre-trained workers is ideal (Hall, 2005). The recession has led to an increase in redundancies which breaks the traditional promise of job security offered by organisations. Technological advances have allowed for outsourcing and offshoring to become more prevalent due to the reduction in cost this provides organisations. Another phenomenon altering careers is the increase of women in work, dual earning couples and single parents. Current employees have different priorities and needs than the traditional male workforce. Finally, changes to legislation removing the age of retirement means that older workers are staying in their roles for longer, acting as a block to younger workers who will therefore go externally to another organisation to progress up the career ladder and get the job they want. These changes demonstrate that careers are not just about the job itself, but external factors (Sullivan and Baruch, 2009) and the complexities show why Edgar (1995) found over 30 different terms for the word career.

    It is clear that changes have led to a more transactional exchange between employees and employers (Hall, 2004) with career development not being as evident. Despite the fear of organisations that investing money in developing employees’ careers could be fruitless due to their likelihood of leaving the organisation, it is still important they do so. Career development is often viewed as part of the psychological contract. Despite employees moving organisations, they still expect their skills and knowledge to be developed and recognised. Where this isn't done, employees can become disengaged and less productive. Career development can also be offered as part of an organisation's employee value proposition. When recruiting, organisations want the best talent; therefore, offering career development can attract high performers. During times of recession, career development can be offered to current employees instead of financial rewards, incentivising them with the ability to improve their employability. Further, in times of a recession, where redundancies occur, it is important for organisations to lose their poor performers to retain their leading potential. Offering career development is a way to do this. It can be argued that people and their knowledge are an organisation's competitive advantage (Boud and Garrick, 1999) and are the key to organisational wealth (Sveiby, 1997). By utilising career development, organisations can entice employees to stay. Finally, employees are often the glue in an organisation, ensuring that the culture and values are demonstrated and spread. Career development is a way to ensure talent is retained and progressed in an organisation, ensuring that this isn't lost.

    There are arguments against career development, including the cost; the fact that it doesn't focus enough on blue collar workers (Sullivan and Baruch, 2009) and the fact those not on a talent programme or who haven't been picked out for career development may become disengaged. However, there are many examples of where career development has been beneficial to organisations. Michelin have seen low turnover and relate it to their rigorous career development (although this is done in a very paternalistic, traditional way). Standard Life reflect Hirsch's (2003) model for career development through corporate managed initiatives (i.e. talent programmes, executive coaching, women's development networks, women in leadership programmes), core HR offerings (appraisals carried out between all managers and employees at least biannually) and support for self-managed careers (e-learning opportunities, self-study options at the bespoke learning zone, CIPD workshops). Because of this, Standard Life have recognised low turnover compared to the financial services norm and the engagement survey positively reflects the career commitment of its people.

    In conclusion, despite boundaryless careers becoming more common, organisations must invest in career development as it can help retain talent, reduce dis-engagement and help organisations use their people to give them a key competitive advantage.

    Examiner's comments

    Well-focused solid answer which draws well upon the research to support key arguments. Good attempt made in the answer to describe the context for contemporary careers and the rationale for investing in career development. Overall, the answer needs a more critical focus and some of the arguments could be sharper and more developed. That said, some useful arguments are made and advanced.


    Mid-range Pass

    Answer 3

    Due to changing social, political and economic environment, notions of career have moved away from traditional paternalistic notions to new ones that reflect the changed environment. Boundaryless careers are one of these new notions and with its focus on independence from, rather than dependence on one organisation for a career would suggest that organisations may no longer be required to engage in career development. This view is challenged as looking at the environment and the different notions of careers this develops shows there is still a requirement to engage in employee career development to ensure engagement with the organisation, to attract employees and to achieve competitive advantage.

    Traditional notions of career were based upon economic growth and stability and job security. However, changes in the economic environment (recession, redundancies, technological advancement, globalisation and outsourcing) have resulted in undermining the basis of this concept. No longer are employees expected to have a job for life, but instead there are greater expectations of staff mobility and turnover. This has led to new notions of careers. Sullivan and Baruch (2009) however challenge whether this has really led to the end of traditional careers as little research has been done on populations such as immigrant and blue collar workers.

    Michelin, for example, continues to take a paternalistic, traditional approach to careers despite globalisation and expansion. Therefore, some organisations may be required to still engage in career development. Egan et al. (2006) in highlighting that career development is context and outcome based effectively highlight the need for organisations to be clear of their individual context and outcomes to understand to what level they need to engage in employee career development.

    However, much of the research has focused on the decline of traditional notions of career and as a result, new notions have arisen that take into account the changing environment. Boundaryless careers (Arthur and Rousseau, 1996) are one of these. Boundaryless careers are not dependent on one organisation (as in traditional notions of career) as employees are responsible for their own career development as a result of not being physically or psychologically tied to one organisation. This results in greater mobility (internal and external) and greater turnover. However, this is not the only career notion to develop. Others such as the protean career (Hall, 1996) where employees develop skills, capabilities to make them marketable to other employers also challenge the need for career development as organisations are faced with a more mobile, turnover-prone workforce who seek self-fulfilment from their career as well as other aspects of life.

    Investment in employee career development in these circumstances may therefore be ineffective as organisations are less likely to have long serving employees and therefore reap the rewards of the investment. This highlights the conflict of career development as employers want to retain employees and therefore may limit development whilst employees require/want under new notions of careers employability to ensure they are marketable.

    Fundamentally, whilst there are new notions of careers, these are restricted by challenges for employees such as not having the skills and capabilities to work for another employer and for not being able to quickly adapt to new work environments in order to perform (Sullivan and Baruch, 2009). This may limit staff mobility and turnover therefore putting the onus back on the organisation to engage in career development of employees so that their skills remain relevant and useful to the organisation.

    Although the economic environment has changed and challenged notions of career development for organisations, there are some factors that mean career development is still important. These are lessons from the 1990s recession, achieving competitive advantage and meeting changing employee expectations. Harrison (2009) highlights how a lesson that was learnt in the 1990s recession was that it was an organisation's cost not to invest in employee development during the tougher economic times (despite learning and development budgets often being the first to be cut for example as seen in the public sector – as competitors who invest will get ahead when the economy changes). This suggests that organisations should engage in career development even in tough economic times. Harrison also highlights the need for a flexible and adaptive workforce who are skilled and trained to ensure effectiveness of the organisation in turbulent economic times. Again, despite the potential for mobility and turnover, this highlights the need for employee career development.

    Rainbird (1995) states how competitive advantage be achieved through ensuring that employees have unique skills and capabilities that are difficult for competitors to replicate. As a result, organisations often focus on talent management (i.e. focus career development on high performing employees) such as in the case of Barclays who expanded their talent management programme to have a global focus. However, Harrison (2009) is critical of this approach stating that unless effectively integrated with career development of all employees, it can result in the effective disengagement of other employees. Moreover, this traditional approach to career development (for a select few in the organisation) highlights the conflict between employer and employee mentioned earlier. The employer invests in the employee, however this makes the employee more marketable outside the organisation and for the employee, depending on their individual notion of career, they may not be loyal to the organisation – i.e. boundaryless career.

    This motivation of individuals demonstrates how employee expectations of careers may have changed. This is due to many factors such as cost restricted organisations offering career development as an incentive for attraction and retention rather than pay and bonuses – as shown in Tesco's ‘Grow with us’ recruitment campaign. Also, the changing nature of the workforce (ageing workforce, dual-earning households, more women in the workforce) also provides a role for career development as whilst employees aren't tied to one organisation, their expectations of career development to achieve employability result in career development being a part of the psychological contract.

    An example of this is in the area of self-development. Boundaryless careers put the onus on the employee for self-development of their careers – however as shown in Hirsch's (2003) model, organisations still have a role to play in providing resources for self-development. For example, Nike (Harrison, 2009) have moved away from classroom based learning to self-development and Standard Life provides a learning zone which is a dedicated physical and online area for employee self-development. However, the effectiveness in the psychological contract is determined not only by the organisation providing resources, but also the time, commitment and support of this alternative form of employee career development.

    In summary, even with the advent of boundaryless careers and staff mobility and turnover, organisations as a result of a changing social, cultural and economic environment still engage in employee career development. In highlighting the hybrid career model (Sullivan and Baruch, 2009) show that there is, for some employees and organisations a rationale for achieving the upward mobility and development of traditional career notions, whilst also allowing for elements of boundaryless and protean careers.

    Examiner's comments

    This is an excellent answer. A very focused response to the question is given from start to finish. The student builds a series of strong arguments and demonstrates an excellent knowledge of the literature as well as a capability to explore tensions and debates. Some good examples of key concepts in practice are provided.


    High Pass

    Question 2

    Ulrich (1998) argues that to deliver organisational excellence, the HRD function must:

    • Act as partners with senior and line management in strategy execution
    • Act as experts in the way work is organised and executed
    • Act as champions for employees
    • Act as agents of continuous organisational transformation

    Critically examine the strategic contributions being made by the HRD function in contemporary organisations through reference to Strategic HRD models and frameworks.

    Answer 1

    Garavan (1991) defines strategic human resource development as ‘the long term learning of employees, cultural complexity and strategic alignment’. With the new public reforms (NPM) of the 1980s, human resources (HR) as well as other administrative functions were to fundamentally change in the way in which they functioned. They now had to be seen as a service which would have to show their worth and value. But with the changes that evolved from the emergence of NPM, this completely shifted the traditional role of HRD to the line manager (Harrison, 2005). The convergence of the European Union (1980s) had an adverse effect as well as the impact of globalisation and technological advances.

    Globalisation and technology

    With the NPM and administrative reform, Information technology (IT) led at the forefront some would say. It moved at almost an alarming rate. Apple, Microsoft and other IT companies lead the way on innovation. Many forms of communication are now available 24 hours a day (e.g. Skype, Twitter and other social networks). HRD have moved away from its traditional role and the way in which it delivered it due to electronic changes. This meant a much more strategic approach was required. They now had to align their HRM strategy both vertically and horizontally, with other business strategies. With the strategic approach being now sought, a number of strategic human resource development (SHRD) models emerged.


    Garavan's (1991) model of nine SHRD characteristics covered the likes of culture, values, ethicism partnership etc. but was criticised as complicated. Nine years later, McCracken and Wallace (2000) introduced a replica of the model first introduced by Garavan in 1991. Well, what does that tell you? Either Garavan ‘nailed it’ or not much progress has been evidenced in the way in which the HRD delivery model functions.

    Peterson (2008) also introduced a SHRD model. Her model focused on partnership – a critical area with the shift of some of the traditional HRD functions to line managers emphasising the partnership approach now required. The most recognised model in modern business today is Ulrich's first introduced in 1997. Ulrich argued that to deliver organisational excellence, the GRD function must:

    Act as partners with senior and line management in strategy formulation and execution. Both HRD and line managers have a dual responsibility – therefore, they need to work together further emphasising partnership. This gives HRD people a real opportunity to work at the front line in the business and understand their needs. Learning is at the heart of the organisation that wants to enhance the employees’ capabilities and performance. However, line managers are questioning the need for HRD if they need to take on this function (Peterson, 2008).

    Act as experts in the way work is organised and executed. Unlike those staff in HRD classed as business partners, Ulrich has also recognised a need for certain skills that would still be necessary. He classed these as ‘centres of excellence’ – e.g. employment law, reward and recognition etc. Yet, these can be dependent on the size of the business. Relatively small companies don't have large HRD teams to enable this to be managed separately (Garavan, 2001). However, some companies may look to outsource these functions.

    Act as champions for employees. HRD can work alongside employees now, quite often hotdesking in the same area. They have the opportunity to build relationships and give them a ‘voice’ with management (Harrison, 2005). But it can sometimes be a fine line, almost like being devil's advocate. HR staff need to be careful in finding a balance that works for both employees and line managers.

    Act as agents of continuous organisational transformation. This is probably no different for HRD staff than any other part of the organisation. The world in which we now live in is one of globalisation, technology and innovation.

    Most organisations today will recognise Ulrich's three-legged stool. But it is not without criticism. It has been said it's time-consuming and only works in mid-to-large organisations (CIPD, 2012). Ulrich (2001) defends this through saying that ‘strategic changes take time’.

    HRD needs to provide its need, value and worth. By evaluation and measurement and perhaps through adopting a balanced scorecard approach (Kaplan and Norton, 2001), as this is recognised in organisations today and has a ‘people’ section. If they can prove their value, then maybe, just maybe they can achieve that much sought after recognition as a true business partner.

    Examiner's comments

    Quite a confused answer. The student muddles a number of areas (SHRD, HRM) as well as confusing the contributions of some authors. The student needs to be clearer on the importance contributions of SHRD models. NPM stands for New Public Management, rather than new public reforms. By focusing on new public management, you appear to be confining strategic HRD to the public sector and fail to fully recognise its important role in the private sector. Strategic HRD initiatives apply to both public and private sectors. The context for change (European Union, Technology, Globalisation) is briefly described. Similarly, there is insufficient detail on Peterson's contribution and no mention is made of Garavan's most recent (2007) HRD model.


    Borderline Pass

    Answer 2

    In order to critically examine the contributions being made by the HRD function through reference to Strategic Human Resource Development models, it is first important to understand what strategic HRD is, why it is considered important and why it has evolved.

    Peterson (2008) outlines that strategic HRD is the long-term, proactive approach to HRM initiatives at both the individual and organisational level which impacts on bottom-line organisational goals and competitive advantage. It is considered that employee knowledge is what gives an organisation its competitive advantage, therefore learning and development departments have been criticised as being too short-term focused and not preparing employees for the changing global context in which we are now operating. Friedman's (2007) 11 global flatteners have identified the environment in which organisations now operate as a global one in which there is much competition due to the free movement of people, increased power of communities and the ability of organisations to work 24 hours a day around the world. HRD has responded to this with the rise of strategic HRD (SHRD) in which the goals of HRD help shape the strategy of an organisation to prepare for its internal and external environment.

    Garavan (1991) proposed 9 characteristics of SHRD. McCracken and Wallace (2000) were critical of this model as not being strategic enough in order to have real impact on the organisation. They proposed an advance of these 9 characteristics. We will consider these models now. In order for SHRD to be strategic, Garavan (1991) proposed that an organisation would need HRD plans and policies. McCracken and Wallace (2000) argued that these were required to be HRD strategies similar to Ulrich's model of Centres of Excellence/Experts. Peterson (2008) however critiques this and argues that we are in danger of role overload in HR/HRD asking what HRD superhuman can take on this level of work, pulling HRD specialists in too many ways, both operationally and strategically. Therefore, is it possible for a strategic contribution by the HRD function in light of such heavy operational requirements? Garavan (1991) felt that SHRD should expand the trainer role to be more than it is currently. McCracken and Wallace felt that the role of the trainer should be an organisational change agent. Similar to Ulrich's model (1997) in which he proposes that HRD perform an important role as agents of continuous organisational transformation. Such agents should work within the organisation in order to facilitate change in the organisation to adapt to its changing environment internally and externally, readying the organisation with knowledge and competitive advantage. Peterson (2008) however was critical of this arguing that change is often not strategic and is in fact operational and therefore argues that a more holistic approach must be taken to change. Therefore, it could be argued that SHRD is not able to make a strategic contribution to change through the role of change agents.

    Ulrich (1998) argues that in order to deliver organisational excellence, the HRD function must act as partners with senior and line management devolving some of HRD's activities to line management in order for it to be delivered throughout the organisation. Garavan (1999) also argued that line management should be involved in SHRD with McCracken and Wallace (2000) proposing that HRD should forge strategic partnerships with line management in order for the HRD function to make strategic contributions. Peterson (2008) is critical of this however arguing that this devolution to line management fragments the model and in order for the HRD function to add a strategic contribution, these roles need to be clearly outlined.

    In order to understand the strategic contribution being made by the HRD function in contemporary organisations, it is necessary to measure the ‘added value’. Garavan (2007) outlines that it is important to understand the contribution that SHRD has on the bottom line of the organisation, however Peterson (2008) is critical that this is possible. Ulrich (2007) outlines that value is perceived in the view of the receiver and not the giver. He argues that a multi-stakeholder approach is one which is best in order to assess the added value and therefore, the contribution of the HRD function to contemporary organisations. Peterson (2008) however argues that the models of SHRD only address two of these multi-stakeholders: employees and line management and that external stakeholders are not considered (shareholders and customers in particular). Therefore, it is not possible to measure the added value of SHRD accurately and therefore difficult to examine the strategic contribution being made by HRD.

    Westpac Bank is a case study in which you can see an example of SHRD which uses the Ulrich model. Through a centre of expertise in learning and development, they have changed the culture of learning away from classroom style to one in which learning is inherent with the employees’ everyday job. Through working with line managers, learning and development have managed to bring learning into everyday roles shaping the culture of the organisation and forming the strategic direction of the organisation through the learning of employees. SHRD is integrated both horizontally and vertically working across a number of departments to lead the strategy of the organisation. Lee (2006) proposed a 6-point scale of SHRD maturity within organisations, with 1 being strategy led and informed by SHRD and 6 being no systemic approach to HRD. This is an example of how SHRD can make a strategic contribution to an organisation through HRD, using SHRD frameworks and models.

    Garavan (2007) states that in order for the HRD function to make a strategic contribution within contemporary organisations, there must be 5 underlying assumptions: firstly, its goals must be aligned with that of the organisations and the HRM strategy – this is seen in the Westpac case study. Second, it must be involved in environmental scanning both internally and externally. Third, it must be integrated with HRM policies. Fourth, it must be owned by a number of areas in the organisation – for example, not just HRD, but also line managers and senior leadership in order for it to add real value: this is seen in Ulrich's model of business partners. Fifth, it must add real value to the organisation and must be measurable.

    In conclusion, in order for the HRD function to make a strategic contribution in contemporary organisations, it is important to consider Garavan's (2007) five underlying assumptions as well as the context in which the organisation operates. Through the use of various models (Garavan, 1991; McCracken and Wallace, 2000; Ulrich, 1998), it is possible to consider the role that HRD can play in adding a strategic contribution. Peterson (2008) however is critical of this and argues that with many complex models, it is still difficult to define what contributions SHRD can make.

    Examiner's comments

    Very solid answer that produces a good synthesis of the contributions of the models and criticisms of them. You conduct a good comparison across the three models (Garavan, 1991; McCracken and Wallace, 2000; Peterson, 2008) albeit, you could elaborate further on Garavan's (2007) contribution. That said, you have a good working knowledge of how each of the Strategic HRD models arose as well as the criticisms levelled at these models. Good case example provided (Westpac Bank), with solid examination of strategic HRD in practice.


