How Advertising Works: The Role of Research


Edited by: John Philip Jones

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Markets and Advertising

    Part II: Research before the Advertising Runs

    Part III: Research after the Advertising has Run

    Part IV: Advertising Effects, Including Some Unexpected Ones

  • Copyright

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    This series of handbooks is dedicated to David Ogilvy

    Editorial Board

    The quality of research will improve, and this will generate a bigger corpus of knowledge as to what works and what doesn't. Creative people will learn to exploit this knowledge, thereby improving their strike rate at the cash register.

    DavidOgilvy, 1983 (the first of 13 predictions about advertising)
  • Name Index

    About the Authors

    Alexander L. Biel is a distinguished international market research and marketing consultant, as well as an acknowledged expert on brand equity and advertising evaluation. He was educated at the University of Chicago and Columbia University. After serving as Associate Director of Research at Leo Burnett, he held a series of senior posts at Ogilvy & Mather in Europe and North America. He was Executive Director of David Ogilvy's Center for Research & Development (later the WPP Center for R&D). He is the author of more than 70 articles and papers on marketing topics, and his 1993 book Brand Equity and Advertising (with David Aaker) is in its fourth printing. He is a nonexecutive director of Research International and President of Alexander L. Biel & Associates.

    Leo Bogart (Ph.D., University of Chicago) is a marketing consultant and columnist for Presstime Magazine. Previously, he was Executive Vice President and General Manager of the Newspaper Advertising Bureau. He has directed opinion research for Standard Oil Company (New Jersey; now Exxon), marketing research for Revlon, and international research for McCann-Erickson. Among his books are Strategy in Advertising, Commercial Culture, and Polls and the Awareness of Public Opinion. He has served as President of the American and World Associations for Public Opinion Research, the Society for Consumer Psychology, the Market Research Council, and the Radio and Television Research Council. He and George Gallup were the first persons to be elected to the Market Research Council Hall of Fame.

    Simon Broadbent began his work in media research and advertising in 1962, after 7 years at universities and three jobs in the industry, the last as a marketing manager. He has worked for Leo Burnett in London and Chicago, and is a founding partner of the Brand Consultancy. He currently chairs the U.K. Advertising Association's Economics Committee. His academic background and training in engineering have formed his main interest, in which he is one of the world's leading experts: measurement of the effectiveness of advertising. He helped start the Advertising Effectiveness Awards run by the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising, and also edited the first three books on the subject: Advertising Works, Advertising Works 2, and 20 Advertising Case Histories. He has published books on media and media research (Spending Advertising Money), on the decision concerning how much an advertiser should spend (The Advertiser's Guide to Budget Determination), and on campaign evaluation and planning (Accountable Advertising).

    Fiona Chew received her Ph.D. in communications from the University of Washington, and is currently Associate Professor at the Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University. She is an active consultant on various national and international telecommunications projects. She has assessed the impact of television and mass media on audience perceptions, and was involved in a four-country project that investigated the impact of a five-part television series on health. She was also coinvestigator for a Kellogg Foundation research grant project that evaluated the long-term national impact of a television program. Her other projects include assessing the perceptions of news viewers for MacNeil/Lehrer Productions and evaluating the appeal, comprehensibility, and after-school use of science programs for Children's Television Workshop. She is a former television/film producer of educational programs, has worked for a consumer market research organization, and was a research director at a major-market public television station. Her research interests focus on message analysis and effects, health communication, and information needs. She has published in the major journals in her field.

    W. Edwards Denting (1900–1993) was an engineer, a statistician, and one of the world's leading marketing thinkers—a guru whose ideas have exercised enormous influence. He began to study Japanese industry after 1945 and contributed to its spectacular growth. He conceived the philosophy of total quality management, the widely applied management system aimed at the highest-quality production accompanied by reductions in costs. The drive toward these objectives is provided by cooperative work among employees at all levels, totally focused on and committed to the same goals. He was a believer in the idea that the person who does no research has nothing to teach.

    Andrew S. C. Ehrenberg has been Professor of Marketing at South Bank University, London, since 1993. He was trained as a mathematician, and he spent 23 years at the London Business School and has held academic appointments at Cambridge, Columbia, Durham, London, New York University, Pittsburgh, and Warwick. He was in the advertising industry for 15 years, at research companies and at an agency. He is a former Chairman of the Market Research Society (U.K.) and was Gold Medalist in 1969 and 1996. He is an expert in the empirical study of consumer behavior with theory to match, as well as in advertising, promotions, and pricing. With his colleagues he has published 10 books and monographs and more than 300 papers, which have appeared in Nature, Journal of the Market Research Society, Admap, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Journal of Advertising Research, Journal of Marketing Research, and Journal of Marketing. He is an active speaker and consultant on both sides of the Atlantic.

