“Howes' new textbook, Human Memory, offers a thorough and expansive introduction to the science of remembering and forgetting. With highly accessible prose, Howes keeps the student clearly in mind as she deftly weaves together traditional and novel approaches to memory research. Unlike any other memory textbook on the market… it looks to be a definite winner in the classroom.”
Presented in a clear and accessible format, Human Memory: Structures and Images offers students a comprehensive overview of research in human memory. Providing a theoretical background for the research, author Mary B. Howes covers three major areas—mainstream experimental research; naturalistic research; and work in the domains of the amnesias, malfunctions of memory, and neuroscience.
Presents extensive coverage of naturalistic research: Areas of current naturalistic research, such as eyewitness testimony and courtroom procedures, are included, as are the functioning of memory under atypical or abnormal conditions and traumatic and repressed memories.; Emphasizes the constructivist position: Offering greater coverage than other books on this model of memory, this text also examines the debate between constructivist and nonconstructivist theories.; Offers two chapters online on computers and memory:Chapter 1 on computer functioning simulation of memory and Chapter 2 on computer models of long-term memory are easily accessed online. See Human Memory in our online catalog at http://www.sagepub.com and click on “Sample Materials” to view these chapters.; Supplies instructors with thoughtfully crafted support material: An Instructor's Resources CD-ROM, including PowerPoint slides, study quizzes, test items, and worksheets, is available to all qualified adopters.
This text is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as Memory, Human Memory, Memory and Cognition, and Memory and Forgetting.
Chapter 4: Verbal Short-Term Memory
Verbal Short-Term Memory
- Verbal short-term memory (STM) involves recall of verbal items presented only once. In the case of random items, an average of just under seven items can be retained (the length of a telephone number). This is called the memory span. Items can be retained under optimal conditions for about 45 seconds. The primary code is phonemic, with a weaker semantic component.
- Theories concerning loss of items from verbal STM include the assumption of decay (that they decay out of the system over time), interference, and discrimination failure.
- Longer words usually produce a shorter memory span (the word-length effect). This appears to be because certain kinds of vowel are difficult to maintain in STM and longer words are more likely ...