How Hollywood Works


Janet Wasko

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Leading Hollywood talent agencies 21
    • 1.2 Feature films released in the USA, 1990–2002 27
    • 1.3 Pacts 2002 29
    • 1.4 Average negative and marketing costs for feature films 33
    • 1.5 Trade unions active in the US film industry 43
    • 2.1 AOL Time Warner 62–63
    • 2.2 The Walt Disney Company 65–66
    • 2.3 The News Corp. 67–70
    • 2.4 Viacom 72–73
    • 2.5 Sony Corp. 74
    • 2.6 Vivendi/Universal 75
    • 2.7 MGM 77
    • 2.8 Independent releases, 1998–2000 79
    • 2.9 Studio, affiliate and independent releases and box office, 1998–2000 81
    • 2.10 Film divisions' contributions to corporate owners 82
    • 2.11 Summary of receipts and expenditures 88
    • 2.12 Typical distribution fees 92
    • 3.1 Release patterns and markets 105
    • 3.2 Average US ticket prices and admissions, 1990–2001 113
    • 3.3 US cinema sites, 1995–2001 117
    • 3.4 US movie screens, 1987–2001 117
    • 3.5 Top 10 theater circuits in the USA 118
    • 3.6 Top DVD/VHS distributors' market shares (%) 129
    • 3.7 Top video retailers by estimated revenue, 2001 131
    • 3.8 Leading US cable networks and conglomerate ownership 137
    • 4.1 Product placement agencies 160
    • 4.2 Top ten video game based films 168
    • 4.3 Estimated global distributor revenues for US films, 2000 175
    • 5.1 Advertising costs of individual films, 2000 196
    • 5.2 MPAA member companies' advertising costs, 2002 196
  • Appendix A: The Ratings

    General Audiences – All ages admitted. Signifies that the film rated contains nothing most parents will consider offensive for even their youngest children to see or hear. Nudity, sex scenes, and scenes of drug use are absent; violence is minimal; snippets of dialogue may go beyond polite conversation but do not go beyond common everyday expressions.

    PG Parental Guidance Suggested. Some material may not be suitable for children. Signifies that the film rated may contain some material parents might not like to expose to their young children – material that will clearly need to be examined or inquired about before children are allowed to attend the film. Explicit sex scenes and scenes of drug use are absent; nudity, if present, is seen only briefly, horror and violence do not exceed moderate levels.

    PG-13 Parents Strongly Cautioned. Some material may be inappropriate for children under 13. Signifies that the film rated may be inappropriate for pre-teens. Parents should be especially careful about letting their younger children attend. Rough or persistent violence is absent; sexually-oriented nudity is generally absent; some scenes of drug use may be seen; some use of one of the harsher sexually-derived words may be heard.

    R Restricted. Under 17 requires accompanying parent or adult guardian (age varies in some jurisdictions). Signifies that the rating board has concluded that the film rated may contain some adult material. Parents are urged to learn more about the film before taking their children to see it. An R may be assigned due to, among other things, a film's use of language, theme, violence, sex or its portrayal of drug use.

    NC-17 No One 17 and Under Admitted. Signifies that the rating board believes that most American parents would feel that the film is patently adult and that children age 17 and under should not be admitted to it. The film may contain explicit sex scenes, an accumulation of sexually-oriented language, and/or scenes of excessive violence. The NC-17 designation does not, however, signify that the rated film is obscene or pornographic in terms of sex, language or violence.

    Source: MPAA.