    Mid-range Pass

    Answer 3

    Due to changes in the working environment, including globalisation, advances in technology and fragmented markets, companies need to keep their competitive advantage in order to survive. This has led to a call for HRD to add more value to the business. This is in line with HRM adding more value as more and more companies convert to Ulrich's business partner model to structure their HR departments. As the move to HR becoming more strategic in nature, HRD now also needs to do the same. This has given rise to the concept of strategic HRD (SHRD), which views learning and development as an investment in people rather than a cost to the business. Various authors have written on this topic and introduced SHRD models and frameworks. However, it is important to look closely at these models in order to understand what is happening in practice. This essay will explain some of the key SHRD models and what they are trying to achieve. This will then be critically analysed with what is happening in reality, in order to assess whether SHRD is delivering excellence through Ulrich's framework.

    SHRD was brought to organisations’ attention in 1991 when Garavan introduced the 9 characteristics a company should possess in order to work in a SHRD nature. The key agenda of SHRD is to add value to the business by investing in the core competencies of employees to ensure their talent is unique and cannot be mimicked by competitors. This will give a company the competitive advantage it needs to have an impact on the bottom line. In order to do this, Garavan (1991) states that HRD must be integrated into the company's overall strategy, be supported by senior management and there must be a correlation with HRM. Furthermore, it is essential that environmental scanning takes place with HRD being the focus. These are some of the characteristics that Garavan introduced in 1991. However, almost a decade later, McCracken and Wallace (2000) refined these 9 characteristics in order to demonstrate how HRD can truly become strategic in nature. For example, instead of HRD being integrated with strategy, they suggest that it should shape the strategy, through focusing on the skills and competencies of their employees. They refine all 9 characteristics in a similar way, for example instead of senior management support, they suggest it should be senior management leadership and that the environmental scanning should be carried out by senior management with HRD being at the centre. McCracken and Wallace (2000) refining of what SHRD is, ensures that HRD is a key stakeholder in strategy implementation and therefore sitting high on Lee's (1996) scale of SHRD maturity. The characteristics of McCracken and Wallace's refinement of SHRD form the basis of their model which puts their characteristics in the SHRD section, whereas Garavan (1991) is described as HRD. This would suggest that Garavan's (1991) model now sits much lower on Lee's (1996) scale – with HRD being placed at level 3, i.e. integrated with strategy but in a reactive nature. Learning and development is called into question after the strategy has been implemented instead of being at the formation stage.

    In 2007, Garavan extended his work on SHRD in response to the literature that was presented after 1991. Not only did McCracken and Wallace (2000) introduce a new view of the topic, but various other SHRD models were introduced, for example Harrison's six critical factors and Grieves’ work. All of the models are very similar, with true SHRD being place at the level where it can shape organisational strategy. Garavan's (2007) new model describes SHRD as the ‘coherent, vertically aligned and horizontally integrated set of learning and development practices that contribute to the organisation's strategy’. The new model is based on four levels of context, both external and internal. It then suggests how HRD needs to react to the context in order to contribute strategically to the organisation. The focus on alignment is essential to Garavan's (2007) model as this is how HRD interacts with key stakeholders in strategy formulation. The horizontal nature of integration is also important as it suggests that the relationships between HRD and line managers are crucial to working in a strategic manner.

    Garavan's (2007) model takes account of Ulrich's (1998) framework for delivering excellence and adding value. This is part of the ‘SHRD orientation’ phase in the model. HRD can position itself in a traditional or employee-focused role, however Ulrich points out that this is operational in nature and will unlikely result in working strategically. However, if HRD takes the strategic partner or change agent orientation, then it will add value to the business by focusing on the strategic aspects of learning and development, such as talent management and succession planning. This also ties in with Lepak et al.'s (2005) domains of HRD – transactional, traditional and transformational. It is argued that transactional learning and development will never add value to the business and strategic HRD operates on the spectrum between traditional to transformational learning and development practices. By working towards transformational HRD, then Ulrich's (1998) framework will succeed and HRD will become strategic in nature and have an impact on the bottom line.

    However, although the models presented explain what HRD needs to do in order to become strategic and add value, there are criticisms that must be addressed. Peterson (2008) criticises Garavan's (2007) model. It is suggested that although Garavan has tried to make the model exhaustive, the external and internal influences could render the model too complex to operationalise or test. It is further argued that despite the numerous models introduced, it is still unclear what SHRD actually is or how it can be achieved. Furthermore, it is not addressed as to whether or not HRD is strategic or not actually matters. It is also worth noting that although ‘alignment’ is a key feature in the SHRD models, there is little empirical evidence that the SHRD models that have been introduced are great in theory, but with little substance in reality. McCracken and Wallace (2000) undertook some further research in order to understand the reality of SHRD. During a study of various organisations from various sectors, it was found that Garavan's (1991) characteristics of SHRD were prominent; however, very little of McCracken and Wallace's refined characteristics were present in companies. The main issue being line management support, which struggled to exist in Garavan's terms, let alone a strategic relationship with line managers as McCracken and Wallace suggested. It was also interesting to see that within the companies that rated themselves as high on the HRD maturity scale (Lee, 1996), the evidence in reality suggested that they were much lower. Furthermore, the CIPD (2007) survey found that only a third of training and learning managers felt that learning and development implications were considered at strategy formation level and of half of the organisations surveyed, HRD was not seen as a key stakeholder in strategy formation. This has further emphasised in recent years due to the economic climate, training budgets have been slashed, which would suggest that HRD is still seen as a ‘cost’ to the business, rather than an investment.

    In conclusion, Ulrich's framework of how HRD can add value is backed with various SHRD models, which puts HRD in the strategy formation stage and a key stakeholder within the business. By achieving this, companies can invest in their current core competencies, giving them a competitive advantage and thus having an impact on the bottom line. However, the models presented have been criticised for being overly complex and not in line with what is happening in reality. It seems that in theory the models presented are the way forward for businesses, however it appears that HRD is still fighting for its position to shape the business strategy and the recent economic downturn has only highlighted HRD as still being viewed as a cost to the business, rather than an investment. Although the CIPD (2012) survey suggests an increase in focus on talent management, etc., the numbers are still low, so HRD has a long journey before becoming truly strategic in nature.

    Examiner's comments

    Excellent answer. Focused, clear, lucid and well executed. Opening paragraph provides an excellent synthesis of the background to strategic HRD. You show an excellent awareness of criticisms of the SHRD models and how these relate to Ulrich's framework. You also display a good understanding of how SHRD works in practice with reference to some good sources. The answer presented is well framed and takes a high-level overview of the SHRD landscape charting developments in this area of HRD and explaining why these developments took place.


    High Pass


    Performing well in HRD examinations requires careful planning and an ability to produce thoughtful, critical answers under time-restrictive conditions. Students should ensure that they construct an outline structure to their answer beforehand, ensuring that key arguments are built comprehensively and supported with reference to both research contributions and practice-based examples. It also helps to keep the student focused in their work and less likely to drift down interesting, but largely irrelevant cul-de-sacs. At its core, students are expected to demonstrate a good awareness and understanding of the key theories and concepts and a capability to critically assess the continued relevance of these concepts to organisational practice.

    It is worth remembering that good examination technique is something that can be practised and perfected over time. Recalling particular authors and research contributions will require detailed reading and an ability to trace the development of an area of HRD over time. Students should not be afraid to critique the contributions of key authors, provided that they can substantiate their arguments through reference to other research and/or practice. Finally, on a personal level, I wish you every success in your HRD examination and hope this appendix has been helpful to you in your examination preparation.


