“Howes' new textbook, Human Memory, offers a thorough and expansive introduction to the science of remembering and forgetting. With highly accessible prose, Howes keeps the student clearly in mind as she deftly weaves together traditional and novel approaches to memory research. Unlike any other memory textbook on the market… it looks to be a definite winner in the classroom.”
Presented in a clear and accessible format, Human Memory: Structures and Images offers students a comprehensive overview of research in human memory. Providing a theoretical background for the research, author Mary B. Howes covers three major areas—mainstream experimental research; naturalistic research; and work in the domains of the amnesias, malfunctions of memory, and neuroscience.
Presents extensive coverage of naturalistic research: Areas of current naturalistic research, such as eyewitness testimony and courtroom procedures, are included, as are the functioning of memory under atypical or abnormal conditions and traumatic and repressed memories.; Emphasizes the constructivist position: Offering greater coverage than other books on this model of memory, this text also examines the debate between constructivist and nonconstructivist theories.; Offers two chapters online on computers and memory:Chapter 1 on computer functioning simulation of memory and Chapter 2 on computer models of long-term memory are easily accessed online. See Human Memory in our online catalog at http://www.sagepub.com and click on “Sample Materials” to view these chapters.; Supplies instructors with thoughtfully crafted support material: An Instructor's Resources CD-ROM, including PowerPoint slides, study quizzes, test items, and worksheets, is available to all qualified adopters.
This text is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as Memory, Human Memory, Memory and Cognition, and Memory and Forgetting.
Chapter 8: The Constructivist Model of Memory
The Constructivist Model of Memory
- According to the empiricist or copier tradition, the memory of an event reflects what was seen and heard during the event (perceptual information). In contrast, constructivist theory assumes that the primary code in memory involves the individual's understanding of the event.
- According to constructivist theory, memory content is supplied by relevant background knowledge as well as by a representation of the sights or sounds present during the target episode.
- Gaps in the original memory can be filled in at the time of recall on the basis of inference. As a result, memories can change.
- Sir Frederick Bartlett emphasized the role of higher-order schemas in memory. The term schema is used within the present tradition to ...