    Appendix B: Top 50 All-Time Domestic Grossers

    Appendix C: Variety-Speak

    Excerpts from Variety's Slanguage Dictionary
    • ad-pub relating to the advertising and publicity department of a motion picture studio.
    • Alphabet web the ABC television network.
    • ankle a classic (and enduring) Variety term meaning to quit or be dismissed from a job, without necessarily specifying which; instead, it suggests walking.
    • anni anniversary.
    • arthouse motion picture theater that shows foreign or non-mainstream independent films, often considered high-brow or
    • “art” films.
    • aud audience.
    • Aussie Australian. (See also Oz)
    • ayem a Variety coinage meaning morning (a.m.).
    • BeantownVariety slanguage for Boston, Mass.
    • BeertownVariety slanguage for Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
    • BevHills Beverly Hills.
    • b.f. an abbreviation for boyfriend, usually used in reviews (also g.f. – girlfriend).
    • biopic a Variety coinage meaning biographical film.
    • bird a Variety term for satellite.
    • biz shorthand for business or “the business” – show business.
    • Blighty Britain.
    • blurb TV commercial.
    • B.O. box office or box office receipts.
    • boff (also boffo, boffola) outstanding (usually refers to box office performance). (See also, socko, whammo)
    • bow (n.) opening or premiere; (v.) to debut a production.
    • chantoosie female singer (chanteuse).
    • Chi (also Chitown) Chicago.
    • chopsocky a martial arts film.
    • cleffer a songwriter.
    • click a hit.
    • cliffhanger a melodramatic adventure or suspense film or TV show; usually a serial with a to-be-continued ending.
    • (the) Coast Hollywood, Los Angeles.
    • coin money, financing.
    • Col (also Colpix) Columbia Pictures.
    • commish commissioner, commission.
    • competish competition.
    • confab convention or professional gathering.
    • conglom conglomerate.
    • corny a term in common usage originally coined by Variety, meaning sentimental, obvious or old-fashioned, out of it.
    • crix critics.
    • deejay (also d.j.) commonly used term originally coined by Variety meaning disc jockey.
    • distribbery distribution company.
    • ducats tickets.
    • exec, exex executive, executives.
    • exhib exhibitor (movie theater owner).
    • Eye web the CBS television network.
    • fave favorite.
    • feevee pay TV.
    • fest film or TV festival.
    • flop (also floppola) failure at the box office.
    • f/x special visual effects.
    • Gotham New York City.
    • hardtop indoor movie theater.
    • helm direct a film or TV program.
    • helmer(n.) a director.
    • hoofer dancer.
    • horse opera Western film.
    • hotsy strong performance at the box office.
    • huddle (v.) to have a meeting; (n.) a meeting.
    • indie independent film, filmmaker, producer or TV station.
    • infopike information superhighway (Internet).
    • ink to sign a contract.
    • kidvid children's television.
    • Kiwi New Zealander.
    • KudocastVariety term for an awards show.
    • legs stamina at the box office.
    • lense to film a motion picture.
    • (the) Lion (also Leo)Variety-ese for Metro-Goldwyn Mayer (MGM) Studios, so referred to because of the company's legendary “Leo the Lion” logo.
    • meller melodrama.
    • mitting applause.
    • moppet child, especially child actor.
    • Mouse (also Mouse House) the Walt Disney Co. or any division thereof.
    • nabe a neighborhood theater.
    • netlet fledgling networks UPN and the WB; any network with less than a full weekly schedule of programming.
    • nix reject, say no to; as in the famous Variety headline “Sticks Nix Hick Pix,” meaning that audiences in rural areas were not interested in attending films about rural life.
    • oater Western film, referring to the preferred meal of horses.
    • Oz Australia.
    • ozoner drive-in movie theater.
    • pact (n.) a contract; (v.) to sign a contract.
    • passion pit drive-in theater, so called owing to their privacy factor and romantic allure for teenagers.
    • Peacock web the NBC television network, named for its colorful mascot.
    • pen (v.) to write.
    • percenter (also tenpercenter) agent.
    • pic(s) (also pix) motion picture(s).
    • pinkslip to lay off or fire from a job.
    • pour cocktail party.
    • powwow a meeting or gathering.
    • PPV pay-per-view; “The fight will be presented as a PPV event in the spring.”
    • PR (also p.r.) public relations
    • praiser publicist.
    • praisery public relations firm.
    • preem (n.) an opening-night or premiere performance; (v.) to show a completed film for the first time.
    • prexy (also prez) president.
    • scribbler writer.
    • sesh session or meeting; also a time frame, such as a weekend.
    • sex appeal a term coined by Variety now in common usage, meaning to be attractive to audiences owing to sexual aura.
    • sleeper a film or TV show that lacks pre-release buzz or critical praise, but turns into a success after it is released, usually due to good word-of-mouth.
    • sock (also socko) very good (usually refers to box office performance).
    • sprocket opera film festival.
    • sudser soap opera.
    • tabmag tabloid-style TV magazine show.
    • tix tickets.
    • toon cartoon.
    • topper the head of a company or organization.
    • tubthump to promote or draw attention to, from the ancient show business custom of actors wandering the streets banging on tubs to drum up business.
    • veep (also veepee, VP) vice president.
    • web network.
    • weblet fledgling networks UPN and the WB; any network with less than a full weekly schedule of programming.
    • whammo a sensation (bigger than boffo).
    • whodunit a mystery film (or show).
    • wrap to finish production.
    • yawner a boring show.
    • zitcom a television comedy aimed at teenagers.