    Abu-Tineh, A.M., Khasawneh, S.A. and Al-Omari, A.A. (2008) Kouzes and Posner's Transformational Leadership Model in Practice: The Case of Jordanian Schools. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 29(8), 648660.
    Ackah, C. and Heaton, N. (2004) The Reality of ‘New’ Careers for Men and for Women. Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(2/3/4), 141158.
    Addesso, P.J. (1996) Management Would be Easy – If it Weren't for the People. New York: AMACOM.
    Adler, N.J. (1994) Competitive Frontiers: Women Managing Across Borders. Journal of Management Development, 13(2), 2441.
    Adler, N.J. and Ghadar, E. (1990) Strategic Human Resource Management: A Global Perspective. In R. Pieper (ed.), Human Resource Management in International Comparison. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Adler, N.J., Doktor, R. and Redding, G. (1986) From the Atlantic to the Pacific Century: Cross-cultural Management Reviewed. Journal of Management, 12(2), 295318.
    Aguilar, J.L. (1981) Insider Research: An Ethnography of a Debate. In D.A. Messerschmidt (ed.), Anthropologists at Home in North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Aik, C. and Tway, D.C. (2003) Cognitivism, Constructivism and Work Performance. Academic Exchange, 7(3), 274278.
    Alagaraja, M. and Dooley, L.M. (2003) Origins and Historical Influences on Human Resource Development: A Global Perspective. Human Resource Development Review, 2(1), 8296.
    Alarcon, C. (2009) Kenco Launches Reduced Packaging Initiative. Marketing Week.
    Alavi, M and Denford, J.S. (2012) Knowledge Management: Process, Practice and Web 2.0. In M. Easterby-Smith (ed.), Handbook of Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management. London: Wiley.
    Allred, B.B. and Steensma, H.K. (2005) The Influence of Industry and Home Country Characteristics on Firms’ Pursuit of Innovation. Management International Review, 45(4), 383412.
    Allen, N.J. and Meyer, I.P. (1990) The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 118.
    Allio, R.J. (2005) Leadership Development: Teaching Versus Learning. Management Decision, 43(7/8), 10711077.
    Alvesson, M. and Deetz, S. (1996) Critical Theory and Postmodernism Approaches to Organizational Studies. In S.R. Clegg, C. Hardy and W.R. Nord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M. and Skoldberg, K. (2000) Reflexive Methodology. London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M. and Wilmott, H. (1992) Critical Theory and Management Studies: An Introduction. In M. Alvesson and H. Wilmott (eds), Critical Management Studies. London: Sage.
    Amabile, T.M. (1983) The Social Psychology of Creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Amabile, T.M. (1996) Creativity in Context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Amabile, T.M. (1998) How to Kill Creativity. Harvard Business Review, 76(5), 7787.
    Amabile, T.M. and Conti, R. (1999) Changes in the World Environment for Creativity during Downsizing. Academy of Management Journal, 42(6), 630640.
    Amabile, T.M., Barsade, S.G., Mueller, J.S. and Staw, B.M. (2005) Affect and Creativity at Work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50(3), 367403.
    Amabile, T.M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J. and Herron, M. (1996) Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 11541185.
    Amabile, T.M., Goldfarb, P. and Brackfield, S.C. (1990) Social Influences on Creativity: Evaluation, Coaction and Surveillance. Creativity Research Journal, 3(1), 231253.
    Amabile, T.M., Schatzel, E.A., Moneta, G.B. and Kramer, S.J. (2004) Leader Behaviors and the Work Environment for Creativity: Perceived Leader Support. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 532.
    Anacona, D.G. and Caldwell, D.F. (1992) Demography and Design: Predictors of New Product Team Performance. Organization Science, 3(3), 321341.
    Analoui, F. and Karami, A. (2002) How Chief Executives’ Perception of the Environment Impacts on Company Performance. Journal of Management Development, 21(4), 290305.
    Anand, R. and Winters, M.F. (2008) A Retrospective View of Corporate Diversity Training from 1964 to Present. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(3), 356372.
    Anderson, B. (1999) Industrial Benchmarking for Competitive Advantage. Human Systems Management, 18(3/4), 287296.
    Anderson, J.R. (1993) Problem Solving and Learning. American Psychologist, 48(1), 3544.
    Anderson, J.R. (2000) Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. New York: Worth Publishers.
    Anderson, V. (2007) Desperately Seeking Alignment: Reflections of Senior Line Managers and HRD Executives. Human Resource Development International, 12(3), 263277.
    An Inconvenient Truth (2006) Directed by Guggenheim, D. [DVD]. Los Angeles: Paramount Home Entertainment.
    Andresen, M. (2007) Diversity Learning, Knowledge Diversity and Inclusion: Theory and Practice as Exemplified by Corporate Universities. Equal Opportunities International, 26(8), 743760.
    Andrews, F.M. and Farris, G.F. (1967) Supervisory Practices and Innovation of Scientific Teams. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the American Psychological Association.
    Ardichvili, A. (2012) Sustainability or Limitless Expansion: Paradigm Shift in HRD Practice and Teaching. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(9), 873887.
    Ardichvili, A. and Kuchinke, K.P. (2002) The Concept of Culture in International and Comparative HRD Research: Methodological Problems and Possible Solutions. Human Resource Development Review, 1(2), 145166.
    Ardichvili, A., Page, V. and Wentling, T. (2003) Motivation and Barriers to Participation in Virtual Knowledge-sharing Communities of Practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), 6477.
    Argyris, C. (1996) Prologue: Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Management. In B. Moingeon and A. Edmondson (eds), Organizational Learning and Competitive Advantage. London: Sage.
    Argyris, C. (1999) On Organizational Learning,
    edn. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Argyris, C. and Schon, D.A. (1974) Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Argyris, C. and Schon, D.A. (1978) Organisational Learning. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Armagan, S. and Ferreira, M.P. (2005) The Impact of Political Culture on Firms’ Choice of Exploitation-Exploration: Internationalization Strategy. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 5(3), 275292.
    Armstrong, M. (1999) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page.
    Arnold, J. (1997) Managing Careers into the 21st Century. London: Paul Chapman.
    Arthur, M.B. and Rousseau, D.M. (eds) (1996) The Boundaryless Career: A New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Arthur, M.B., Hall, D.T. and Lawrence, B.S. (1989) Generating New Directions in Career Theory: The Case for a Transdisciplinary Approach. In M.B. Arthur, D.T. Hall and B.S. Lawrence (eds), The Handbook of Career Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Arthur, M.B., Khapova, S.N. and Wilderom, C.P.M. (2005) Career Success in a Boundaryless Career World. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(2), 177202.
    Arvidsson, N. (1997) Internationalisation of Service Firms: Strategic Considerations. In G. Chryssochoidis, C. Millar and J. Clegg (eds), Internationalisation Strategies. London: Macmillan.
    Atkinson, H. (2006) Strategy Implementation: A Role for the Balanced Scorecard? Management Decision, 44(10), 144160.
    Avolio, B.J. (2007) Promoting more Integrative Strategies for Leadership Theory-building. American Psychologist, 62(1), 2533.
    Azzone, G. and Noci, G. (1998) Seeing Ecology and ‘Green’ Innovations as a Source of Change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 11(2), 94112.
    Bachkirova, T., Cox, E. and Clutterbuck, D. (2013) Introduction. In E. Cox, T. Bachkirova and D. Clutterbuck (eds), The Complete Handbook of Coaching. London: Sage.
    Baer, M., Oldham, G.R. and Cummings, A. (2003) Rewarding Creativity: When Does it Really Matter? The Leadership Quarterly, 14(4), 569586.
    Bairstow, S. and Skinner, H. (2007) Internal Marketing and the Enactment of Sexual Identity. Equal Opportunities International, 26(7), 653664.
    Baldwin, T.T. and Ford, J.K. (1988) Transfer of Training: A Review and Directions for Future Research. Personnel Review, 26(3), 201213.
    Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (2002) Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51, 269290.
    Barbosa, I. and Cabral-Cardoso, C. (2007) Managing Diversity in Academic Organisations: A Challenge to Organisational Culture. Women in Management Review, 22(4), 274288.
    Barrett, I.C., Cervero, R.M. and Johnson-Bailey, J. (2004) The Career Development of Black Human Resource Developers in the United States. Human Resource Development International, 7(1), 85100.
    Barrie, J. and Pace, R.W. (1998) Learning for Organisational Effectiveness: Philosophy of Education and Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(1), 3954.
    Barron, F. and Harrington, D.M. (1981) Creativity, Intelligence and Personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 439476.
    Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal, S. (1998) Managing across Borders: The Transnational Solution,
    edn. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Bartlett, C.A., Ghoshal, S. and Birkinshaw, J. (2004) Transnational Management: Text, Cases and Readings in Cross-border Management. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Bartlett, K.R., Lawler, J.J., Bae, J., Chen, S. and Wan, D. (2002) Differences in International Human Resource Development among Indigenous Firms and Multinational Affiliates in East and Southeast Asia. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(4), 383405.
    Baruch, Y. (2004) Managing Careers: Theory and Practice. Harlow: Pearson.
    Bass, B.M. (1985) Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.
    Bass, B.M. (1990) Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership,
    edn. New York: Free Press.
    Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (1994) Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership. London: Sage.
    Bass, B.M., Avolio, B.J. and Goodheim, L. (1987) Biography and the Assessment of Transformational Leadership at the World-class Level. Journal of Management, 13(1), 719.
    Bassi, L.J and Van Buren, M.E. (1999) The 1999 ASTD State of the Industry Report. Training and Development, 53(1), 2333.
    Bates, R. (2004) A Critical Analysis of Evaluation Practice: The Kirkpatrick Model and the Principle of Beneficence. Evaluation and Program Planning, 27(3), 341348.
    Baumard, P. (1999) Tacit Knowledge in Organisations. London: Sage.
    Bazerman, M.H. (1994) Judgment in Decision-making. New York: Wiley.
    Beattie, R.S. (2006) Line Managers and Workplace Learning: Learning from the Voluntary Sector. Human Resource Development International, 9(1), 99119.
    Beaver, G. and Hutchings, K. (2004) The Big Business of Strategic Human Resource Management in Small Business. In J. Stewart and G. Beaver (eds), HRD in Small Organizations: Research and Practice. London: Routledge.
    Bednar, A.K., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T.M. and Perry, J.D. (1991) Theory into Practice: How Do We Link? Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future. In G. Anglin (ed.), Instructional Technology. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
    Belis-Bergouignan, M.C., Bordenave, G. and Lung, Y. (2000) Global Strategies in the Automobile Industry. Regional Studies, 34(1), 4154.
    Benjamin, A. (1994) Affordable Restructured Education: A Solution through Information Technology. RSA Journal, (May), 4549.
    Berge, Z., de Verneil, M., Berge, N., Davis, L. and Smith, D. (2002) The Increasing Scope of Training and Development Competency. Benchmarking, 9(1), 4361.
    Bergenhenegouwen, G.J. (1990) The Management and Effectiveness of Corporate Training Programmes. British Journal of Educational Technology, 21(3), 196202.
    Berggren, C. (1996) Building a Truly Global Organisation? ABB and the Problems of Integrating a Multi-domestic Enterprise. Journal of Management, 12(2), 123137.
    Bernard, L.L. (1926) An Introduction to Social Psychology. New York: Holt.
    Beyer, L.E. (2001) The Value of Critical Perspectives in Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(2), 151163.
    Bhutta, K.S. and Huq, F. (1999) Benchmarking – Best Practices: An Integrated Approach. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 6(3), 254268.
    Bibby, P.A. and Payne, S.J. (1996) Instruction and Practice in Learning to Use a Device. Cognitive Science, 20(4), 539578.
    Bierema, L.L. (1997) Development of the Individual Leads to a More Productive Workplace. In R. Rowden (ed.), Workplace Learning: Debating Five Critical Questions of Theory and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Bierema, L.L. (2009) Critiquing Human Resource Development's Dominant Masculine Rationality and Evaluating its Impact. Human Resource Development Review, 8(1), 6896.
    Bierema, L.L. and Cseh, M. (2003) Evaluating AHRD Research Using a Feminist Research Framework. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14(1), 526.
    Bierema, L.L. and D'Abundo, M.L. (2004) HRD with a Conscience: Practising Socially Responsible HRD. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(5), 443458.
    Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for Quality Learning at University. London: Open University Press and Society for Research into Higher Education.
    Billet, S. (1999) Guided Learning at Work. In D. Boud and J. Garrick (eds), Understanding Learning at Work. London: Routledge.
    Bing, J.W., Kehrhahn, M.T. and Short, D.C. (2003) Challenges to the Field of Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(3), 342351.
    Blackler, F. (1995) Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organisations: An Overview and Interpretation. Organisation Studies, 16(6), 10211049.
    Blackman, D. and Henderson, S. (2005) Why Learning Organisations Do Not Transform. The Learning Organisation, 12(1), 4256.
    Blake, M.K. and Hanson, S. (2005) Rethinking Innovation: Context and Gender. Environment and Planning, 37(4), 681701.
    Blake, R.R. (1995) Memories of HRD. Training and Development, 49 (March), 2228.
    Blake, R.R. and McCanse, A.A. (1991) Leadership Dilemmas: Grid Solutions. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co.
    Blake, R.R. and Mouton, J.S. (1964) The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co.
    Blake-Scontrino, P. and Schafer, M. (2012) HRD Practitioners as Change Agents within the Sustainability Strategic Domain. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference in the Americas, Denver, Colorado, 29 February–3 March.
    Blankenship, S.S. and Ruona, W.E.A. (2009) Exploring Knowledge Sharing in Social Structures: Potential Contributions to an Overall Knowledge Management Strategy. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(3), 290306.
    Blanton, B.B. (1998) The Application of the Cognitive Learning Theory to Instructional Design. International Journal of Instructional Media, 25(2), 171177.
    Bligh, M.C., Pearce, C.L. and Kohles, J.C. (2006) The Importance of Self and Shared Leadership in Team Based Knowledge Work: A Meso Level Model of Leadership Dynamics. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(4), 296318.
    Bluckert, P. (2005) Critical Factors in Executive Coaching: The Coaching Relationship. Industrial and Commercial Training, 37(7), 336340.
    Blue Angel (2013) The Blue Angel: Active in Climate Protection.
    Boaden, R.J. (2006) Leadership Development: Does it Make a Difference? Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 27(1), 527.
    Boak, G. and Coolican, D. (2001) Competencies for Retail Leadership: Accurate, Acceptable, Affordable. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, 22(5), 212220.
    Boiral, O. (2009) Greening the Corporation through Organisational Citizenship Behaviours. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(2), 221236.
    Bokeno, R.M. (2003) Introduction: Appraisals of Organisational Learning as Emancipatory Change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(3), 603618.
    Boud, D. and Garrick, J. (1999) Understanding Learning at Work. London: Routledge.
    Boulaksil, Y. and Fransoo, J.C. (2010) Implications of Outsourcing on Operations Planning: Findings from the Pharmaceutical Industry. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 30(10), 10591079.
    Boyatzis, R.E. (1982) The Competent Manager: A Guide for Effective Management. New York: Wiley.
    Boyatzis, R.E. and Kolb, D.N. (1995) From Learning Styles to Learning Skills: The Executive Skills Profile. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(5), 2427.
    Bramley, P. (1996) Evaluating Training Effectiveness. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Bramming, P. (2004) The One and the Many: Contemplating Conceptions of Individual and Organisation in Relation to Human Resource Practices. Paper presented at Fifth European Conference on Human Resource Development Theory and Practice, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Brim, O.G. and Wheeler, S. (1966) Socialisation after Childhood: Two Essays. New York: Wiley.
    Brinkerhoff, R.O. (2003) The Success Case Method: Find Out Quickly What's Working and What's Not. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Brinkerhoff, R.O. (2006a) Increasing Impact of Training Investments: An Evaluation Strategy for Building Organisational Learning Capability. Industrial and Commercial Training, 38(6), 302307.
    Brinkerhoff, R.O. (2006b) Using Evaluation to Measure and Improve the Effectiveness of Human Performance Technology Initiatives. In J.A. Pershing (ed.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.
    Brinkerhoff, R. and Montesino, M. (1995) Partnerships for Transfer of Training: Lessons from a Corporate Study. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 6(3), 263274.
    Brookfield, S.D. (2003) The Concept of Critically Reflective Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Brosnan, K. and Burgess, R.C. (2003) Web-based Continuing Professional Development: A Learning Architecture Approach. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(1), 2433.
    Brown, J.S. and Duguid, P. (2001) Knowledge and Organization: A Social-practice Perspective. Organization Science, 12(2), 198213.
    Brown, T.C. and McCracken, M. (2004) The Relationship between Managerial Barriers to Learning and Transfer of Training: Preliminary Results. Paper presented at Fifth European Conference on Human Resource Development Theory and Practice, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Brown, T.C. and Morrissey L. (2004) The Effectiveness of Verbal Self-guidance as a Transfer of Training. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 41(3), 255271.
    Browne, I. and Misra, J. (2003) The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Labor Market. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 487513.
    Bruce, R.W. (1933) Conditions of Transfer of Training. Journal of Experiential Psychology, 6, 343361.
    Bryans, P. and Smith, R. (2000) Beyond Training: Reconceptualising Learning at Work. Journal of Workplace Learning, 12(6), 228235.
    Burkitt, I. (1991) Social Selves: Theories of the Social Formation of Personality. London: Sage.
    Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
    Burrow, J. and Berardinelli, P. (2003) Systematic Performance Improvement: Refining the Space Between Learning and Results. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(1), 614.
    Business in the Community (2009) 2009 Benchmarking Report: Transparency at the Heart of Diversity. London: Business in the Community.
    Cabrera, E.F. (2009) Protean Organizations: Reshaping Work and Careers to Retain Female Talent. Career Development International, 14(2), 186201.
    Callahan, J.L. (2007) Gazing into the Crystal Ball: Critical HRD as a Future of Research in the Field. Human Resource Development International, 10(1), 7782.
    Callahan, J. and Dunne de Davila, T. (2004) An Impressionistic Framework for Theorizing Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Review, 3(1), 7595.
    Campbell, C.P. (1994) A Primer on Determining the Cost Effectiveness of Training – Part 1. Industrial and Commercial Training, 26(11), 3238.
    Campbell, C.P. (1998) Training Course/Program Evaluation: Principles and Practice. Journal of European Industrial Training, 22(8), 323344.
    Cappelli, P. and Singh, H. (1992) Integrating Strategic Human Resources and Strategic Management. In D. Lewin, O. Mitchell and P. Shewer (eds), Research Frontiers in Industrial Relations and Human Resources. Madison: Industrial Relations Association, University of Wisconsin.
    Carbon Trust (2013) Carbon Footprint Labels from the Carbon Trust.
    Cardona, P. (2000) Transcendental Leadership. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, 21(4), 201207.
    Carroll, A.B. (1979) A Three-dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497505.
    Carroll, A.B. (1999) Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of a Definitional Construct. Business and Society, 38(3), 268296.
    Carter, S.D. (2002) Matching Training Methods and Factors of Cognitive Ability: A Means to Improve Training Outcomes. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(1), 7187.
    Cavanagh, J.M. (2004) Head Games: Introducing Tomorrow's Business Elites to Institutionalised Inequality. In C. Grey and E. Antonacopoulou (eds), Essential Readings in Management Learning. London: Sage.
    Chakravarthy, B.S. (1985) Measuring Strategic Performance. Strategic Management Journal, 7(5), 437457.
    Chalofsky, N. (1992) A Unifying Definition for the Human Resource Development Profession. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 3(2), 175182.
    Chalofsky, N. (2004) Human and Organization Studies: The Discipline of HRD. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Austin, Texas.
    Chalofsky, N. and Lincoln, C. (1983) Up the HRD Ladder. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Chan, T.Y. and Wong, C.W.Y. (2012) The Consumption Side of Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain: Understanding Fashion Consumer Eco-fashion Consumption Decision. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 16(2), 193215.
    Chang, E. and Taylor, M.S. (1999) Control in Multinational Corporations (MNCs): The Case of Korean Manufacturing Subsidiaries. Journal of Management, 25(4), 541553.
    Chang, L.C. (2007) The NHS Performance Assessment Framework as a Balanced Scorecard Approach: Limitations and Implications. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 20(2), 101117.
    Chen, C. (1998) Understanding Career Development: A Convergence of Perspectives. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 50(3), 437461.
    Cheng, E.W.L. and Ho, D.C.K. (2001) A Review of Transfer of Training Studies in the Past Decade. Personnel Review, 30(1), 102118.