    Paul Feldwick, a graduate of Oxford University, is a leading British advertising analyst and planner. Head of Account Planning at BMP DDB, London (the agency where Stanley Pollitt pioneered the account planning concept in the 1960s), he also has global responsibilities with DDB Needham Worldwide. He is a key participant in the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA) Advertising Effectiveness Awards and editor of two volumes of the collected prize-winning papers, Advertising Works 5 and Advertising Works 6. A Fellow of the IPA and of the Market Research Society (U.K.), he is a well-known writer and speaker on advertising and research topics.

    Donald Gunn is Director of Creative Resources Worldwide at Leo Burnett Company. He graduated from Cambridge University in 1962 with a B.A. in social anthropology, and was appointed Account Executive trainee at the British advertising agency the London Press Exchange (acquired by the Leo Burnett Company in 1969). He changed positions from Account Director to Copywriter in 1968. He has served as Creative Director at Leo Burnett in South Africa, the Netherlands, and France, and has also served as Regional Creative Director in Europe on the Philip Morris account. In 1984 he was transferred to the Leo Burnett head office in Chicago to become Director of Creative Resources Worldwide, and he has been carrying out this role based in London since 1995.

    Nigel S. Hollis, a British-born market researcher, is Group Research & Development Director for Millward Brown International, based in Connecticut. (Millward Brown is probably the most important research company in the world that specializes in brand and advertising tracking.) He began his market research career at Cadbury Schweppes in the United Kingdom. He joined Millward Brown in 1983, and had a key role in the development of Millward Brown's successful TV LINK pretest. In 1988 he transferred to the United States and, before moving to his current position, worked on a variety of client businesses, mostly related to the analysis of tracking research. He has published in the Journal of Advertising Research, Admap, Planung und Analyse, and Journal of the Market Research Society (U.K.). The topics of his research include brand equity measurement, ad banner effectiveness on the World Wide Web, and sales response modeling.

    John Philip Jones is a British-born American academic and a graduate of Cambridge University (B.A. with honors and M.A. in economics). He spent 27 years in the advertising agency business, including 25 years with J. Walter Thompson in Britain, Holland, and Scandinavia, managing the advertising for a wide range of major brands of repeat-purchase packaged goods. In 1981, he joined the faculty of the Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, where he is now a tenured full Professor and former Chairman of the Advertising Department. He is also Adjunct Professor at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia. His published works include five books and more than 70 journal articles. He specializes in the measurement of advertising effects, and is an active consultant to many advertisers and advertising agencies in the United States and overseas. He has been the recipient of a number of professional awards, and is currently a member of the (U.S.) National Advertising Review Board.

    Timothy Joyce (1933–1997), who was educated at Cambridge University, worked for J. Walter Thompson Company for 20 years, becoming Research Director of J. Walter Thompson, New York, and subsequently Media Director of J. Walter Thompson, London. A research innovator, he originated in Britain the pioneer system of syndicated single-source research that was subsequently copied in detail in the United States by the organization now known as Simmons Market Research Bureau. He left J. Walter Thompson and founded Mediamark Research Inc. in 1979. He subsequently worked as an Executive Consultant for A. C. Nielsen, and, until his death in September 1997, was Vice Chairman of the Starch Division of Roper Starch Worldwide. He is the author of many important papers on advertising and research topics.

    Herbert E. Krugman started his career in the Psychological Branch, Office of the Air Surgeon, HQ, U.S. Army Air Force. He has been on the faculties of Yale, Princeton, and Columbia Universities. He served as Research Vice President, Raymond Leowy Associates, and at Marplan, before becoming Manager of Public Opinion Research at the General Electric Corporation (GE). It was at GE that he became a seminal contributor to the study of the psychological workings of advertising, and originator of the concepts of high and low involvement. He later became Principal of Herbert E. Krugman & Associates. He has been President of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, American Psychological Association (Consumer Psychology), and the Market Research Council, and a member of the boards of several research organizations, including the Advertising Research Foundation, Marketing Science Institute, and Roper Institute. He has published 60 articles.