    Select Bibliography

    Acland, C.R. (2003) Screen Traffic: Movies, Multiplexes and Global Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Aksoy, A. and Robins, K. (1992) “Hollywood for the 21st Century: Global Competition for Critical Mass in Image Markets,”Cambridge Journal of Economics16 (1): 1–22.
    Albarron, A.B. (1996) Media Economics: Understanding Markets, Industries, and Concepts. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
    Alexander, A., Owers, J., and Carveth, R. (eds) (1993) Media Economics: Theory and Practice. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Allen, R. and Gomery, D. (1985) Film History: Theory and Practice. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Anonymous (1998) The Hollywood Rules: What You Must Know to Make it in the Film Industry. Beverly Hills, CA: Fade In Books.
    Auletta, K. (1997) The Highwaymen: Warriors of the Information Superhighway. New York: Random House.
    Bagdikian, B. (1997) The Media Monopoly. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Balio, T. (ed) (1976) The American Film Industry. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Bart, P. (1999a) The Gross: The Hits, The Flops – The Summer that Ate Hollywood. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Bart, P. (1999b) Who Killed Hollywood? …and Put the Tarnish on Tinseltown. Los Angeles, CA: Renaissance Books.
    Baumgarten, P.A., Farber, D.C., and Fleischer, M. (1992) Producing, Financing, and Distributing Motion Pictures,
    2nd edn
    . New York: Limelight Editions.
    Benedetti, R. (2002) From Concept to Screen. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Bettig, R. (1996) Copyrighting Culture: The Political Economy of Intellectual Property. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Bordwell, D., Staiger, J. and Thompson, K. (1985) The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Brouwer, A. and Wright, T.L. (1990) Working in Hollywood. New York: Crown Publishers.
    Chowdhury, S., Bluestein, W.M., and Davis, K.S. (1997) “Promoting Films Online,”The Forrester Report: Entertainment and Technology, 1 (5), August.
    Clark, D. (1995) Negotiating Hollywood: The Cultural Politics of Actors' Labor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Compaine, B. (ed) (1982) Who Owns the Media? Concentration of Ownership in the Mass Communications Industry. White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications.
    Conant, M. (1978) Antitrust in the Film Industry. Los Angeles: University of Calfornia Press.
    Cones, J.W. (1992) Film Finance and Distribution: A Dictionary of Terms. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
    Cones, J.W. (1997) The Feature Film Distribution Deal: A Critical Analysis of the Single Most Important Film Industry Agreement. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Press.
    Cowie, P. (ed) (2000) Variety International: Film Guide 2000. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
    Daniels, B., Leedy, D., and Sills, S.D. (1998) Movie Money: Understanding Hollywood's (Creative) Accounting Practices. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
    Davis, P. (2002) “Fine young cannibals in the US motion picture industry exhibition market.” online at
    De Vany, A. (2002) “Contracting in the Movies When Nobody Knows Anything: The Careers, Pay and Contracts of Motion Picture Directors,” paper presented at Rotterdam Conference on the Economics of Culture.
    De Vany, A.S. and Eckert, R. (1991) “Motion Picture Antitrust: The Paramount Cases Revisited,”Research in Law and Economics, 14: 51–112.
    DeVany, A.S. and Walls, D. (2001) “How Can Motion Picture Profits Be So Large and Yet So Elusive? The Alpha-Stable Distribution,” paper presented at the Third Business and Economics Scholars Workshop in Motion Picture Industry Studies.
    Dodds, J.C. and Holbrook, M.B. (1988) “What's an Oscar Worth? An Empirical Estimation of the Effect of Nominations and Awards on Movie Distribution and Revenues,” in B.A.Austin (ed), Current Research in Film: Audiences, Economics and the Law, Vol. 4. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