    Chermack, T.J. and Lynham, S.A. (2002) Definitions and Outcome Variables of Scenario Planning. Human Resource Development Review, 1(1), 366383.
    Childs, M. (2005) Beyond Training: New Firefighters and Critical Reflection. Disaster Prevention and Management, 14(4), 558566.
    Chimombo, M.P. and Roseberry, R.L. (1998) The Power of Discourse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cho, D.Y. and Kwon, D.B. (2005) Self-directed Learning Readiness as an Antecedent of Organisational Commitment: A Korean Study. International Journal of Training and Development, 9(2), 140152.
    Cho, E. and McLean, G.N. (2004) What We Discovered about NHRD and What it Means for HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(3), 382391.
    Choo, C.W. (1996) The Knowing Organisation: How Organisations Can Use Information to Construct Meaning, Create Knowledge and Make Decisions. International Journal of Information Management, 16(5), 329340.
    Choy, W.K.W. (2007) Globalisation and Workforce Diversity: HRM Implications for Multinational Corporations in Singapore. Singapore Management Review, 29(2), 120.
    CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) (2007a) The Changing HR Function: Survey Report. London: CIPD.
    CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) (2007b) The Value of Learning: A New Model of Value and Evaluation. London: CIPD.
    CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) (2008a) Annual Survey Report: Learning and Development. London: CIPD.
    CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) (2008b) The Environment and People Management. London: CIPD.
    CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) (2013a) Evaluating Learning and Talent Development.
    CIPD (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) (2013b) CIPD ‘RAM’ Approach to Evaluation.
    Clark, C.S., Dobbins, G.H. and Ladd, R.T. (1993) Exploratory Field Study of Training Motivation: Influence of Involvement, Credibility and Transfer Climate. Group and Organisation Management, 18(3), 292307.
    Clark, R.E., Blake, S.B., Tennyson, R.D., Schott, F., Seel, N. and Dijkstra, S. (1997) Designing Training for Novel Problem Solving Transfer. In R.D. Tennyson, F. Schott, N. Seel and S. Dijkstra (eds), Instructional Design: International Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Clarke, N. (2005) Workplace Learning Environment and Its Relationship with Learning Outcomes in Healthcare Organisations. Human Resource Development International, 8(2), 185206.
    Clutterbuck, D. (2004) Everybody Needs a Mentor,
    edn. London: CIPD.
    Clutterbuck, D. (2008) What's Happening in Coaching and Mentoring? And What is the Difference between Them. Development and Learning in Organizations, 22(4), 810.
    Coad, F.C. and Berry, A.J. (1998) Transformational Leadership and Learning Organization. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 19(3), 164172.
    Coakes, E. (2006) Storing and Sharing Knowledge: Supporting the Management of Knowledge Made Explicit in Transnational Organisations. The Learning Organisation, 13(6), 579593.
    Cohen, E. and Tichy, N. (1997) How Leaders Develop Leaders. Training and Development, 51(5), 5873.
    Colgan, F., Creegan, C., McKearney, A. and Wright, T. (2007) Equality and Diversity Policies and Practices at Work: Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Workers. Equal Opportunities International, 26(6), 590609.
    Collings, D.G. (2003) HRD and Labour Market Practices in a US Multinational Subsidiary: The Impact of Global and Local Influences. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(2/3/4), 188200.
    Collins, D. (2002) Performance-level Evaluation Methods Used in Management Development Studies from 1986 to 2000. Human Resource Development Review, 1(1), 91110.
    Communications, B. (2001) How Frequently Will You Use These Training Delivery Methods This Year? Training, 38(1), 118.
    Competitiveness (1996) Creating the Enterprise Centre of Europe. London: DTI Publications.
    Conley, C.A. and Zheng, W. (2009) Factors Critical to Knowledge Management Success. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(3), 290306.
    Conlon, T.J. (2004) A Review of Informal Learning Literature: Theory and Implications for Practice in Developing Global Professional Competence. Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(2/3/4), 283295.
    Connelly, B., Hitt, M.A., DeNisi, A.S. and Ireland, R.D. (2007) Expatriates and Corporate-level International Strategy: Governing with the Knowledge Contract. Management Decision, 45(3), 564581.
    Cooke, W. and Noble, D. (1998) Industrial Relations Systems and U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Abroad. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 36(4), 581598.
    Cooley, C.H. (1909) Social Organisation: A Study of the Larger Mind. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
    Cooley, C.H. (1922) Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
    Cooper, L., Orrell, J. and Bowden, M. (2010) Work Integrated Learning: A Guide to Effective Practice. London: Routledge.
    Coren, S. (2003) Sensation and Perception. In D.K. Freedheim, W.F. Velicer, J.A. Schinka and R.M. Lerner (eds), Handbook of Psychology (Vol. 1, History of Psychology). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
    Costa, P.T. and McCrae, R.R. (1992) Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Cox, T.H. and Blake, S. (1991) Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organisational Competitiveness. Academy of Management Executive, 5(3), 4557.
    Craddock, M. (2004) The Authentic Career: Following the Path of Self-discovery to Professional Fulfillment. Novato, CA: New World Library.
    Cradle-to-Cradle Products Innovation Institute (2013) Cradle to Cradle Certification.
    Craig, R. (1976) Training and Development Handbook,
    edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Cseh, M., Watkins, K. and Marsick, V. (1999) Reconceptualising Marsick and Watkins Model of Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988) Society, Culture and Person: A Systems View of Creativity. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.), The Nature of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996) Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. New York: HarperCollins.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999) Implications of a System Perspective for the Study of Creativity. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.), Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G. (2001) Essentials of Organisational Development and Change. New York: South Western College Publishing.
    Cunningham, I. and Hyman, J. (1995) Transforming the HR Vision into Reality: The Role of Line Managers and Supervisors in Implementing Change. Employee Relations, 17(8), 520.
    D'Abate, C.P., Eddy, E.R. and Tannenbaum, S.I. (2003) What's in a Name: A Literature-based Approach to Understanding Mentoring, Coaching and Other Constructs that Describe Developmental Interactions. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4), 360385.
    Daniels, K., De Chernatony, L. and Johnson, G. (1995) Validating a Method of Mapping Managers’ Mental Models of Competitive Industry Structures. Human Relations, 48(8), 975991.
    Davenport, T. and Prusak, L. (1998) Working Knowledge: How Organisations Manage What They Know. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Davies, A.J. and Kochhar, A.K. (2002) Manufacturing Best Practice and Performance Studies: A Critique. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 22(3), 289305.
    Day, S.X. and Rounds, J. (1998) Universality of Vocational Interest Structure among Racial and Ethnic Minorities. American Psychologist, 53(7), 728736.
    DeBusk, G.K., Brown, R.M. and Killough, L.N. (2003) Components and Relative Weights in Utilisation of Dashboard Measurement Systems like the Balanced Scorecard. British Accounting Review, 35(3), 215231.
    Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1985) Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum.
    De Dreu, C.K.W. and West, M.A. (2001) Minority Dissent and Team Innovation: The Importance of Participation in Decision Making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 11911201.
    Dehler, G.E., Welsh, A. and Lewis, M.W. (2001) Critical Pedagogy in the ‘New Paradigm’. Management Learning, 32(4), 493511.
    Delpachitra, S. and Beal, D. (2002) Process Benchmarking: An Application to Lending Products. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 9(4), 409420.
    Demarest, M. (1997) Understanding Knowledge Management. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 374384.
    Densten, I.L. and Gray, J.H. (2001) Leadership Development and Reflection: What is the Connection. International Journal of Educational Management, 15(3), 119124.
    De Pablos, P.O. (2004) Knowledge Flow Transfers in Multinational Corporations: Knowledge Properties and Implications for Management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6), 105116.
    Dewey, J. (1916) Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. New York: Free Press.
    Dewey, J. (1933) How We Think. Boston, MA: Heath.
    Dick, P. and Cassell, C. (2002) Barriers to Managing Diversity in the UK Constabulary: The Role of Discourse. Journal of Management Studies, 39(7), 953976.
    Dick, W., Carey, L. and Carey, J.O. (2001) The Systematic Design of Instruction. New York: Addison-Wesley.
    Dilworth, L. (2003) Searching for the Future of HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(3), 241244.
    Dionne, P. (1996) The Evaluation of Training Activities: A Complex Issues Involving Different Stakes. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 7(3), 279299.
    Dixon, N.M. (1999) The Organisational Learning Cycle: How Can We Learn Collectively,
    edn. Aldershot: Gower.
    Doh, J. (2003) Can Leadership be Taught? Perspectives from Management Educators. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2(1), 5467.
    Donelan, H., Herman, C., Kear, K. and Kirkup, G. (2009) Patterns of Online Networking for Women's Career Development. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(2), 92111.
    Donnellon, A. (1986) Language and Communication within Organisations: Building Cognition and Behaviour. In H.P. Sims and D.A. Gioia (eds), The Thinking Organisation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Donovan, L.L. and Marsick, V.J. (2000) Trends in Literature: A Comparative Analysis of 1998 HRD Research. Paper presented at the Annual Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD), Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    Doran, M. (2005) HRD and Business Ethics.
    Dougherty, D. and Hardy, C. (1996) Sustained Product Innovation in Large, Mature Organizations: Overcoming Innovation-to-Organization Problems. Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 11201153.
    Douglas, M. (1986) How Institutions Think. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
    Dulewicz, V. and Higgs, M. (2004) Can Emotional Intelligence be Developed? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), 95111.
    Duncan, S.J. (1972) Some Signals and Rules for Taking Speaking Turns in Conversation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23(2), 283292.
    Duncan, W.J. (1984) Planning and Evaluating Management Education and Development: Why So Little Attention to Such Basic Concerns? Journal of Management Development, 2(4), 5768.
    Dunning, J.H. (1993) The Globalisation of Business. London: Routledge.
    Durkheim, E. (1954) The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Chicago: The Free Press.
    Dye, R.W. (2003) Keeping Score. CMA Management, (December/January), 1823.
    Easterby-Smith, M. (1986) Evaluation of Management Education, Training and Development. Aldershot: Gower.
    Edmondson, A. and Moingeon, B. (1996) When to Learn How and When to Learn Why: Appropriate Organizational Learning Processes as a Source of Competitive Advantage. In B. Moingeon and A. Edmondson (eds), Organizational Learning and Competitive Advantage. London: Sage.
    Edvinsson, L. (1997) Measuring Intellectual Capital at Skandia. Long Range Planning, 30(3), 266273.
    Edvinsson, L. and Malone, M.S. (1997) Intellectual Capital: Realizing Your Company's True Value by Finding its Hidden Brainpower. New York: Harper Business.
    Edwards, T. and Ferner, A. (2002) The Renewed American Challenge: A Review of Employment Practices in US Multinationals. Industrial Relations Journal, 33(2), 94111.
    Egan, T.M. (2005) Factors Influencing Individual Creativity in the Workplace: An Examination of Quantitative Empirical Research. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 160182.
    Ehigie, B.O. and Akpan, R.C. (2004) Roles of Perceived Leadership Styles and Rewards in the Practice of Total Quality Management. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 25(1), 2441.
    Ehrich, L.C. (2008) Mentoring and Women Managers: Another Look at the Field. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23(7), 469483.
    Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P. and Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990) Perceived Organisational Support and Employee Diligence, Commitment and Innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 5159.
    Elangovan, A.R. and Karakowsky, L. (1999) The Role of Trainee and Environmental Factors in Transfer of Training: An Exploratory Framework. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 20(5), 268275.
    Ellinger, A.D., Ellinger, A.E., Yang, B. and Howton, S.W. (2002) The Relationship between the Learning Organization Concept and Firms’ Financial Performance: An Empirical Assessment. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(1), 2329.
    Elliot, R. (1996) Discourse Analysis: Exploring Action, Function and Conflict in Social Texts. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 14(6), 1226.
    Elliott, C. (2003) Representations of the Intellectual: Insights from Gramsci on Management Education. Management Learning, 34(4), 411427.
    Elsbach, K.D. and Kramer, R.M. (2003) Assessing Creativity in Hollywood Pitch Meetings: Evidence for a Dual-process Model of Creativity Judgments. Academy of Management Journal, 46(3), 283301.
    Engle, A.D., Mendenhall, M.D., Powers, R.L. and Stedham, Y. (2001) Conceptualising the Global Competency Cube: A Transnational Model of Human Resources. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(7), 346353.
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2010) Pollution Prevention (P2).
    Eraut, M. (2004) Transfer of Knowledge between Education and Workplace Settings. In H. Rainbird, A. Fuller and A. Munro (eds), Workplace Learning in Context. London: Routledge.
    Eraut, M., Alderton, J., Cole, G. and Senker, P. (1998) Development of Knowledge and Skills in Employment. Final report of a research project funded by ‘The Learning Society’ Programme of the Economic and Social Research Council. Institute of Education, University of Essex.
    Etherington, K. (2004) Becoming a Reflective Researcher. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Evarts, T.M. (1998) Human Resource Development as a Maturing Field of Study. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(4), 385391.
    Faifua, D. (2008) Democratic Reason and Practice: Repositioning Community Aspirations. Journal of Organisational Change Management, 21(4), 511518.
    Farmer, S.M., Tierney, P. and McIntyre, K.K. (2003) Employee Creativity in Taiwan: An Application of Role Identity Theory. Academy of Management Journal, 46(5), 618630.
    Feldman, D.C. and Bolino, M.C. (1996) Careers within Careers: Reconceptualizing the Nature of Career Anchors and Their Consequences. Human Resource Management Review, 6(2), 89112.
    Feldman, D.H. (1999) The Development of Creativity. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.), Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Fenwick, T.J. (2003) Professional Growth Plans: Possibilities and Limitations of an Organizationwide Employee Development Strategy. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14(1), 5979.
    Fenwick, T. (2004) Towards a Critical HRD in Theory and Practice. Adult Education Quarterly, 54(3), 193209.
    Fenwick, T. (2007) Rethinking Processes of Adult Learning. In Understanding Adult Education and Training,
    edn. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
    Fenwick, T. and Bierema, L.L. (2008) Corporate Social Responsibility: Issues for Human Resource Development Professionals. International Journal of Training and Development, 12(1), 2435.
    Ferraro, G.P. (1990) The Cultural Dimension of International Business. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1964) A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1967) A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1971) Validation and Extension of the Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: A Review of Empirical Findings. Psychological Bulletin, 76(2), 128148.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1996) Research on Leadership Selection and Training: One View of the Future. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(2), 241250.
    Financial Express (2010) What Apple Says about Innovation. Financial Express, 22 April.
    Fiol, M.C. and Lyles, M.A. (1985) Organisational Learning. Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 803813.
    Fisher, J. (2012) Barnardo's Gains £700,000 from Argos Toy Exchange. Retail Gazette.
    Flatters, P. and Wilmott, M. (2009) Understanding the Post-recession Consumer. Harvard Business Review, 87(7/8), 106112.
    Fleishman, E.A., Harris, E.F. and Burtt, H.E. (1955) Leadership and Supervision in Industry. Columbus, OH: Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State University.
    Foote, M.F. and Ruona, W.E.A. (2008) Institutionalizing Ethics: A Synthesis of Frameworks and the Implications for HRD. Human Resource Development Review, 7(3), 292308.
    Forbes, B.J. and Domm, D.R. (2004) Creativity and Productivity: Resolving the Conflict. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 69(2), 411.
    Forster, N. (2000) Expatriates and the Impact of Cross-cultural Training. Human Resource Management Journal, 10(3), 6378.
    Fournier, V. and Grey, C. (2000) At the Critical Moment: Conditions and Prospects for Critical Management Studies. Human Relations, 53(1), 732.
    Fraser, N. (1994) Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy. In P. McLaren (ed.), Between Borders: Pedagogy and the Politics of Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge.
    Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury.
    Friedman, T. (2005) The World is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Friedman, T.L. (2006) The World is Flat: The Globalized World in the Twenty-first Century. London: Penguin.
    Friedman, T.L. (2008) Hot, Flat and Crowded: Why the World Needs a Green Revolution – and How We Can Renew Our Global Future,
    edn. London: Penguin.
    Froiland, P. (1993) Industry Report. Training, (October), 4959.
    Fujitsu (2013) In-house Educational and Enlightenment Activities.
    Fulmer, R.M., Stumpf, S.A. and Bleak, J. (2009) The Strategic Development of High Potential Leaders. Strategy and Leadership, 37(3), 1722.
    Gagne, M. (2009) A Model of Knowledge-sharing Motivation. Human Resource Management, 48(4), 571589.
    Galagan, P. (1986) HRD is... Training and Development Journal, 40(3), 4.
    Galpin, T. and Whittington, J.L. (2012) Sustainability Leadership: From Strategy to Results. Journal of Business Strategy, 33(4), 4048.
    Gammelgaard, J. and Ritter, T. (2005) The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix: Codification and Personification as Separate Strategies. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(4), 133143.
    Gandz, J. (2006) Talent Development: The Architecture of a Talent Pipeline that Works. Ivey Business Journal Online (January/February), 14.
    Garabaldi de Hilal, A.V. (2006) Brazilian National Culture, Organizational Culture and Cultural Agreement: Findings from a Multinational Company. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 6(2), 139168.
    Garavan, T.N. (1991) Strategic Human Resource Development. Journal of European Industrial Training, 15(1), 2134.
    Garavan, T.N. (1997) The Learning Organisation: A Review and Evaluation. The Learning Organisation, 4(1), 116.
    Garavan, T.N. (2007) A Strategic Perspective on HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(1), 1130.
    Garavan, T.N. and McCarthy, A. (2008) Collective Learning Processes and Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(4), 451472.
    Garavan, T.N. and McGuire D. (2001) Competencies and Workplace Learning: Some Reflections on the Rhetoric and the Reality. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(4), 144164.
    Garavan, T.N., Carbery, R. and Rock, A. (2012) Mapping Talent Development: Definition, Scope and Architecture. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(1), 524.
    Garavan, T.N., Heraty, N., Rock, A. and Dalton, E. (2010) Conceptualising the Behavioural Barriers to CSR and CR in Organisations: A Typology of HRD Interventions. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(5), 587613.
    Garavan, T.N., McGuire, D. and O'Donnell, D. (2004) Exploring Human Resource Development: A Level of Analysis Approach. Human Resource Development Review, 3(4), 417441.
    Garavan, T.N., O'Donnell, D., McGuire, D. and Watson, S. (2007) Exploring Perspectives on Human Resource Development: An Introduction. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(1), 311.
    Garcia-Morales, V.J., Matias-Reche, F. and Hurtado-Torres, N. (2008) Influence of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Innovation and Performance Depending on the Level of Organizational Learning in the Pharmaceutical Sector. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(2), 188212.
    Gardner, H. (1993) Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen through the Livers of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham and Gandhi. New York: Basic Books.
    Garrick, J. (1998) Informal Learning in the Workplace. London: Routledge.
    Garvey, B. (2004) The Mentoring/Counseling/Coaching Debate: Call a Rose by any Other Name and Perhaps it's a Bramble? Development and Learning in Organizations, 18(2), 68.
    Garvey, B. (2013) Mentoring in a Coaching World. In E. Cox, T. Bachkirova and D. Clutterbuck (eds), The Complete Handbook of Coaching. London: Sage.
    Garvey, B. and Williamson, B. (2002) Beyond Knowledge Management: Dialogue, Creativity and the Corporate Curriculum. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
    Gedro, J.A. (2010) Lesbian Presentations and Representations of Leadership, and the Implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(6), 552564.
    Gedro, J.A., Cervero, R.M. and Johnson-Bailey, J. (2004) How Lesbians Learn to Negotiate the Heterosexism of Corporate America. Human Resource Development International, 7(2), 181195.
