• Summary
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Award-winning brain research expert David A. Sousa explains current research on how the brain learns language and provides strategies for teaching English language learners.

Putting it all Together
Putting it all together

It should be clear by now that it is a relatively easy task for children to learn their first language. Even learning a second language is not much more difficult if it occurs simultaneously with the first language. In fact, learning two languages at the same time—that is, becoming bilingual—establishes neural circuits that will greatly facilitate acquiring a third language in adulthood. However, learning a second language between the age of 5 to 12 years is a somewhat more difficult task, and still more difficult after that. In school, students who are learning English as their second language must not only acquire academic literacy in order to learn subject-area content, but they must also navigate two cultures. School ...

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