    Donahue, S.M. (1987) American Film Distribution: The Changing Marketplace. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press.
    Eliashberg, J. and Shugan, S.M. (1997) “Film Critics: Influencers or Predictors?”Journal of Marketing, 1, 2: 68–78.
    Encyclopedia of American Associations (2003)
    39th edn
    . Vol. 1, Part 2. New York: Thompson Gale Publishers.
    Fink, G.M. (ed) (1977) Labor Unions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Garnham, N. (1979) “Contribution to a Political Economy of Mass Communication,”Media, Culture and Society, 1: 123–46.
    Garnham, N. (1990) Capitalism and Communication: Global Culture and the Economics of Information. London: Sage Publications.
    Golding, P. and Murdock, G. (1991) “Culture, Communication, and Political Economy,” in J.Curran and M.Gurevitch (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold, pp. 11–30.
    Goldman, W. (1983) Adventures in the Screen Trade: A Personal View of Hollywood and Screenwriting. New York: Warner Books.
    Gomery, D. (1989) “Media Economics: Terms of Analysis,”Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 6 (1): 43–60.
    Grummitt, K.-P. (2001) “Hollywood: America's Film Industry,”Leicester: Dodona Research.
    Guback, T. (1969) The International Film Industry: Western Europe and America Since 194S. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Guback, T. (1978) “Are We Looking at the Right Things in Film?” paper presented at the Society for Cinema Studies conference, Philadelphia, PA.
    Guback, T. (1989) “Should a Nation Have Its Own Film Industry?”Directions, 3 (1): 489–92.
    Guiles, F.L. (1975) Hanging on in Paradise. New York: Conestoga Press.
    Hamsher, J. (1997) Killer Instinct: How Two Young Producers Took on Hollywood and Made the Most Controversial Film of the Decade. New York: Broadway Books.
    Hark, I.R. (ed) (2001) Exhibition: The Film Reader. New York: Routledge.
    Harmetz, A. (1983) Rolling Breaks and Other Movie Business. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Harmon, R. (1994) The Beginning Filmmaker's Business Guide: Financial, Legal, Marketing, and Distribution Basics of Making Movies. New York: Walker and Co.
    Harries, D. (ed) (2002) The New Media Book. London: BFI Pubishing.
    Hartsough, D. (1995) “Crime Pays: The Studios' Labor Deals in the 1930s,” in J.Staiger (ed), The Studio System. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Home, G. (2001) Class Struggle in Hollywood, 1930–1950: Moguls, Mobsters, Stars, and Trade Unionists. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Hoskins, C., McFadyen, S., and Finn, A. (1997) Global Television and Film: An Introduction to the Economics of the Business. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Huettig, M.D. (1944) Economic Control of the Motion Picture Industry. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Jowett, G. and Linton, J.M. (1980) Movies as Mass Communication. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
    Kawin, B.F. (1992) How Movies Work. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Kent, N. (1991) Naked Hollywood: Money and Power in the Movies Today. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Kent, S.L. (2001) The Ultimate History of Video Games. New York: Prima Publishing.
    Kindem, G. (ed) (1982) The American Movie Industry: The Business of Motion Pictures. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Klingender, F.D. and Legg, S. (1937) Money Behind the Screen. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Koenig, A.E. (ed) (1970) Broadcasting and Bargaining. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Lardner, J. (1987) Fast Forward: Hollywood, the Japanese and the Onslaught of the VCR. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Leedy, D.J. (1980) Motion Picture Distribution: An Accountant's Perspective. Self-published booklet.
    Levy, E. (1999) Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. New York: New York University Press.
    Levy, F. (2000) Hollywood 101: The Film Industry. Los Angeles: Renaissance Books.