    Georgenson, D.L. (1982) The Problem of Transfer Calls for Partnership. Training and Development Journal, 36(10), 7578.
    Gergen, K. (1985) The Social Constructionist Movement in Modern Psychology. American Psychology, 40(3), 266275.
    Gerstman, R.L (1998) Multiple Career Identities: The Key to Career Development and Career Transitions of Second Advanced Degree Seekers. Dissertation presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin.
    Ghoshal, S. and Nohria, N. (1993) Horses for Courses: Organizational Forms for Multinational Corporations. Sloan Management Review, 34, 2335.
    Gibb, S. (2008) Human Resource Development. Process, Practices and Perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Gibelman, M. (2000) The Nonprofit Sector and Gender Discrimination. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 10(3), 251269.
    Gibson, E.J. (1941) Retroactive Inhibition as a Function of the Degree of Generalisation and Differentiation to Verbal Learning. Psychology Review, 28, 93115.
    Gibson, R. (1986) Critical Theory and Education. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Gibson, S.K. (2004) Social Learning (Cognitive) Theory and its Implications for Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(2), 193210.
    Gilgeous, V. and Parveen, K. (2001) Core Competency Requirements for Manufacturing Effectiveness. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 12(3), 217227.
    Gill, A., Fitzgerald, S.P., Bhutani, S., Mand, H.S. and Sharma, S.P. (2010) The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Employee-desire for Empowerment. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(2), 119.
    Gillespie, N.A. and Mann, L. (2004) Transformational Leadership and Shared Values: The Building Blocks of Trust. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6), 588607.
    Gilley, J. and Eggland, S. (1989) Principles of Human Resource Development. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Ginzburg, S. and Dar-El, E.M. (2000) Skill Retention and Relearning: A Proposed Cyclical Model. Journal of Workplace Learning, 12(8), 327332.
    Giroux, H.A. (1997) Pedagogy and the Politics of Hope: Theory, Culture and Schooling. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Githens, R.P. (2007) Critical Action Research in Human Resource Development. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Indianapolis, IN, 28 February–4 March.
    Godshalk, V.M. and Sosik, J.J. (2003) Aiming for Career Success: The Role of Learning Goal Orientation in Mentoring Relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 417437.
    Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2008) Bright Sparks. People Management, 14(3), 2831.
    Goh, S.C. (1998) Toward a Learning Organization: The Strategic Building Blocks. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 63(2), 1522.
    Gold, J. and Smith, V. (2003) Advances Towards a Learning Movement: Translations at Work. Human Resource Development International, 6(2), 139154.
    Gold, J., Holden, R., Iles, P., Stewart, J. and Beardwell, J. (2010) Human Resource Development: Theory and Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Goldberg, L.R. (1990) An Alternative Description of Personality: The Big-Five Factor Structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 12161229.
    Goleman, D. (1995) Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
    Goleman, D. (1998) Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.
    Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2004) Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
    Good, T.L. and Brophy, J.E. (1990) Educational Psychology: A Realistic Approach. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Gore, A. (2006) An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. London: Bloomsbury.
    Gourlay, S. (2000) Knowledge Management and HRD. Paper presented at the First Conference on HRD Research and Practice across Europe, Kingston upon Thames, UK, 15 January 2000.
    Granovetter, M.S. (1973) The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 13601380.
    Grant, A.M. (2007) Enhancing Coaching Skills and Emotional Intelligence through Training. Industrial and Commercial Training, 39(5), 257266.
    Grant, J. (2007) The Green Marketing Manifesto. Chichester: Wiley.
    Greenhaus, J., Callanan, G. and DiRenzo, M. (2008) A Boundaryless Perspective on Careers. In J. Barling and C. Cooper (eds), Sage Handbook of Organisational Behaviour. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Greenhaus, J.H., Callanan, G.A. and Godshalk, V.M. (2010) Career Management,
    edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Grey, C. and Mitev, N. (1995) Management Education: A Polemic. Management Learning, 26(1), 7390.
    Grieves, J. (2003) Strategic Human Resource Development. London: Sage.
    Grieves, J. and Redman, T. (1999) Living in the Shadow of OD: HRD and the Search for Identity. Human Resource Development International, 2(2), 81102.
    Griffiths, D.A. and Koukpaki, S. (2012) Societal HRD and Societal Competitive Advantage. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 14(3), 318332.
    Grimes, D. (2001) Putting Your Own House in Order: Whiteness, Change and Organization Studies. Journal of Organisational Change Management, 14(2), 132150.
    Groves, K.S. (2007) Integrating Leadership Development and Succession Planning Best Practices. Journal of Management Development, 26(3), 239260.
    Groves, K.S., McEnrue, M.P. and Shen, W. (2008) Developing and Measuring the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders. Journal of Management Development, 27(2), 225250.
    Guest, D. (1987) Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations. Journal of Management Studies, 24(5), 503521.
    Gunnarsson, B.L. (1997) The Construction of Professional Discourse. New York: Longman.
    Gunnarsson, B.L., Linell, P. and Nordberg, B. (1997) The Construction of Professional Discourse. New York: Longman.
    Gunnigle, P. and McGuire, D. (2001) Why Ireland?: A Qualitative Review of the Factors Influencing the Location of US Multinationals in Ireland with Particular Reference to the Impact of Labour Issues. Economic and Social Review, 32(1), 4367.
    Habermas, J. (1987) The Theory of Communicative Action, Volume 2, Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Habermas, J. (2001) On the Pragmatics of Social Interaction: Preliminary Studies in the Theory of Communicative Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Haddock, J., Jeffrey, J., Miles, D., Muller-Carmen, M. and Hartog, M. (2010) Green HRD: The Potential Contribution of HRD Concepts and Theories to Environmental Management. Paper presented at the 11th UFHRD Conference on HRD Theory and Practice across Europe, Pecs, Hungary, 2–4 June.
    Hafeez, K. and Essmail, E.A. (2007) Evaluating Organisation Core Competences and Associated Personal Competencies Using Analytical Hierarchy Process. Management Research News, 30(8), 530547.
    Håkanson, J. (1990) International Decentralization of R&D – The Organizational Challenges. In C.A. Bartlett, Y. Doz and G. Hedlund (eds), Managing the Global Firm. London: Routledge.
    Hales, C. (2005) Rooted in Supervision, Branching into Management: Continuity and Change in the Role of First-line Manager. Journal of Management Studies, 42(3), 471506.
    Hall, D.T. (1975) Pressures from Work, Self and Home in the Life Stages of Married Women. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 6(1), 121132.
    Hall, D.T. (2002) Careers in and out of Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hall, D. and Mirvis, P. (1995) The New Career Contract: Developing the Whole Person at Midlife and Beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47(3), 269289.
    Hamblin, A.C. (1974) Evaluation and Control of Training. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C. (1994) Competing for the Future. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Hamlin, B. (2002) Towards Evidence-based HRD Practice. In J. McGoldrick, J. Stewart and S. Watson (eds), Understanding Human Resource Development: A Research Based Approach. London: Routledge.
    Handy, C. (1994) The Empty Raincoat: Making Sense of the Future. London: Hutchinson.
    Harbison, F. and Myers, C.A. (1964) Education, Manpower and Economic Growth. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Harris, L., Doughty, D. and Kirk, S. (2002) The Devolution of HR Responsibilities – Perspectives from the UK's Public Sector. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(5), 218229.
    Harrison, R. (2000) Learning, Knowledge, Productivity and Strategic Progress. International Journal of Training and Development, 4(4), 244258.
    Harrison, R. (2002) Learning and Development. London: CIPD.
    Harrison, R. and Kessels, J. (2004) Human Resource Development in a Knowledge Society: An Organisation View. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Hassan, A. (2007) Human Resource Development and Organizational Values. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(6), 435448.
    Hatcher, T.G. (2002) Ethics in HRD. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
    Hatcher, T.G. (2003) Worldviews that Inhibit HRD's Social Responsibility. In M. Lee (ed.), HRD in a Complex World. London: Routledge.
    Hatcher, T.G. (2006) An Editor's Challenge to Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17(1), 14.
    Hawkins, P. (1991) The Spiritual Dimension of the Learning Organisation. Management Education and Development, 22(3), 166181.
    Hayes, J. and Allinson, C.W. (1996) The Implications of Learning Styles for Training and Development: A Discussion of the Matching Hypothesis. British Journal of Management, 7(1), 6373.
    Hays, R.D. (1974) Expatriate Selection: Insuring Success and Avoiding Failure. Journal of International Business Studies, 5(1), 2537.
    Hedberg, B. (1981) How Organisations Learn and Unlearn? In P.C. Nystrom and W.H. Starbuck (eds), Handbook of Organisational Design. London: Oxford University Press.
    Henderson, J. (2001) Transformative Learning in the Executive Suite: CEOs and the Role of Context in Mezirow's Theory. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.
    Hennart, J.F. and Larimo, J. (1998) The Impact of Culture on the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises: Does National Origin Affect Ownership Decisions? Journal of International Business Studies, 29(3), 515538.
    Henriques, D.B. (1991) Piercing Wall Street's Lucite Ceiling. New York Times, 11 August.
    Heraty, N. (2004) Towards an Architecture of Organisation-led Learning. Human Resource Management Review, 14(4), 449472.
    Heraty, N. and Morley, M. (2008) Dimensioning the Architecture of Organization-led Learning: A Framework for Collective Practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(4), 451472.
    Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K.H. (1969) Life Cycle Theory of Leadership. Training and Development Journal, 23(2), 2634.
    Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K.H. (1988) Management of Organizational Behaviour: Utilizing Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Higgins, M.C. (2000) The More the Merrier? Multiple Developmental Relationships and Work Satisfaction. Journal of Management Development, 19(4), 277296.
    Hill, J. and McGowan, P. (1999) Small Business and Enterprise Development: Questions about Research Methodology. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 5(1), 518.
    Hill, R.C. and Levenhagen, M. (1995) Metaphors and Mental Models: Sensemaking and Sensegiving in Innovative and Entrepreneurial Activities. Journal of Management, 21(6), 10571074.
    Hillman, D.C., Willis, D.J. and Gunawardena, C.N. (1994) Learner Interface Interaction in Distance Education: An Extension of Contemporary Models and Strategies for Practitioners. American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 3042.
    Hilton, B. and McLean, G.N. (1997) The Status of Human Resource Development in French Companies Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development 1997 Conference Proceedings, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    Hinton, M., Francis, G. and Holloway, J. (2000) Best Practice Benchmarking in the UK. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 7(1), 5261.
    Hirsh, W. and Jackson, C. (2004) Managing Careers in Large Organisations. London: The Work Foundation.
    Hite, L.M. (1996) Black Women Managers and Administrators: Experiences and Implications. Women in Management Review, 11(6), 1117.
    Hite, L.M. (2007) Hispanic Women Managers and Professionals: Reflections on Life and Work. Gender, Work and Organisation, 14(1), 2038.
    Hite, L.M. and McDonald, K.S. (2006) Diversity Training Pitfalls and Possibilities: An Exploration of Small and Mid-size US Organisations. Human Resource Development International, 9(1), 365377.
    Ho, H.P.Y. and Choi, T.M. (2012) A Five-R Analysis for Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain Management in Hong Kong: A Case Analysis. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 16(2), 161175.
    Hodgkinson, M. (2002) A Shared Strategic Vision: Dream or Reality? The Learning Organisation, 9(2), 8995.
    Hogan, R. and Blake, R. (1999) John Holland's Vocational Typology and Personality Theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55(1), 4156.
    Holbeche, L. (2008) Performance Management. In CIPD (ed.), CIPD Recipe for Success. London: CIPD.
    Holladay, C.L. and Quinones, M.A. (2008) The Influence of Training Focus and Trainer Characteristics on Diversity Training Effectiveness. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(3), 343354.
    Holland, J.L. (1966) The Psychology of Vocational Choice. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell.
    Holland, J.L. (1985) Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Holland, J.L. (1997) Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments,
    edn. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Holman, D. (2000) Contemporary Models of Management Education in the UK. Management Learning, 31(2), 197217.
    Holman, D., Pavlica, K. and Thorpe, R. (1997) Rethinking Kolb's Theory of Experiential Learning in Management Education: The Contribution of Social Constructionism and Activity Theory. Management Learning, 28(2), 135148.
    Holmes, L. (2004) Challenging the Learning Turn in Education and Training. Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(8/9), 625638.
    Holton, E.F. (1996) The Flawed Four-level Evaluation Model. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 7(1), 521.
    Holton, E.F. (2002) Theoretical Assumptions Underlying the Performance Paradigm of Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development International, 5(2), 199215.
    Holton, E.F. and Bates, R.A. (2000) Development of a Learning Transfer System Inventory. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11(4), 333360.
    Holton, V., Voller, S., Schofield, C. and Devine, M. (2010) Improving Learning Transfer: A Pilot Study with Three Ashridge Client Organisations. Ashridge, Herts: Ashridge Business School.
    Honey, P. (1998) The Debate Starts Here. People Management, (October), 2829.
    Horkheimer, M. (1972) Critical Theory. New York: Herder & Herder.
    Horkheimer, M. and Adorno, T. (1979) The Dialectic of Enlightenment. London: Verso.
    Horwitz, F.M., Bowmaker-Falconer, A. and Searll, P. (1996) Human Resource Development and Managing Diversity in South Africa. International Journal of Manpower, 4/5, 134151.
    House, R.J. (1971) A Path-goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 321338.
    House, R.J. (1977) Theory of Charismatic Leadership. In J.G. Hunts and L.L. Larson (eds), Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
    House, R.J. (1996) Path-goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323352.
    House, R.J. and Mitchell, T.R. (1974) Path-goal Theory of Leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3, 8197.
    Houseman, K. (2007) The Effects of Mandated Standardized Testing on Teachers’ Perceptions on the Formation and Development of Professional Learning Communities in the Schools of the Rock Valley Conference. Proquest: UMI Dissertation Publishing.
    Howard, A. (2012) The Thinking Organisation. Journal of Management Development, 31(6), 620632.
    Howe, M.J. (1980) The Psychology of Human Learning. New York: Harper & Row.
    Humphreys, L.G. (1979) The Construct of General Intelligence. Intelligence, 3, 105120.
    Huo, Y.P. and Von Glinow, M.A. (1995) On Transplanting Human Resource Practices to China: A Culture-driven Approach. International Journal of Manpower, 16(9), 315.
    Hwang, A. (1996) Positivist and Constructivist Persuasions in Instructional Development. Instructional Science, 24, 343356.
    Hymowitz. C. and Schellhardt, T. (1986) The Glass Ceiling: Why Women Can't Seem to Break the Invisible Barrier that Blocks them from Top Jobs. Wall Street Journal (A Special Report: The Corporate Woman), 24 March: 1, 45.
    Hytti, U. (2010) Contextualizing Entrepreneurship in the Boundaryless Career. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 25(1), 6481.
    Iles, P. and Hayers, P.K. (1997) Managing Diversity in Transnational Project Teams: A Tentative Model and Case Study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 12(2), 95117.
    Iles, P. and Yolles, M. (2003) International HRD Alliances in Viable Knowledge Migration and Development: The Czech Academic Link Project. Human Resource Development International, 6(3), 301325.
    Infosys (2012) Infosys Annual Report 2011–2012. Pune, India: Infosys.
    Innocent (2012) Sustainability Report. London: Innocent Smoothies.
    Isen, A.M. (1999) On the Relationship between Affect and Creative Problem Solving. In S. Russ (ed.), Affect, Creative Experience and Psychological Adjustment. Philadelphia: Brumner/Mazel.
    Itami, H. (1987) Mobilizing Invisible Assets. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    ITD (Institute of Training and Development) (1992) Human Resource Development: Diploma in Training Management – Syllabus Regulations and Approved Centres. Marlow: ITD.
    Jackson, T. (2002) International HRM: A Cross-cultural Approach. London: Sage.
    Jacques, P.H., Garger, J. and Thomas, M. (2008) Assessing Leader Behaviours in Project Managers. Management Research News, 31(1), 412.
    James, C. and Roffe, I. (2000) The Evaluation of Goal and Goal-free Training Innovation. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(1), 1220.
    James, W. (1880) Great Men and their Environment, Atlantic Monthly, 276, 441459.
    Jankowicz, D. (1999) Editorial: Putting the ‘I’ into HRD … Why Do We Do It? Human Resource Development International, 2(3), 171174.
    Jaussi, K.S. and Dionne, S.D. (2003) Leading for Creativity: The Role of Unconventional Leader Behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 475498.
    Javidan, M. and Waldman, D.A. (2003) Exploring Charismatic Leadership in the Public Sector: Measurement and Consequences. Public Administration Review, 63(2), 229242.
    Jones, H. (1998) Making it Happen. London: Fontana.
    Jones, J. (1981) The Organizational Universe. In J. Jones and J. Pfeiffer (eds), The 1981 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators. San Diego: University Associates.
    Jones, N.B., Herschel, R.T. and Moesel, D.D. (2003) Using ‘Knowledge Champions’ to Facilitate Knowledge Management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), 4963.
    Jones, R. and Kriflik, G. (2005) Strategies for Managerial Self-change in a Cleaned-up Bureaucracy: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(5), 397416.
    Jones, R.A., Rafferty, A.E. and Griffin, M.A. (2006) The Executive Coaching Trend: Towards More Flexible Executives. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 27(7), 584596.
    Judge T.A. and Bono J.E. (2000) Five Factor Model of Personality and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 751765.
    Judge, T.A., Ilies, R., Bono, J.E. and Gerhardt, M.W. (2002) Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 765780.
    Kang, J. (2007) Testing Impact of Knowledge Characteristics and Relationship Ties on Project Performance. Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(3), 126144.
    Kannan, G. and Aulbur, W.G. (2004) Intellectual Capital: Measurement Effectiveness. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 5(3), 389413.
    Kaplan, R.S. and Norton, D. P. (1996) Translating Strategy into Action: The Balanced Scorecard. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
    Karp, H.B. and Sutton, N. (1993) Where Diversity Training Goes Wrong. Training, 30(7), 3034.
    Kassaye, W.W. (2001) Green Dilemma. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19(6), 444455.
    Katsoulakos, T. and Katsoulacos, Y. (2007) Integrating Corporate Responsibility Principles and Stakeholder Approaches into Mainstream Strategy: A Stakeholder-oriented and Integrative Strategic Management Framework. Corporate Governance, 7(4), 355369.
    Kaufman, R., Keller, J. and Watkins, R. (1995) What Works and What Doesn't: Evaluation Beyond Kirkpatrick. Performance and Improvement (November/December), 813.
    Kaye, L. (2012) Time to Start Valuing Human Capital as an Asset on the Balance Sheet. Guardian.
    Keegan, A.E. and Den Hartog, D.N. (2004) Transformational Leadership in a Project-based Environment: A Comparative Study of the Leadership Styles of Project Managers and Line Managers. International Journal of Project Management, 22(8), 609617.
    Kelliher, F. and Reinl, L. (2009) A Resource-based View of Micro-firm Management Practice. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 16(3), 521532.
    Kelly, H.K. (1982) A Primer on Transfer of Training. Training and Development Journal, 36(11), 102106.
    Kerka, S. (1999) Self-directed Learning: Myths and Realities. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education.
    Kerr, S. (1975) On the Folly of Rewarding A, while Hoping for B. Academy of Management Journal, 18(4), 769783.
    Kessels, J. (2007) HRD Research in a Diversified Field. Human Resource Development International, 10(1), 8389.
    Kessels, J. and Harrison, R. (2004) Reaching Knowledge Productivity. Paper presented at the Fifth European Conference on Human Resource Development Theory and Practice, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Kidd, J.M. (2006) Understanding Career Counselling: Theory, Research and Practice. London: Sage.
    Kidger, P.J. (2002) Management Structure in Multinational Enterprises: Responding to Globalisation. Employee Relations, 24(1), 6985.
    Kim, J.H. and Lee C. (2001) Implications of Near and Far Transfer of Training on Structured On-the-Job Training. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(4), 442452.
    Kim, N. (2012) Societal Development through Human Resource Development: Contexts and Key Change Agents. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 14(3), 239250.
    King, I.W. (1995) Learning? I've Got No Time for That? Management Learning, 26(2), 249257.