    Josh McQueen (B.S., M.S., University of Illinois) joined Leo Burnett, Chicago, in 1974. He became Associate Research Director of Burnett's London office in 1978, Research Director of Burnett's Australia/Asia offices in 1980, and then returned to the United States in 1984 to become Burnett's Director of Research in 1985. He was named Executive Vice President in 1988, joined the Board of Directors in 1993, and became Global Head of Planning in 1996.

    Scott D. Moore (Ph.D., University of Illinois) joined Leo Burnett, Chicago, in 1988 as Assistant Research Analyst. He then became, in turn, Research Analyst, Senior Research Analyst, Research Manager, Associate Research Director, and, in 1994, Director of Consumer Modeling. He has extensive experience with a broad range of clients.

    Paula Pierce holds a B.A. in psychology and sociology from Fairleigh Dickinson University and has completed doctoral course work at the City University of New York Graduate Center. She is Vice President, Director of Qualitative Services for McCollum Spielman Worldwide (MSW). In addition, she is heavily involved in the development and direction of MSW's international, multicultural projects, qualitative, quantitative, and custom. With some 20 years in the business, her experience encompasses concept, strategy, copy, product, and packaging evaluation, as well as attitude/usage and customer satisfaction studies. She writes and edits MSW's newsletter, Topline, and has written many MSW white papers on topics such as celebrities, humor, and emotional and multicultural advertising. Her work has been published in the Journal of Advertising Research, Quirk's, and other industry journals, and she recently contributed chapters to marketing/advertising college textbooks edited by Larry Percy and Giep Franzen. She is a member of the Qualitative Research Consultants Association.

    Alfred Politz (1902–1982) arrived in the United States in 1937 as a refugee from Nazi Germany. He had received a Ph.D. in physics and had already had a successful 8-year career in marketing and advertising research before his arrival in the United States. During the 1940s and 1950s he was the major figure in the American marketing and advertising research fields, providing counsel to most of the leading advertisers in the country. Arguably the most important figure the market research industry has ever produced, he will be particularly remembered for his development of random/probability sampling.

    Jan S. Slater holds a B.A. from Hastings College in Hastings, Nebraska; an M.S. in advertising from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; and Ph.D. in mass communications from the Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University. Currently, she is Assistant Professor and Director of the Advertising Program in the Communication Arts Department at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio. Previously, she was an instructor in advertising and public relations at the University of Nebraska at Omaha and at the Newhouse School at Syracuse University. In addition to her 10 years of teaching experience, she has had 20 years in the advertising business, working in both private industry and advertising agencies. Until 1990, she owned her own agency, J. Slater & Associates in Omaha, Nebraska.

    Robert L. Steiner began an eclectic career after receiving an undergraduate degree from Dartmouth and an M.A. in economics from Columbia. It commenced with a 25-year stint as a consumer goods manufacturer in soap, soft drink concentrates, housewares, over-the-counter drugs, and toys, where he became president of Kenner Products Co. While teaching a graduate course in the history of marketing thought at the University of Cincinnati, he was asked to join the staff of the Federal Trade Commission, where he served for 5 years as a Senior Staff Economist. He has published widely in leading scholarly journals in economics, law, marketing, and advertising. The Steiner Effect and the Steiner Paradox are named after him. Currently, he is active as a business and economics consultant in Washington, D.C.

    Alice K. Sylvester (B.S., M.S., DePaul University) spent 11 years with J. Walter Thompson, Chicago, ending as Senior Vice President/Media Research. From 1994 through 1997, she was with Leo Burnett, Chicago, first as Director of Brand Economics, where she explored the dynamics of brand accountability in all its aspects, then as Account Planner. In 1997, she joined Young & Rubicam in Chicago. She is Chair of the Board of Directors of the Advertising Research Foundation and serves on the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of Advertising Research.

    Brian Wansink (Ph.D., Stanford University) has been a Marketing Professor at Dartmouth College (1990–1994), at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam (1994–1995), and at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania (1995–1997). Currently he is working at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, to establish a research program that focuses on brand revitalization—specifically to determine the types of advertising and packaging that increase the usage frequency and usage volume of mature packaged goods. His research has been sponsored by several Fortune 500 packaged goods companies, and it has won an award for its managerial relevance. His work has also been reported on the front pages of the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. He is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Marketing and the Journal of Advertising Research.

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