    Lewis, J. (2000) Hollywood v. Hard Core: How the Struggle Censorship Saved the Modern Film Industry. New York: New York University Press.
    Litman, B.L. (1998) The Motion Picture Mega-Industry. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Litwak, M. (1986) Reel Power: The Struggle for Influence and Success in the New Hollywood. New York: New American Library.
    Litwak, M. (2002) Dealmaking in the Film and Television Industry from Negotiations through Final Contracts,
    2nd edn
    . Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
    Lukk, T. (1997) Movie Marketing: Opening the Picture and Giving it Legs. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
    McDonald, P. (2000) The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities. London: Wallflower Press.
    Meisel, J. (1986) “Escaping Extinction: Cultural Defense of an Undefended Border,” in D.Flaherty and W.McKercher (eds), Southern Exposure: Canadian Perspectives on the United States. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
    Miller, T., Govil, N., McMurria, J., and Maxwell, R. (2001) Global Hollywood. London: BFI Publishing.
    Moore, S.M. (2000) The Biz: The Basic Business, Legal and Financial Aspects of the Film Industry. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press.
    Moret, D. (1991) “The New Nickelodeons: A Political Economy of the Home Video Industry with Particular Emphasis on Video Software Retailers,” MA thesis, University of Oregon.
    Mosco, V. (1996) The Political Economy of Communication: Rethinking and Renewal. London: Sage Publications.
    Murdock, G. and Golding, P. (1974) “For a Political Economy of Mass Communications,”Socialist Register, pp. 205–234.
    Murdock, G. and Golding, P. (1979) “Capitalism, Communication and Class Relations,” in J.Curran, M.Gurevitch, and J.Woollacott (eds), Mass Communication and Society. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
    Nielsen, M. (1985) “Motion Picture Craft Workers and Craft Unions in Hollywood: The Studio Era, 1912–1948,” PhD dissertation, University of Illinois.
    Nielsen, M.C. and Mailes, G. (1995) Hollywood's Other Blacklist: Union Struggles in the Studio System. London: British Film Institute.
    Obst, L. (1996) Hello, He Lied – And Other Truths from the Hollywood Trenches. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
    O'Donnell, P. and McDougal, D. (1992) Fatal Subtraction: How Hollywood Really Does Business. New York: Doubleday.
    Olson, S.R. (1999) Hollywood Planet: Global Media and the Competitive Advantage of Narrative Transparency. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    PBS (2001) “The Monster that Ate Hollywood.” Online at
    Pendakur, M. (1990) Canadian Dreams and American Control: The Political Economy of the Canadian Film Industry. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
    Pendakur, M. (1998) “Hollywood North: Film and TV Production in Canada,” inG.Sussman and J.Lent (eds), Global Productions: Labor in the Making of the “Information Society”. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Petrikin, C., Hindes, A., and Cox, D. (eds) (1999) Variety Power Players 2000: Movers and Shakers, Powerbrokers and Career Makers in Hollywood. New York: Perigee/Berkeley Publishing.
    Picard, R. (1989) Media Economics: Concepts and Issues. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
    Prindle, D.F. (1988) The Politics of Glamour: Ideology and Democracy in the Screen Actors Guild. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Prindle, D.F. (1993) Risky Business: The Political Economy of Hollywood. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Puttnam, D. (1998) Movies and Money. New York: Alfred Knopf.
    Resnik, G. and Trost, S. (1996) All You Need to Know about the Movie and TV Business. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Rosenbaum, J. (2000) Movie Wars: How Hollywood and the Media Limit What Movies We Can See. Chicago, IL: A Capella Books.
    SAG/DGA (1999) “US Runaway Film and Television Production Study Report.” Online at