    Kipp, P.H., Artiles, A.J. and Lopez-Torres, L. (2003) Beyond Reflection: Teacher Learning as Praxis. Theory into Practice, 42(3), 248264.
    Kirby, S. (2006) American Gay and Lesbian Student Leaders’ Perceptions of Job Discrimination. Equal Opportunities International, 25(2), 126140.
    Kirkpatrick, S.A. and Locke, E.A. (1991) Leadership: Do Traits Matter? Academy of Management Executive, 5(2), 4860.
    Kline, S. and Harris, K. (2008) ROI is MIA: Why are Hoteliers Failing to Demand the ROI of Training? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(1), 4559.
    Knowles, M.S. (1998) The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co.
    Knowles, M.S., Holton, E.F. and Swanson, R.S. (2005) The Adult Learner. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Kondrat, M.E. (1999) Who is the Self in Self-aware: Professional Self-awareness from a Critical Theory Perspective. Social Service Review, 73(4), 451475.
    Kouzes, J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (1995) The Leadership Challenge: How to Keep Getting Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Kouzes, J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (2002) The Leadership Challenge,
    edn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Kram, K.E. (1985) Mentoring at Work: Developmental Relationships in Organizational Life. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
    Kramlinger, T. and Huberty, T. (1990) Behaviorism versus Humanism. Training and Development Journal, 44(12), 4146.
    Krinks, P. and Stack, R. (2008) The Talent Crunch. People Management, 14(13), 3031.
    Kroth, S.J. (2000) Single and Double Loop Learning: Exploring Potential Influence of Cognitive Style. Organization Development Journal, 18(3), 8798.
    Kucherov, D. and Zavyalova, E. (2012) HRD Practices and Talent Management in the Companies with the Employer Brand. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(1), 86104.
    Kuchinke, K.P. (1998) Moving Beyond the Dualism of Performance and Learning: A Response to Barrie and Pace. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(4), 377384.
    Kuchinke, K.P. (2004) Theorising and Practising HRD: Extending the Dialogue over the Roles of Scholarship and Practice in the Field. Human Resource Development International, 7(4), 535540.
    Kuchinke, K.P. (2007) Kaleidoscopes and Multiplicity of Perspectives in Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development International, 10(2), 117121.
    Kuchinke, K.P. (2010) Human Development as a Central Goal for Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development International, 13(5), 575585.
    Kumar, S. and Chandra, C. (2001) Enhancing the Effectiveness of Benchmarking in Manufacturing Organizations. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 101(2), 8089.
    Kunnanatt, J.T. (2004) Emotional Intelligence: The New Science of Interpersonal Effectiveness. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(4), 489495.
    Kur, E. and Bunning, R. (2002) Assuring Corporate Leadership for the Future. Journal of Management Development, 21(9), 761779.
    Kustin, R. and Jones, R. (1995) The Influence of Corporate Headquarters on Leadership Styles in Japanese and US Subsidiary Companies. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, 16(5), 1115.
    Lahteenmaki, G., Toivonen, J. and Mattila, M. (2001) Critical Aspects of Organisational Learning Research and Proposals for its Measurement. British Journal of Management, 12(2), 113129.
    Lam, A. (2000) Tacit Knowledge, Organisational Learning and Societal Institutions: An Integrated Framework. Organisation Studies, 21(3), 487513.
    Lammintakanen, J. and Kivinen, T. (2012) Continuing Professional Development in Nursing: Does Age Matter? Journal of Workplace Learning, 24(1), 3447.
    Lanigan, M.L. and Bentley, J. (2006) Collecting Sophisticated Evaluations Even When Corporate Culture is Resistant. Performance Improvement, 45(1), 3238.
    Larsen, H.H. and Brewster, C. (2003) Line Management Responsibility for HRM: What is Happening in Europe? Employee Relations, 25(3), 228244.
    Learning Unlimited (2006) Fostering Creativity: A Hard Look at Soft Thinking. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
    Lee, M. (1996) Holistic Learning in the New Central Europe. In M. Lee, H. Letiche, R. Crawshaw and N. Thomas (eds), Management Education in the New Europe: Boundaries and Complexity. London: Routledge.
    Lee, M. (1998) Creating Clover. Human Resource Development International, 1(3), 259262.
    Lee, M. (2001) A Refusal to Define HRD. Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 327341.
    Lee, M. (2007) Human Resource Development from a Holistic Perspective. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(1), 97110.
    Lee, M. and Smith, A. (2004) The National Agenda, Incidental Learning and Television as a Learning Medium: The Case of the Professional Development Channel. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Fifth UFHRD/AHRD Conference, University of Limerick, Ireland, 27–28 May.
    Lee, M. and Stead, V. (1998) Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(3), 297308.
    Lee, S.M., Park, S.H. and Trimi, S. (2013) Greening with IT: Practices of Leading Countries and Strategies of Followers. Management Decision, 51(3), 629642.
    Lee-Kelley, L., Blackman, D.A. and Hurst, J.P. (2007) An Exploration of the Relationship between Learning Organisations and the Retention of Knowledge Workers. The Learning Organisation, 14(3), 204221.
    Lefrancois, G. (1999) The Lifespan,
    edn. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Leiba-O'Sullivan, S. (1999) The Distinction between Stable and Dynamic Cross-cultural Competencies: Implications for Expatriate Trainability. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(4), 709725.
    Lenaghan, J.A. and Seirup, H.J. (2007) Transition and Transparency in the Employment Contract. Journal of Management Development, 26(5), 459467.
    Leonard-Barton, D. (1992) The Factory as a Learning Laboratory. Sloan Management Review, 34(1), 2338.
    Leont'ev, A.N. (1981) The Problem of Activity in Psychology. In J.V. Wertsh (ed.), The Concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology. New York: Sharpe.
    Leskiw, S.L. and Singh, P. (2007) Leadership Development: Learning from Best Practices. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 28(5), 444464.
    Leung, S.L. and Bozionelos, N. (2004) Five-factor Model Traits and the Prototypical Image of the Effective Leader in the Confucian Culture. Employee Relations, 26(1), 6271.
    Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (1994) The Evaluation of Training: An Organisational Culture Approach. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(8), 2532.
    Lievens, F. (2007) Employer Branding in the Belgian Army: The Importance of Instrumental and Symbolic Beliefs for Potential Applicants and Military Employees. Human Resource Management, 46(1), 5169.
    Likert, R. (1961) New Patterns of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lim, B.C. and Ployhart, R.E. (2004) Transformational Leadership: Relations to the Five-factor Model and Team Performance in Typical and Maximum Contexts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 610621.
    Lincoln, Y.S. and Lynham, S.A. (2007) Criteria for Assessing Good Theory in Human Resource Development and Other Applied Disciplines from an Interpretive Perspective. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development, Bowling Green, Ohio.
    Lindsay, C. (1994) Things that Go Wrong in Diversity Training: Conceptualization and Change with Ethnic Identity Models. Journal of Organisational Change Management, 7(6), 1834.
    Linstead, S., Folup, L. and Lilley, S. (2004) Management and Organisation: A Critical Text. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Lippitt, G. (1969) Organizational Renewal. New York: Appleton Century Crofts.
    Littrell, L.N., Salas, E., Hess, K.P., Paley, M. and Riedel, S. (2006) Expatriate Preparation: A Critical Review of 25 Years of Cross-cultural Training Research. Human Resource Development Review, 5(3), 355388.
    Loan-Clarke, J., Boocock, G., Smith, A. and Whittaker, J. (1999) Investment in Training and Development by Small Businesses. Employee Relations, 21(3), 296310.
    Longenecker, C.O. and Fink, L.S. (2006) Closing the Management Skills Gap: A Call for Action. Development and Learning in Organisations, 20(1), 1619.
    Losert, A. (2008) Coping with Workplace Heteronormativity among Lesbian Employees: A German Study. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(1), 4758.
    Lundberg, C.C. (1995) Learning in and by Organisations: Three Conceptual Issues. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 3(1), 353360.
    Lunnan, R., Amdam, R.P., Hennestad, B., Lervik, J.E. and Nilsen, S. (2002) Standardised Leadership Tools in MNEs: Critical Reflections for the Conditions for Successful Implementations. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(6/7), 274283.
    Lussier, R.N. and Achua, C.F. (2009) Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
    Lynham, S. (2000) Leadership Development: A Review of the Theory and Literature. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference. Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, 8–12 March.
    Lynham, S.A. and Cunningham, P.W. (2006) National Human Resource Development in Transitioning Societies in the Developing World: Concept and Challenges. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 8(1), 116135.
    Lytras, M.D., Pouloudi, A. and Poulymanakou, A. (2002) Knowledge Management Convergence: Expanding Learning Frontiers. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 4052.
    Mabey, C. and Finch-Lees, T. (2008) Management and Leadership Development. London: Sage.
    MacLean, D. (2006) Beyond English: Transnational Corporations and the Strategic Management of Language in a Complex Multilingual Business Environment. Management Decision, 44(10), 13771390.
    MacNeil, C. (2004) The First-line Supervisor as a Facilitator of Knowledge Sharing in Teams. Paper presented at the Fifth European Conference on Human Resource Development Theory and Practice, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Madden, C.A. and Mitchell, V.A. (1993) Professions, Standards and Competence: A Survey of Continuing Education for the Professions. Bristol: University of Bristol.
    Madjar, N. (2005) The Contributions of Different Groups of Individuals to Employee Creativity. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 182206.
    Maher, F.A. and Tetreault, M.K.T. (2001) The Feminist Classroom: Dynamics of Gender, Race, and Privilege. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Mainiero, L.A. and Sullivan, S.E. (2006) The Opt-out Revolt: Why People are Leaving Companies to Create Kaleidoscope Careers. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.
    Majaro, S. (1988) The Creative Gap: Managing Ideas for Profit. London: Longman.
    Malmi, T. (2001) Balanced Scorecards in Finnish Companies: A Research Note. Management Accounting Research, 12, 207220.
    Malnight, T.W. (2001) Emerging Structural Patterns within Multinational Corporations: Toward Process Based Structures. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 11871210.
    Maltz, A.C., Shenhar, A.J. and Reilly, R.R. (2003) Beyond the Balanced Scorecard: Refining the Search for Organisational Success Measures. Long Range Planning, 36, 187204.
    Manikoth, N.N. and Cseh, M. (2011) Career Behaviour Patterns of Professional Women: A Study of Protean Careers. Paper presented at the 2011 AHRD International Research Conference in the Americas, Schaumberg, Chicago, 23–26 February.
    Mankin, D.P. (2001) A Model for Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development International, 4(1), 6585.
    Mann, R.D. (1959) A Review of the Relationships between Personality and Performance in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241270.
    Marcus, M. (2004) Preparing High-potential Staff for the Step Up to Leadership. Canadian HR Reporter, 17(18), 1112.
    Marquardt, M.J. (1999) The Global Age and Global Economy. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 1(4), vviii.
    Marquardt, M.J. and Engle, D.W. (1993) Global Human Resource Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Marsick, V. (1988) Learning in the Workplace: The Case for Reflectivity and Critical Reflectivity. Adult Education Quarterly, 38(4), 187198.
    Marsick, V. and Watkins, K. (1990) Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace. London: Routledge.
    Marsick, V. and Watkins, K. (1999) Envisioning New Organisations of Learning. In D. Boud and J. Garrick (eds), Understanding Learning at Work. London: Routledge.
    Marx, R.D. and Frost, P.J. (1998) Toward Optimal Use of Video in Management Education: Examining the Evidence. Journal of Management Development, 17(4), 243250.
    Matheson, B. (2006) A Culture of Creativity: Design Education and the Creative Industries. Journal of Management Development, 25(1), 5564.
    Mavin, S. (2008) Queen Bees, Wannabees and Afraid to Bees: No More ‘Best Enemies’ for Women in Management? British Journal of Management, 19 (Suppl.). 7584.
    Mavin, S., Wilding, P., Stalker, B., Simmonds, D., Rees, C. and Winch, F. (2007) Developing ‘New Commons’ between HRD Research and Practice: Case Studies of UK Universities. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(1), 418.
    Maxwell, G., Watson, S. and Quail S. (2004) Quality Service in the International Hotel Sector: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development? Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(2/3/4), 159182.
    McCauley, C.D. and Douglas, C.A. (1998) Developmental Relationships. In C.D. McCauley, R.S. Moxley and E. Van Velsor (eds), The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    McClelland, D. (1973) Testing for Competence rather than Intelligence. American Psychologist, 28(1), 114.
    McCracken, M. (2005) Towards a Typology of Managerial Barriers to Learning. Journal of Management Development, 24(6), 559575.
    McCracken, M. and Wallace, M. (2000a) Towards a Redefinition of Strategic HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(5), 281290.
    McCracken, M. and Wallace, M. (2000b) Exploring Strategic Maturity in HRD: Rhetoric, Aspiration or Reality? Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(8), 425437.
    McFadzean, E. (2001) Supporting Virtual Learning Groups. Part 1: A Pedagogical Perspective. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 7(3/4), 5362.
    McGaughey, S. and DeCieri, H. (1999) Reassessment of Convergence and Divergence Dynamics: Implications for International HRM. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10(2), 235250.
    McGoldrick, J., Stewart, J. and Watson, S. (2001) Theorizing Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 343356.
    McGoldrick, J., Stewart, J. and Watson, S. (2002a) Researching HRD: Philosophy, Process and Practice. In J. McGoldrick, J. Stewart and S. Watson (eds), Understanding Human Resource Development: A Research Based Approach. London: Routledge.
    McGoldrick, J., Stewart, J. and Watson, S. (2002b) Understanding HRD: A Research Approach. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 1/2, 1730.
    McGraw, P. (2004) Influences on HRM Practices in MNCs: A Qualitative Study in the Australian Context. International Journal of Manpower, 25(6), 525546.
    McGuire, D. (2010) Engaging Organizations in Environmental Change: A Greenprint for Action. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12(5), 508523.
    McGuire, D. and Cseh, M. (2006) The Development of the Field of HRD: A Delphi Study. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(8), 653667.
    McGuire, D., Garavan, T.N., O'Donnell, D. and Watson, S. (2007) Metaperspectives and HRD: Lessons for Research and Practice, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(1), 120139.
    McGuire, D., O'Donnell, D. and Cross, C. (2005) Why Humanistic Practices in HRD Won't Work. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(1), 131137.
    McGuire, D., O'Donnell, D., Garavan, T.N., Saha, S.K. and Murphy, J. (2001) The Cultural Boundedness of Theory and Practice in HRD. Paper presented at the Global Human Resource Management Conference, Barcelona, June.
    McGuire, D., O'Donnell, D., Garavan, T.N., Saha, S.K. and Murphy, J. (2002) The Cultural Boundedness of Theory and Practice in HRD? Cross Cultural Management, 9(2), 2544.
    McGuire, D., Stoner, L. and Mylona, S. (2008) The Role of Line Managers as Human Resource Agents in Fostering Organisational Change in Public Services. Journal of Change Management, 8(1), 7384.
    McIntosh, P. (1988) White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women's Studies. In M.L. Andersen and P.H. Collins (eds), Race, Class and Gender: An Anthology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    McIntosh, P. (1993) White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women's Studies. In A. Minas (ed.), Gender Basics: Feminist Perspectives on Women and Men. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    McIntosh, P. (1998) White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women's Studies. In M.L. Andersen and P.H. Collins (eds), Race, Class and Gender: An Anthology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    McIntosh, P. (2002) White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women's Studies. In C. Harvey and M. Allard (eds), Understanding and Managing Diversity: Readings, Cases, and Exercises,
    edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    McKenna, S. (1998) Cross-cultural Attitudes towards Leadership Dimensions. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 19(2), 106112.
    McKinney, F. (1933) Quantitative and Qualitative Essential Elements of Transfer. Journal of Experiential Psychology, 16, 854864.
    McLagan, P. (1989) Models for HRD Practice. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.
    McLean, G.N. (1998) HRD: A Three Legged Stool, an Octopus, or a Centipede? Human Resource Development International, 1(4), 375387.
    McLean, G.N. (2004) National Human Resource Development: What in the World Is It? Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(3), 269275.
    McLean, L. (2005) Organizational Culture's Influence on Creativity and Innovation: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(2), 226246.
    McLean, G.N. and McLean, L. (2001) If We Can't Define HRD in One Country, How Can We Define it in an International Context? Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 313326.
    McLean, G.N. and Wang, X. (2007) Defining International Human Resource Development: A Proposal. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development, Bowling Green, Ohio.
    McLean, G., Kuo, M.-H., Budhwani, N.N., Yamnill, S. and Virakul, B. (2012) Capacity Building for Societal Development: Case Studies in Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 14(3), 251263.
    Megginson, D., Joy-Matthews, J. and Banfield, P. (1993) Human Resource Development. London: Kogan Page.
    Mele, D. (2003) The Challenge of Humanistic Management. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(1), 7788.
    Merriam, S.B. (2001) Andragogy and Self-directed Learning: Pillars of Adult Learning Theory. In S.B. Merriam (ed.), New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education (Vol. 89). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Merriam, S.B., Johnson-Bailey, J., Lee, M., Kee, Y., Niseane, G. and Mazanah, M. (2001) Power and Positionality: Negotiating Insider/Outsider Status within and across Cultures. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(5), 405416.
    Merx-Chermin, M. and Nijhof, W. (2004) Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation. Paper presented at the Fifth European Conference on Human Resource Development Theory and Practice, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Messick, S. (1984) The Nature of Cognitive Styles: Problems and Promises in Educational Research. Educational Psychologist, 19, 5974.
    Metcalfe, B.D. and Rees, C.J. (2005) Theorizing Advances in International Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development International, 8(4), 449466.
    Michalski, G.V. and Cousins, J.B. (2001) Multiple Perspectives on Training Evaluation: Probing Stakeholder Perceptions in a Global Network Development Firm. American Journal of Evaluation, 22(1), 3753.
    Miles, R. (1988) The Women's History of the World. London: HarperCollins.
    Miller, R.L., Butler, J. and Cosentino, C.J. (2004) Followership Effectiveness: An Extension of Fiedler's Contingency Model. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 25(4), 362369.
    Minton, A. (2010) Supporting Learners Through Mentoring in the Workplace. In J. Mumford and S. Roodhouse (eds), Understanding Work-based Learning. London: Gower.
    Mintzberg, H (1994) The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning. Harvard Business Review, 72(1), 107114.
    Mintzberg, H. (2004) Managers not MBAs. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Miroshnik, V. (2002) Culture and International Management: A Review. Journal of Management Development, 21(7), 521544.
    Mitchell, R. and Boyle, B. (2010) Knowledge Creation Measurement Methods. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(1), 6782.
    Monserrat, S.I., Duffy, J.A., Olivas-Lujan, M.R., Miller, J.M., Gregory, A., Fox, S., Lituchy, T.R. and Punnett, B.J. (2009) Mentoring Experiences of Successful Women across the Americas. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(6), 455476.
    Mooraj, S., Oyon, D. and Hostettler, D. (1999) The Balanced Scorecard: A Necessary Good or an Unnecessary Evil? European Management Journal, 17(5), 481491.
    Morgan, G.A. and Smircich, L. (1980) The Case for Qualitative Research. Academy of Management Review, 5(4), 491500.
    Morrison, M. (2009) Leadership and Learning: Matters of Social Justice. New York: Information Age Publishing.
    Mostovicz, E.I., Kakabadse, N.K. and Kakabadse, A.P. (2009) A Dynamic Theory of Leadership Development. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, 30(6), 563576.
    Mumford, M.D., Scott, G.M., Gaddis, B. and Strange, J.M. (2002) Leading Creative People: Orchestrating Expertise and Relationships. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(6), 705750.
    Murphy, C., Cross, C. and McGuire, D. (2006) The Motivation of Nurses to Participate in Continuing Professional Education in Ireland. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(5), 365384.
    Mussig, D.J. (2003) A Research and Skills Training Framework for Values-driven Leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(2/3/4), 7379.
    Myers, I.B. and McCauley, M.H. (1986) Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Nadkarni, S. and Perez, P.D. (2007) Prior Conditions and Early International Commitment: The Mediating Role of Domestic Mindset. Journal of International Business Studies, 38 (1), 160176.
    Nadler, D.A. and Tushman, M.L. (1990) Beyond the Charismatic Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change. California Management Review, 32(2), 7797.
    Nadler, L. (1970) Developing Human Resources. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co.
    Nagy, G., Trautwein, U. and Ludtwe, O. (2010) The Structure of Vocational Interests in Germany: Different Methodologies, Different Conclusions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(2), 153169.
    Nair, P.K., Ke, J., Al-Emadi, M.A.S., Conser, J., Cornachione, E. and Devassy, S.M. (2007) National Human Resource Development: A Multi-level Perspective. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development, Bowling Green, Ohio.
    Nam Cam Trau, R. and Hartel, C.E.J. (2004) One Career, Two Identities: An Assessment of Gay Men's Career Trajectory. Career Development International, 9(7), 627637.
    Nanus, B. (1992) Visionary Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Nathan, R. and Hill, L. (2006) Career Counselling,
    edn. London: Sage.
    National Skills Task Force (2000) Third Report of the National Skills Taskforce: Tackling the Adult Skills Gap: Upskilling Adults and the Role of Workplace Learning. London: DfEE.
    Neely, A., Gregory, M. and Platts, K. (1995) Performance Measurement System Design: A Literature Review and Research Agenda. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 15(4), 80116.
    Nelson, R.R. and Winter, S.G. (1982) An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Newall, A., Shaw, J.C. and Simon, H.A. (1979) The Processes of Creative Thinking. In H.A. Simon (ed.), Models of Thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Newby, T. (1992) Training Evaluation Handbook. Aldershot: Gower.
    Nickerson, R.S. (1999) Enhancing Creativity. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.), Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nijman, D.J., Nijhof, W.J, Wognum, A.A.M. and Veldkamp, B.P. (2006) Exploring Differential Effects of Supervisor Support on Transfer of Training. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(7), 529549.
    Nilsson, S. and Ellstrom, P.E. (2012) Employability and Talent Management: Challenges for HRD Practices. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(1), 2645.
    Nitsch, K.E. (1977) Structuring Decontextualised forms of Knowledge. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Texas.
    Noble, C. (1997) International Comparisons of Training Policies. Human Resource Management Journal, 7(1), 518.
    Nonaka, I. (1991) The Knowledge-creating Company. Harvard Business Review, 69(6), 96104.
    Nonaka, I. and Konno, N. (1998) The Concept of the ‘Ba’: Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation. California Management Review, 40(3), 4054.
    Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995) The Knowledge-creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nonaka, I., Toyama, R. and Nagata, A. (2000) A Firm as a Knowledge-creating Entity: A New Perspective on the Theory of the Firm. Industrial and Corporate Change, 9(1), 120.
    Northouse, P.G. (2010): Leadership: Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Nyhan, B. (2002) Human Resource Development in Europe – at the Crossroads. Paper presented at Third Annual UFHRD Conference of HRD Theory and Practice Across Europe, Napier University, Edinburgh.
    Oakes, D.W., Ferris, G.R., Martocchio, J.J., Buckley, M.R. and Broach, D (2001) Cognitive Ability and Personality Predictors of Training Program Skill Acquisition and Job Performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15(4), 523548.
    O'Connell, G. (2008) Crystal Clear. People Management, 14(5), 4041.
    O'Donnell, D., McGuire, D. and Cross, C. (2006) Critically Challenging Some Assumptions in HRD. International Journal of Training and Development, 10(1), 416.
    O'Donnell, D., Porter, G., McGuire, D., Garavan, T.N., Heffernan, M. and Cleary, P. (2003) Creating Intellectual Capital: A Habermasian Community of Practice (CoP) Introduction. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(2/3/4), 8087.
    OECD (2013) Education at a Glance 2013. Paris: OECD.
    Office for National Statistics (2008) Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings. London: Office for National Statistics.
    Office for National Statistics (2009) Labour Market Statistics. London: Office for National Statistics.
    Oldham, G.R. and Cummings, A. (1996) Employee Creativity: Personal and Contextual Factors at Work. Academy of Management Journal, 39(3), 607634.
    Olivares, O.J., Peterson, G. and Hess, K.P. (2007) An Existential-phenomenological Framework for Understanding Leadership Development Experiences. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 28(1), 7691.
    Olve, N., Roy, J. and Wetter, M. (1999) Performance Drivers: A Practical Guide to Using the Balanced Scorecard. Chichester: Wiley.
    Oncica-Sanislav, D. and Candea, D. (2010) The Learning Organization: A Strategic Dimension of the Sustainable Enterprise. Proceedings of the European Conference on Management, Leadership and Governance, 263270.
    O'Neil, D.A. and Bilimoria, D. (2005) Women's Career Development Phases: Idealism, Endurance and Reinvention. Career Development International, 10(3), 168189.
    Ormond, J.E. (1999) Human Learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Othman, R. (2006) Balanced Scorecard and Causal Model Development: Preliminary Findings. Management Decision, 44(5), 690702.
    Othman, R. (2008) Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Balanced Scorecard with Scenario Planning. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 57(3), 259266.
    Owen, G. (2004) Mind the Gap: The Critical Role of Continuing Professional Development. Development and Learning in Organisations, 18(3), 79.
    Owen, H. (1999) The Spirit of Leadership: Liberating the Leader in Each of Us. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Palmer, J. and Smith, P. (1999) Turning to Learning. Canadian Underwriter, (August), 62.
    Pangarkar, A.M. and Kirkwood, T. (2008) Strategic Alignment: Linking your Learning Strategy to the Balanced Scorecard. Industrial and Commercial Training, 40(2), 95101.
    Paprock, K.E. (2006) National Human Resource Development in Transitioning Societies in the Developing World: Introductory Overview. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 8(1), 1227.
    Parker, S.K. and Axtell, C.M. (2001) Seeing Another Viewpoint: Antecedents and Outcomes of Employee Perspective Taking. Academy of Management Journal, 44(6), 10851102.
    Parker-Gore, S. (1996) Perception is Reality: Using 360-degree Appraisal against Behavioural Competences to Effect Organizational Change and Improve Management Performance. Career Development International, 1(3), 2427.
    Passmore, J. and Velez, M. (2012) SOAP-M: A Training Evaluation Model for HR. Industrial and Commercial Training, 44(5), 315325.
    Patel, N.V. (2003) A Holistic Approach to Learning and Teaching Interaction: Factors in the Development of Critical Learners. International Journal of Educational Management, 17(6), 272284.
    Patriotta, G. (2003) On Studying Organizational Knowledge. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 2, 312.
    Pearce, C.L. and Conger, J.A. (2003) All Those Years Ago: The Historical Underpinnings of Shared Leadership. In C.L. Pearce and J.A. Conger (eds), Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J. and Boydell, T. (1997) The Learning Organisation: A Strategy for Sustainable Development,
    edn. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Pendry, L.F., Driscoll, D.M. and Field, S.C.T. (2007) Diversity Training: Putting Theory into Practice. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80(1), 2750.
    Perry, E.L. and Kulik, C.T. (2008) The Devolution of HR to the Line: Implications for Perceptions of People Management Effectiveness. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(2), 262273.
    Perry-Smith, J.E. (2006) Social Yet Creative: The Role of Social Relationships in Facilitating Individual Creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), 85101.
    Pershing, J.A. and Pershing, J.L. (2001) Ineffective Reaction Evaluation. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12(1), 7390.
    Perunovic, Z., Christoffersen, M. and Mefford, R.N. (2012) Deployment of Vendor Capabilities and Competences throughout the Outsourcing Process. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 32(3), 351374.
    Peterson, L.A. (1997) International HRD: What We Know and Don't Know. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 8(1), 6379.
    Peterson, S.L. (2008) Creating and Sustaining a Strategic Partnership: A Model for Human Resource Development. Journal of Leadership Studies, 2(2), 8397.
    Pettigrew, A.M. (1979) On Studying Organisational Culture. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 570581.
    Phillips, J. (1991) Handbook of Training and Evaluation and Measurement Methods,
    edn. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Co.
    Phillips, P.P. and Phillips, J.J. (2010) The Green Scorecard: Measuring the Return on Investment in Sustainability Initiatives. Boston, MA: Nicholas Beasley Publishing.
    Phillips, T. (2009) Stephen Lawrence Speech: Institutions Must Catch Up with Public on Race Issues. Delivered on the 10th anniversary of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, 19 January.
    Piaget, J. (1952) The Origins of Intelligence in Children. New York: International University Press.
    Piaget, J. (1970) Structuralism. New York: Basic Books.
    Pickett-Baker, J. and Ozaki, R. (2008) Pro-environmental Products: Marketing Influence on Consumer Purchase Decision. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(5), 281293.
    Pierce, J.L. and Newstrom, J.W. (2008) Leaders and the Leadership Process: Readings, Self-assessments and Applications. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Platman, K. (2003) The Self-designed Career in Later Life: A Study of Older Portfolio Workers in the United Kingdom. Ageing and Society, 23(3), 281302.
    Ployhart, R.E., Lim, B.C. and Chan, K.Y. (2001) Exploring Relations between Typical and Maximum Performance Ratings and the Five Factor Model of Personality. Personnel Psychology, 54(4), 809843.
    Poell, R.F. and Van der Krogt, F.J. (2003) Learning-program Creation in Work Organisations. Human Resource Development Review, 2(3), 252272.
    Pondy, L.R., Frost, P.J., Morgan, G. and Dandridge, T.C. (1983) Organisational Symbolism. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Porter, M.E. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations. London: Macmillan.
    Posner, B.Z. and Kouzes, J.M. (1988) Relating Leadership and Credibility. Psychological Reports, 63, 527530.
    Post, H.A. (1997) Building a Strategy on Competences. Long Range Planning, 30(5), 733740.
    Power, W.T. (1973) Behavior, the Control of Perception. Chicago: Aldine.
    Preskill, H. (2007) Building an Organization's Evaluation System: A Case Example of using Appreciative Inquiry. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Indianapolis, IN, 28 February–4 March.
    Preskill, H. and Russ-Eft, D. (2005) Building Evaluation Capacity: 72 Activities for Teaching and Training. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Preskill, H. and Torres, R.T. (1999) Evaluative Inquiry for Learning in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Purdy, M. (1997) Humanist Ideology and Nurse Education. 2. Limitations of Humanist Education Theory in Nurse Education. Nurse Education Today, 17, 196202.
    Rainbird, H. (1995) The Changing Role of the Training Function: A Test for Integration of Human Resources and Business Strategy. Human Resource Management Journal, 5(1), 7290.
    Rajan, A. and Martin, B. (2001) Harnessing Creativity to Improve the Bottom Line. London: CIMA Publishing.
    Ralston, D., Wright, A. and Kumar, J. (2001) Process Benchmarking as a Market Research Tool for Strategic Planning. Market Intelligence and Planning, 19(4), 273281.
    Rappe, C. and Zwink, T. (2007) Developing Leadership Competence of Production Unit Managers. Journal of Management Development, 26(4), 312330.
    Reber, A.S. (1993) Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Reilly, P. and Williams, T. (2006) Strategic HR: Building the Capability to Deliver. London: Gower.
    Renwick, D., Redman, T. and Maguire, S. (2008) Green HRM: A Review, Process Model and Research Agenda. Discussion Paper. 2008,01, University of Sheffield Business School.
    Reynolds, M. (1998) Reflection and Critical Reflection in Management Learning. Management Learning, 29(2), 183200.
    Reynolds, M. (1999) Critical Reflection and Management Education: Rehabilitating Less Hierarchical Approaches. Journal of Management Education, 23(5), 537553.
    Reynolds, M. and Trehan, K. (2003) Learning from Difference. Management Learning, 34(2), 163180.
    Riege, A. (2005) Three-dozen Knowledge Sharing Barriers Managers Must Consider. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(3), 1835.
    Rimanoczy, I. and Pearson, T. (2010) Role of HR in the New World of Sustainability. Industrial and Commercial Training, 42(1), 1117.
    Robbins, S.P., Bergman, R. and Stagg, I. (1997) Management. Sydney: Prentice Hall.
    Robinson, A. and Stern, S. (1997) Corporate Creativity: How Innovation and Improvement Actually Happen. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Robotham, D. (2003) Learning and Training: Developing the Competent Learner. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(9), 473480.
    Rock, A. and Garavan, T. (2006) Reconceptualising Developmental Relationships. Human Resource Development Review, 5(3), 330355.
    Rodgers, W.M. III (2006) Male White–Black Wage Gaps, 1979–1994: A Distributional Analysis. Southern Economic Journal, 72(4), 773786.
    Roffe, I. (1999) Innovation and Creativity in Organisations: A Review of the Implications for Training and Development. Journal of European Industrial Training, 23(4/5), 224241.
    Rogers, J. (2008) Coaching Skills: A Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
    Rojek, C. (2003) Stuart Hall. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Romme, A.G.L. and Van Witteloostuijn, A. (1999) Circular Organizing and Triple Loop Learning. Journal of Organisational Change Management, 12(5), 439453.
    Rosinski, P. (2004) Coaching across Cultures. London: Nicholas Brealey.
    Rothwell, W. (2002) Putting Success into Your Succession Planning. Journal of Business Strategy, 23(3), 3242.
    Rounds, J. and Tracey, T.J. (1996) Cross-cultural Structural Equivalence of RIASEC Models and Measures. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(3), 310329.
    Rugman, A. (2005) The Regional Multinationals: MNEs and Global Strategic Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rummler, G. and Brache, A. (1995) Improving Performance, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Ruona, W.E.A. (2000) Core Beliefs in Human Resource Development: A Journey for its Profession and its Professionals. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2(3), 127.
    Ruona, W.E.A. (2001a) The Foundational Impact of Training Within Industry Project on the Human Resource Development Profession. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(2), 119126.
    Ruona, W.E.A. (2001b) Systems Theory as a Foundation for HRD. In R.A. Swanson and E.F. Holton (eds), Foundations of Human Resource Development. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Ruona, W.E.A., Lynham, S.A. and Chermack, T.J. (2003) Insights on Emerging Trends and the Future of Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(3), 272282.
    Rusaw, A.C. (2000) Uncovering Training Resistance: A Critical Theory Perspective. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 13(3), 4051.
    Russ-Eft, D.F. (2009) Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest. American Journal of Evaluation, 30(2), 225231.
    Russ-Eft, D. and Hatcher, T. (2003) The Issue of International Values and Beliefs: The Debate for a Global HRD Code of Ethics. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(3), 296307.
    Russ-Eft, D. and Preskill, H. (2001) Evaluation in Organisations: A Systematic Approach to Enhancing Learning, Performance and Change. New York: Perseus.
    Russ-Eft, D. and Preskill, H. (2005) In Search of the Holy Grail: Return on Investment Evaluation in Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(1), 7185.
    Russell, C. and Parsons, E. (1996) Putting Theory to the Test at the OU. People Management, 2(1), 3032.
    Russell, D., Calvey, D. and Banks, M. (2003) Creating New Learning Communities: Towards Effective E-learning Production. Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(1), 3445.
    Ryan, M.K. and Haslam, S. A. (2004) Introducing the Glass Cliff.
    Ryan, M.K. and Haslam, S.A. (2007) The Glass Cliff: Exploring the Dynamics Surrounding the Appointment of Women to Precarious Leadership Positions. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 549572.
    Sacks, H., Schegloff, E.A. and Jefferson, G. (1974) A Simplest Systematics for the Organisation of Turn-taking for Conversation. Language, 50(4), 696735.
    Sadler-Smith, E. (2006) Learning and Development for Managers: Perspectives from Research and Practice. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Sadler-Smith, E. (2013) Making Sense of Global Warming: Designing a Human Resource Development Response? Paper presented at the 14th UFHRD Conference on HRD Theory and Practice Across Europe, Brighton Business School, 5–7 June.
    Sadler-Smith, E., Allinson, C.W. and Hayes, J. (2000) Learning Preferences and Cognitive Style: Some Implications for Continuing Professional Development. Management Learning, 31(2), 239256.
    Salaman, G. and Butler, J. (1994) Why Managers Won't Learn. In C. Mabey and P. Iles (eds), Managing Learning. London: Routledge.
    Sambrook, S. (2004) A Critical Time for HRD? Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(8/9), 611624.
    Sambrook, S. (2008) People, Organisations and Development: Is HRD Being Stretched? Human Resource Development International, 11(3), 219223.
    Sambrook, S. and Stewart, J. (2000) Factors Influencing Learning in European Learning Oriented Organisations: Issues for Management. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(2/3/4), 209219.
    Sambrook, S. and Stewart, J. (2002) Reflections and Discussion. In S. Trepkema, J. Stewart, S. Sambrook, M. Mulder, H. ter Horst and J. Scheerens (eds), HRD and Learning Organisations. London: Routledge.
    Sambrook, S. and Stewart, J. (2005) A Critical Review of Researching Human Resource Development. In C. Elliott and S. Turnbull (eds), Critical Thinking in Human Resource Development. London: Routledge.
    Sanborn, H. and Sheehan, B. (2009) Evaluating End-of-Life Beverage Container Management Systems for California. Sacramento, CA: California Conservation Division of Recycling.
    Sanchez, J.I. and Medkik, N. (2004) The Effects of Diversity Awareness Training on Differential Treatment. Group and Organization Management, 29, 517536.
    Sandhawalia, B.S. and Dalcher, D. (2011) Developing Knowledge Management Capabilities: A Structured Approach. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(2), 313328.
    Santos, A. and Stuart, M. (2003) Employee Perceptions and their Influence on Training Effectiveness. Human Resource Management Journal, 13(1), 2745.
    Sarros, J.C. and Santora, J.C. (2001) The Transformational-Transactional Leadership Model in Practice. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(8), 383394.
    Saunders, M.N.K., Skinner, D. and Beresford, R. (2005) Mismatched Perceptions and Expectations: An Exploration of Stakeholders’ Views of Key and Technical Skills in Vocational Education and Training. Industrial and Commercial Training, 29(5), 369382.
    Schein, E.H. (1996) Career Anchors Revisited: Implications for Career Development in the 21st Century. Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), 8088.
    Schein, E.H. (2010) Organisational Culture and Leadership,
    edn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Schein, E. (2013) Career Anchors.
    Schmidt, C.K. and Nilsson, J.E. (2006) The Effects of Simultaneous Developmental Processes: Factors Relating to the Career Development of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youth. Career Development Quarterly, 55(1), 2237.
    Schmidt, F.L. and Hunter, J.E. (1992) Development of a Causal Model of Processes Determining Job Performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 8992.
    Schon, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. New York: Basic Books.
    Schulz, K.P. (2005) Learning in Complex Organisations as Practicing and Reflecting: A Model Development and Application from a Theory of Practice Perspective. Journal of Workplace Learning, 17(8), 493507.
    Schwartz Driver, S. (2010) Economic Literacy: A Complete Guide. London: Marshall Cavendish.
    Scott, S.G. and Bruce, R.A. (1994) Determinants of Innovative Behaviour: A Path Model of Individual Innovation in the Workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580607.
    Selvarajah, C. (2006) Dimensions that Relate to Cross-cultural Counselling: Perceptions of Mental Health Professionals in Auckland, New Zealand. Cross Cultural Management, 13(1), 5468.
    Semler, S.W. (1997) Systematic Agreement: A Theory of Organisational Alignment. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 8(1), 2340.
    Senge, P. (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The Act and Practice of the Learning Organisation. New York: Random House.
    Seufert, A., Von Krogh, G. and Bach, A. (1999) Towards Knowledge Networking. Journal of Knowledge Management, 3(3), 180190.
    Shalley, C.E. and Gilson, L.L. (2004) What Leaders Need to Know: A Review of Social and Contextual Factors that can Foster or Hinder Creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 3353.
    Shalley, C.E., Gilson, L.L. and Blum, T.C. (2000) Matching Creativity Requirements and the Work Environment: Effects on Satisfaction and Intentions to Leave. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 215223.
    Shalley, C.E., Zhou, J. and Oldham, G.R. (2004) The Effects of Personal and Contextual Characteristics on Creativity: Where Should We Go from Here? Journal of Management, 30(6), 933958.
    Sheppard, E. (2002) The Spaces and Times of Globalisation: Place, Scale, Networks and Positionality. Economic Geography, 78(3), 307331.
    Shore, L.M. and Wayne, S.J. (1993) Commitment and Employee Behaviour: Comparison of Affective Commitment and Continuance Commitment with Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(5), 774780.
    Short, D.C., Bing, J.W. and Kehrhahn, M.T. (2003) Will Human Resource Development Survive? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14(3), 239244.
    Shuell, T.J. (1990) Phases of Meaningful Learning. Review of Educational Research, 60(4), 531547.
    Silber, K.H. (2002) Using the Cognitive Approach to Improve Problem-solving Training. Performance Improvement, 41(3), 2836.