    Schwartz, N.L. (1982) The Hollywood Writers' Wars. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Segrave, K. (1997) American Films Abroad: Hollywood's Domination of the World's Movie Screens from the 1890s to the Present. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., Inc.
    Sheff, D. (1993) Game Over. New York: Random House.
    Sherman, E. (1999) Selling Your Film: A Guide to the Contemporary Marketplace,
    2nd edn
    . Los Angeles: Acrobat Books.
    Shorris, S. and Bunby, M.A. (1994) Talking Pictures: With the People Who Made Them. New York: The New Press.
    Smith, A. (2001) Popped Culture: The Social History of Popcorn in America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press.
    Smythe, D.W. (1960) “On the Political Economy of Communication,”Journalism Quarterly, Autumn, pp. 563–72.
    Squire, J.E. (ed) (1992) The Movie Business Book,
    2nd edn
    . New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Storper, M. and Christopherson, S. (1987) “Flexible Specialization and Regional Industrial Agglomerations: The Case of the U.S. Motion Picture Industry,”Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 77 (1).
    Stumer, M. B. (1992) “Show-Biz Unions, Guilds: A Practitioner's Guide; Cutting-Edge Issues,”Entertainment Law and Finance, August, p. 1.
    Sychowski, P.V. (2000) Electronic Cinema: The Big Screen Goes Digital. London: Screen Digest.
    Taub, E. (1994) Gaffers, Grips and Best Boys. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Taylor, T. (1999) The Big Deal: Hollywood's Million-Dollar Spec Script Market. New York: William Morrow and Co.
    Thompson, K. (1985) Exporting Entertainment: America in the World Film Market 1907–34. London: British Film Institute.
    Turan, K. (2002) Sundance to Sarajevo: Film Festivals and the World They Made. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Turcotte, S. (1995) “Gimme a Bud! The Feature Film Product Placement Industry,” a Professional Report presented as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Arts in Advertising at the University of Texas at Austin. Online at
    Ulff-Møller, J. (2001) Hollywood's Film Wars with France: Film-Trade Diplomacy and the Emergence of the French Film Quota Policy. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
    US Dept. of Commerce (2001) The Migration of U.S. Film and Television Production Impact of “Runaways” on Workers and Small Business in the U.S. Film Industry. International Trade Administration report.
    Valenti, J. (2002) “A Clear Present and Future Danger,” prepared for the House Appropriations Committee, Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies. Reprinted online at
    Vogel, H.L. (1998) Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis,
    4th edn
    . New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Wasko, J. (1982) Movies and Money: Financing the American Film Industry. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
    Wasko, J. (1994) Hollywood in the Information Age: Beyond the Silver Screen. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Wasko, J. (1998) “Challenges to Hollywood's Labor Force in the 1990s,” in G.Sussman and J.Lent (eds), Global Productions: Labor in the Making of the “Information Society”. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Wasko, J. (2001) Understanding Disney: The Manufacture of Fantasy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Wasko, J., Phillips, M. and Purdie, C. (1993) “Hollywood Meets Madison Avenue: The Commercialization of US Films,”Media, Culture and Society, 15 (2): 271–93.
    Wasser, F. (2001) Veni, Vidi, Video: The Hollywood Empire and the VCR. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Weinberger, E. (1995) Wannabe: A Would-Be Player's Misadventures in Hollywood. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Wiese, M. (1989) Film and Video Marketing. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions.
    Wilson, J.M. (1998) Inside Hollywood: A Writer's Guide to Researching the World of Movies and TV. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books.
    Wyatt, J. (1994) High Concept: Movies and Marketing in Hollywood. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website