    Simmonds, D. and Pedersen, C. (2006) HRD: The Shape and Things to Come. Journal of Workplace Learning, 18(2), 122135.
    Sippola, A. (2007) Developing Culturally Diverse Organisations: A Participative and Empowerment-based Method. Women in Management Review, 22(4), 253273.
    Sirotnik, K.A. (1983) What You See is What you Get: Consistency, Persistency and Mediocrity in Classrooms. Harvard Educational Review, 53, 1631.
    Skinner, B.F. (1953) Science and Human Behaviour. New York: Macmillan.
    Slotte, V., Tynjala, P. and Hytonen, T. (2004) How do HRD Practitioners Describe Learning at Work? Human Resource Development International, 7(4), 541544.
    Smith, E.A. (2001) The Role of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge in the Workplace. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(4), 311321.
    Smith, I.W. (2004) Continuing Professional Development and Workplace Learning 9: Human Resource Development – Measuring Return on Investment. Library Management, 25(6/7), 318320.
    Smith, I. (2005) Different in Similar Ways: Making Sense of Learning Styles. Paisley: Learning Unlimited.
    Smith, P.J. (2000) Flexible Delivery and Apprentice Training: Preferences, Problems and Challenges, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 52(3), 483502.
    Smith, R. (1988) Human Resource Development: An Overview. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
    Sodano, S.M. (2011) Integrating Vocational Interests, Competencies, and Interpersonal Dispositions in Middle School Children. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 79(1), 110120.
    Sommerlund, J. and Boutaiba, S. (2007) Borders of ‘The Boundaryless Career’. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 20(4), 525538.
    Sosik, J. and Megerian, L. (1999) Understanding Leader Emotional Intelligence and Performance: The Role of Self–Other Agreement on Transformational Leadership Perceptions. Group and Organization Management, 24(3), 367390.
    Souder, W. (1983) Planning a Career Path from Engineering to Management. Engineering Management International, 1(4), 249258.
    Sparrow, P. (2000) Strategic Management in a World Turned Upside Down: The Role of Cognition, Intuition and Emotional Intelligence. In P.C. Flood, T. Dromgoole, S.J. Carroll and L. Gorman (eds), Managing Strategy Implementation. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Spender, J.C. (1996a) Making Knowledge the Basis of a Dynamic Theory of the Firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(1), 4562.
    Spender, J.C. (1996b) Organisational Knowledge, Learning and Memory: Three Concepts in Search of a Theory. Journal of Organisational Change Management, 9(1), 6378.
    Stead, V. and Lee, M. (1996) Inter-cultural Perspectives on HRD. In J. Stewart and J. McGoldrick (eds), HRD Perspectives, Strategies and Practices. London: Pitman.
    Stedham, Y. and Engle, A. (1999) Multinational and Transnational Strategies: Implications for Human Resource Management. Paper presented at the Eighth Biennial Research Symposium of the Human Resource Planning Society, Ithaca, NY, June.
    Stein, D.S. (2000) Teaching Critical Reflection: Myths and Realities No. 7. Columbus, OH: Eric Clearinghouse on Vocational Education and Training.
    Stein, D.S. (2001) Situated Learning and Planned Training on the Job. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 3(4), 415425.
    Stern, L.R. (2008) Executive Coaching: Building and Managing Your Professional Practice. London: Wiley.
    Sternberg, R.J. (1997) Successful Intelligence. New York: Penguin.
    Sternberg, R.J. and Lubart, T.I. (1999) The Concept of Creativity: Prospects and Paradigms. In R.J. Sternberg (ed.), Handbook of Creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Stewart, J. (1999) Employee Development Practice. London: Financial Times Management.
    Stewart, J. (2002) Individual Learning. In J. Leopold (ed.), Human Resources in Organisations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Stewart, J. (2007) The Future of HRD Research: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Human Resource Development International, 10(1), 9399.
    Stewart, J. and McGoldrick, J. (1996) Human Resource Development: Perspectives, Strategies and Practice. London: Pitman.
    Stewart, J. and Rigg, C. (2011) Learning and Talent Development. London: CIPD.
    Stewart, M.M., Crary, M. and Humberd, B.K. (2008) Teaching Value in Diversity: On the Folly of Espousing Inclusion, while Practicing Exclusion. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(3), 374386.
    Stogdill, R.M. (1948) Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 3571.
    Stogdill, R.M. (1974) Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of the Literature,
    edn. New York: Free Press.
    Stoll, L., Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Wallace, M. and Thomas, S. (2006) Professional Learning Communities: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Educational Change, 7(4), 221258.
    Streibel, M.J. (1991) Instructional Plans and Situated Learning: The Challenge of Suchman's Theory of Situated Action for Instructional Designers and Instructional Systems. In G. Anglin (ed.), Instructional Technologies: Past, Present and Future. Denver, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
    Sturges, J., Conway, N., Guest, D. and Liefooghe, A. (2005) Managing the Career Deal: The Psychological Contract as a Framework for Understanding Career Management, Organizational Commitment and Work Behaviour. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 26(7), 821838.
    Sturges, J., Guest, D., Conway, N. and Mackenzie Davey, K. (2002) A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Career Management and Organizational Commitment among Graduates in the First Ten Years at Work. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 23(6), 731748.
    Sullivan, S.E. and Baruch, B. (2009) Advances in Career Theory and Research: A Critical Review and Agenda for Future Exploration. Journal of Management, 35(6), 15421571.
    Sullivan, S.E. and Mainiero, L.A. (2007) The Changing Nature of Gender Roles, Alpha/Beta Careers and Work–Life Issues: Theory-driven Implications for Human Resource Management. Career Development International, 12(3), 238263.
    Suutari, V. and Taka, M. (2004) Career Anchors of Managers with Global Careers. Journal of Management Development, 23(9), 833847.
    Svejenova, S. (2005) ‘The Path with the Heart’: Creating the Authentic Career. Journal of Management Studies, 42(5), 947974.
    Svensson, L., Ellstrom, P.E. and Äberg, C. (2004) Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work. Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(8), 479491.
    Swan, J., Newell, S., Scarbrough, H. and Hislop, D. (1999) Knowledge Management and Innovation: Networks and Networking. Journal of Knowledge Management, 3(4), 262275.
    Swanson, R.A. (1995) Human Resource Development: Performance is the Key. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 6(2), 207213.
    Swanson, R.A. (1999) HRD Theory, Real or Imagined? Human Resource Development International, 2(1), 68.
    Swanson, R.A. (2005) Evaluation: A State of Mind. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(1), 1622.
    Swanson, R.A. and Arnold, D.E. (1997) The Purpose of HRD is to Improve Performance. In R Rowden (ed.), Workplace Learning: Debating Five Critical Questions of Theory and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Swanson, R.A. and Holton, E.F. (2001) Foundations of Human Resource Development. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Swart, J., Mann, C., Brown, S. and Price, A. (2005) Human Resource Development: Strategy and Tactics. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Swieringa, J. and Wierdsma, A. (1992) Becoming a Learning Organisation. Wokingham: Addison-Wesley.
    Taggar, S. (2002) Individual Creativity and Group Ability to Utilise Individual Creative Resources: A Multi-level Model. Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 315330.
    Tajfel, H. (1982) Instrumentality, Identity, and Social Comparisons. In H. Tajfel (ed.), Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Takacs, D. (2002) Positionality, Epistemology, and Social Justice in the Classroom. Social Justice, 29(4), 168182.
    Tamkin, P., Reilly, P. and Strebler, M. (2006) Change Agenda: The Changing HR Function – The Key Questions. London: CIPD.
    Tan, H. and Tan, C.S. (2000) Toward the Differentiation of Trust in Supervisor and Trust in Organization. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126(2), 241260.
    Tannenbaum, R. and Schmidt, W.H. (1958) How to Choose a Leadership Pattern. Harvard Business Review, 36(2), 95101.
    Templar, A.J. and Cawsey, T.F. (1999) Rethinking Career Development in an Era of Portfolio Careers. Career Development International, 4(2), 7076.
    Terry, R.W. (1993) Authentic Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Tesluk, P.E., Farr, J.L. and Klein, S.R. (1997) Influences on Organizational Behavior and Climate on Individual Creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 31(1), 2741.
    Thagard, P. (1996) Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    The Living Roof (2013) The Living Roof at Ford Factory Rouge.
    Thite, M. (2004) Managing People in the New Economy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Thomas, D.A. (2001) The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters. Harvard Business Review, 79(4), 98107.
    Thomas, K.M., Willis, L.A. and Davis, J. (2007) Mentoring Minority Graduate Students: Issues and Strategies for Institutions, Faculties and Students. Equal Opportunities International, 26(3), 178192.
    Thompson, D.E. and Thompson, C. (2004) Students’ Perceptions of Human Resource Development Classes Presented by Distance Education. Paper presented at Fifth European Conference on Human Resource Development Theory and Practice, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Thompson, L. (2003) Improving the Creativity of Organizational Work Groups. Academy of Management Executive, 17(1), 96111.
    Thomson, A., Mabey, C., Storey, J., Gray, C. and Iles P. (2001) Changing Patterns of Management Development. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Thurow, L. (1994) New Game, New Rules, New Strategies. RSA Journal, 142(5454; November), 1056.
    Tichy, N.M. and Devanna, M.A. (1990) The Transformational Leader. New York: Wiley.
    Tierney, P. and Farmer, S.M. (2002) Creative Self-efficacy: Potential Antecedents and Relationship to Creative Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 11371148.
    Tonge, J. (2008) Barriers to Networking for Women in a UK Professional Service. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23(7), 484505.
    Torraco, R. (2004) Challenges and Choices for Theoretical Research in Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(2), 171188.
    Tosey, P., Visser, M. and Saunders, M.N.K. (2011) The Origins and Conceptualizations of ‘Triple-loop’ Learning: A Critical Review. Management Learning, 43(3), 291307.
    Toulouse, E.S.C. (2002) Call for Papers. Call for Papers Issued at the Third Annual UFHRD Conference of HRD Theory and Practice Across Europe, Napier University, Edinburgh.
    Tracey, T.J. and Rounds, J. (1993) Evaluating Holland's and Gati's Vocational Interest Models: A Structural Meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 229246.
    Tregaskis, O. (1998) HRD in Foreign MNEs. International Studies of Management and Organisation, 28(1), 136163.
    Trehan, K. (2004) Who is Not Sleeping with Whom? What's Not Being Talked about in HRD? Journal of European Industrial Training, 28(1), 2338.
    Tschannen-Moran, B. (2013) Skills and Performance Coaching. In E. Cox, T. Bachkirova and D. Clutterbuck (eds), The Complete Handbook of Coaching. London: Sage.
    Tung, R.L. (1981) Selection and Training of Personnel for Overseas Assignments. Columbia Journal of World Business, 26(4), 6878.
    Ty, R. (2007) Performance, Learning and Social Justice: Theorising HRD Practices in the International Training Office, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, 28 February–4 March.
    Tziner, A. and Haccoun, R.R. (1991) Personal and Situational Characteristics Influencing the Effectiveness of Transfer of Training Improvement Strategies. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64(2), 167177.
    Ulrich, D. (1998) A New Mandate for Human Resources. Harvard Business Review, 76(1): 12434.
    Ulrich, D. (2007) Dreams: Where Human Resource Development is Headed to Deliver Value. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 18(1), 18.
    Unsworth, K. (2001) Unpacking Creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 26(2), 289297.
    Utman, C.H. (1997) Performance Effects of Motivation State: A Meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 170182.
    Valentin, C. (2006) Researching Human Resource Development: Evidence of a Critical Approach to HRD Enquiry. International Journal of Training and Development, 10(1), 1729.
    Valentin, C. (2012) Greening HRD: Discourses of Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility. Paper presented at the 13th UFHRD Conference on HRD Theory and Practice Across Europe, Portugal, 4–6 June.
    Van der Veen, R. (2006) Human Resource Development: Irreversible Trend or Temporary Fad? Human Resource Development Review, 5(1), 37.
    Van Vianen, A.E.M. and Fischer, A.H. (2002) Illuminating the Glass Ceiling: The Role of Organizational Culture Preferences. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(3), 315337.
    Van Woerkom, M. (2004) The Value of Critically Reflective Work Behaviour. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Austin, Texas.
    Velada, R. and Caetano, A. (2007) Training Transfer: The Mediating Role of Perception of Learning. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(4), 283296.
    Verdonschot, S. and Kwakman, K. (2004) Borderless Learning Experiences – The Development of Design Guidelines for Collaborative Distance Learning Environments. Paper presented at Fifth European Conference on Human Resource Development Theory and Practice, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Vermeulen, R.C.M. (2002) Narrowing the Transfer Gap: The Advantages of ‘As If’ Situations in Training. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(8), 366374.
    Vidal, J. (2009) Lighter, Thinner—Easter Egg Packaging Goes on a Diet. Guardian, 9 April.
    Vince, R. (2003) The Future Practice of HRD. Human Resource Development International, 6(4), 559563.
    Von Krogh, G. (1988) Care in Knowledge Creation. California Management Review, 40(3), 133153.
    Von Krogh, G., Roos, J. and Slocum, K. (1994) An Essay on Corporate Epistemology. Strategic Management Journal, 15 (Summer Special Issue), 5371.
    Von Oech, R. (1990) A Whack on the Side of the Head. New York: Business Plus Imports.
    Vrasidas, C. and Zembylas, M. (2003) The Nature of Technology-mediated Interaction in Globalised Education. International Journal of Training and Development, 7(4), 271286.
    Waldersee, R. and Eagleson, G. (2002) Shared Leadership in the Implementation of Re-orientations. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23(7), 400407.
    Walker, J.W. (2001) Are We Global Yet? In M.H. Albrecht (ed.), International HRM: Managing Diversity in the Workplace. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Walton, J. (1999) Strategic Human Resource Development. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
    Walton, J.S. (2003) All the World's a Stage – HRD as Theatre. Paper presented at Academy of Human Resource Development Conference Proceedings, Minneapolis, MN, 23–26 February.
    Wang, X. and McLean, G.N. (2007) The Dilemma of Defining International Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Review, 6(1), 96108.
    Ward, J. and Winstanley, D. (2005) Coming out at Work: Performativity and the Recognition and Renegotiation of Identity. Sociological Review, 53(3), 447474.
    Ward, T.B. (1995) What's Old about New Ideas? In S.M. Smith, T.B. Ward and R.A. Finke (eds), The Creative Cognition Approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Warr, P., Bird, M. and Rackham, N. (1976) Evaluation of Management Training. London: Gower Press.
    Watkins, K. (1989) Five Metaphors: Alternative Theories for Human Resource Development. In D.B. Gradeous (ed.), Systems Theory Applied to Human Resource Development. Alexandria, VA: ASTD.
    Watkins, K. and Marsick, V. (1994) Sculpting the Learning Organisation: Lessons in the Art and Science of Systematic Change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Watkins, K.E. and Marsick, V.J. (1997) Building the Learning Organisation: A New Role for Human Resource Developers. In D. Russ-Eft, H. Preskill and C. Sleezer (eds), HRD Review, Research and Implications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Watson, E. (2007) Who or What Creates? A Conceptual Framework for Social Creativity. Human Resource Development Review, 6, 419441.
    Watts, A. (2010) The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities and School Based Change. PhD dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of Education and Human Development of the George Washington University.
    Wayne, S.J., Shore, L.M. and Liden, R.C. (1997) Perceived Organisational Support and Leader Member Exchange: A Social Exchange Perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82111.
    WCED (1987) Our Common Future. World Commission on Environment and. Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Weeks, K., Weeks, M. and Frost, L. (2007) The Role of Race and Social Class in Compensation Decisions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(7), 701718.
    Weick, K.E. (1995) Sensemaking in Organisations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Weick, K.E. (1996) Enactment and the Boundaryless Career: Organizing as We Work. In M.B. Arthur and D. Rousseau (eds), The Boundaryless Career. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Weick, K.E. and Westley, F. (1996) Organisational Learning: Affirming an Oxymoron. In S.R. Clegg, C. Hardy and W.R. Nord (eds), Handbook of Organisation Studies. London: Sage.
    Weinberger, L. (1998) Commonly Held Theories of Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development International, 1(1), 7593.
    Weiss, C.H. (1987) Evaluating Action Programs. New York: Sage.
    Weiss, J.W. (1996) Organisation Behaviour and Change: Managing Diversity, Cross Cultural Dynamics and Ethics. New York: West.
    Wenger, E.C. and Snyder, W.M. (2000) Communities of Practice: The Organisational Frontier. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 139145.
    Wever, R., Boks, C., Marinelli, T. and Stevels, A. (2007) Increasing the Benefits of Product-level Benchmarking for Strategic Eco-efficient Decision-making. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 14(6), 711727.
    Wexley, K.N. and Latham, G.P. (1991) Developing and Training Human Resources in Organisations. New York: Harper & Row.
    Wexley, K. and Latham, L. (2002) Developing and Training Human Resources in Organisations,
    edn. London: Pearson.
    Wexley, K.N. and Nemeroff, W. (1975) Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement and Goal Setting as Methods of Management Development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 239246.
    Wilcox, T. (2006) Human Resource Development as an Element of Corporate Social Responsibility. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 44(2), 184198.
    Wilensky, H.L. (1964) The Professionalization of Everyone? American Journal of Sociology, 137158.
    Wilkesmann, U., Fischer, H. and Wilkesmann, M. (2009) Cultural Characteristics of Knowledge Transfer. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(6), 464477.
    Williams, C.L. (1992) The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the ‘Female’ Professions. Social Problems, 39(3), 253267.
    Willis, V.J. (1997) HRD as Evolutionary System: From Pyramid-building to Space-walking and Beyond. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development Conference, Atlanta, 20–22 February.
    Wilson, C. (2012) Retaining Good People through a Focus on Talent and Purpose: Proper Inductions make Employees Feel as Though They Truly Belong. Human Resource Management International Digest, 20(2), 2931.
    Wilson, J.P. and Beard, C. (2002) Experiential Learning: Linking Theory and Practice. Paper presented at the Third Conference on Human Resource Development: Research and Practice across Europe: Creativity and Innovation in Learning, Edinburgh, 25–26 January.
    Wilson, J.P. and Beard, C. (2003) The Learning Combination Lock: An Experiential Approach to Learning Design. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(2/3/4), 8797.
    Wiltsher, C. (2005) Fundamentals of Adult Learning. In J.P. Wilson (ed.), Human Resource Development: Learning and Training for Individuals and Groups. London: Kogan Page.
    Winterton, J. (2004) A Conceptual Model of Labour Turnover and Retention. Human Resource Development International, 7(4), 371390.
    Woodall, J. (2003) The Common Underlying Assumptions of HRD? Human Resource Development International, 6(3), 281283.
    Woodall, J. (2005) Theoretical Frameworks for Comparing HRD in an International Context. Human Resource Development International, 8(4), 399402.
    Woodall, J., Alker, A., McNeil, C. and Shaw, S. (2002) Convergence and Divergence in HRD: Research and Practice across Europe. In J. McGoldrick, J. Stewart and S. Watson (eds), Understanding Human Resource Development: A Research-based Approach. London: Routledge.
    Woolcock, M. (1998) Social Capital and Economic Development: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis and Policy Framework. Theory and Society, 27(2), 151208.
    Wright, P.C. and Belcourt, M. (1995) Costing Training Activity: A Decision-Maker's Dilemma. Management Decision, 33(2), 515.
    Yang, B. (2003) Towards a Holistic Theory of Knowledge and Adult Learning. Human Resource Development Review, 2(2), 106129.
    Yasin, M.M. (2002) The Theory and Practice of Benchmarking: Then and Now. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 9(3), 217243.
    Yeo, R. (2002) From Individual to Team Learning: Practical Perspectives on the Learning Organisation. Team Performance Management, 8(7/8), 157170.
    Zaccaro, S.J. and Klimoski, R.J. (2001) The Nature of Organizational Leadership: Understanding the Performance Imperatives Confronting Today's Leaders. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Zboralski, K. (2009) Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing in Communities of Practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(3), 90101.
    Zhou, J. (2003) When the Presence of Creative Co-workers is Related to Creativity: Role of Supervisor Close Monitoring, Developmental Feedback and Creative Personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 413422.
    Zuriff, G.E. (1985) Behaviourism: A Conceptual Reconstruction. New York: Columbia University Press.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website