Healing through Communication: The Practice of Caring


Carol Leppanen Montgomery

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Concept of Caring

    Part II: The Theory of Caring

    Part III: The Effects of Caring

  • Dedication

    To my son David, and to the memory of my mother, Claire Harcourt Leppanen


    View Copyright Page


    At one time, medical advances and technology seemed to promise deliverance from the threat of our own vulnerability and mortality. As Daniel Callahan once noted, however, this promise has yet to be fulfilled. Mortality rates are still the same as they have always beeb—one per person.

    So, while science and technology still struggle to buffer the onslaughts of illness, debilitation, and death, these threats continue to be a part of our human existence, and we are still faced with our own mortality. We have controlled such scourges as polio and the whooping cough, but new plagues, such as cancer and AIDS, continue to touch the lives of most individuals. Even those who practice every preventive control strategy are not invulnerable, and none of us is immune from the threat of loss of our loved ones.

    All we have left when control strategies fail us, and breakdown occurs, are the compassion and caring that we extend to one another. Unfortunately, during our fascination with the promise of technology, we lost sight of the importance of this human element.

    In our culture, caring is viewed as frivolous compared to the real work of curing. Our cultural heros are those who represent power—the power to save us from the invisible demons that seem to cause our suffering. Yet each day, a very different form of heroics is shown by those who stand by and care for those for whom technology has failed: the disabled, the chronically ill, and the dying. Our society shuns these victims, for they represent our failures and loss of control. As these victims are shunned, the efforts to help them create a meaningful existence are also ignored and devalued.

    In this book, I would like to shed light on this underacknowledged, but very important, part of health care and to recognize caring as being more than mere sentiment. I will at least begin to address the complexity and depth of insight that is required of those professionals brave enough to get involved beyond their professional persona, and who use their hearts as well as their science to heal. It is my hope that this text will inspire caregivers to give a voice to and advocate for what Jean Watson would call the private and invisible world of a patient. I also hope that both students and seasoned clinicians will be reinspired to find meaning and joy in their work, as I have been reinspired by my work on this project.

    The use of the terms client and patient was considered in terms of their implications. It has been fashionable in some disciplines to substitute the word client for patient because of the paternalistic implications of the role of the patient in the health-care system. On the other hand, the term client might seem artificial in some settings, because it seems to deny the vulnerability and special status afforded to those who are truly helpless. Therefore, both of these terms are used throughout this text, to represent both connotations of the experience of being a recipient of health-care services.


    I am extremely grateful to Trish Jones, my dissertation chair, for her belief that scholarship should make a difference in the world. Her courage in taking risks and her unrelenting, but supportive rigor have been a great example. I also wish to thank the rest of my committee: Al Goldberg, Carl Larson, Karol Merten, and Janet Quinn. A postbaccalaureate training grant from the Division of Health and Human Services funded the dissertation research, and the research committee, through the Center for Nursing Research at the University of Colorado, funded the continuation. Joanie Rogers Jackson, Debby Sandella, Pauli Sarasoli, Kay Vaughn, and Denny Webster all provided helpful feedback about the manuscript and the developing theory.

    The Center for Human Caring at the University of Colorado School of Nursing has provided intellectual stimulation, especially with the ideas of Peggy Chinn, Sally Gadow, Janet Quinn, and the founder, Jean Watson. Similarly, I wish I could acknowledge those countless students, workshop participants, and colleagues who stimulated my thinking and provided me with new ideas about caring.

    Many nurses with whom I have worked in the past have taught me so much and made me proud to be a nurse. The two that stand out in my mind are Charlene Miller and Kay Davis. Recently, I had the good fortune to discover the work of Rachel Corday, an artist whose vision has helped me to appreciate caring and spirituality in a whole new way.

    Finally, my most important debt of gratitude goes to the participants in this research. Their stories, their insights, and the sheer depth of their practice went far beyond what I had expected to find when I started this project. These individual caregivers are the heart and soul of this book.

  • Epilogue

    The following story is from “Ode to the Psychiatric Nurse” by Rachel Corday (tape and manuscript available through the Boulder Alliance for the Mentally 111).

    From her room one day, Cooper hears David screaming. David is still a boy and when he screams, it is like a terrified child who cannot be consoled.

    “I pulled myself to my feet,” Cooper says, “for my voices weighed heavy against my brain like an iron slab. I pushed them away by crawling out from underneath and found my way to David's door. He screamed again in a wail as I got to his room. I saw then something I had never seen on the ward.

    “Mrs. Harrington, the nurse, was there and had pried David away from the wall where he had pounded his head over and over, the way he did at these times. Nothing, it seemed, could stop him. And he would keep on until the aides restrained him or until he had knocked himself unconscious. But Mrs. Harrington had stopped him in time, although his blood ran down the wall.

    “She held him against her breast and he bled against her uniform. She sunk with him to the floor as she braced him with her body.

    “‘David, David,’ she said, ‘no, no, it's alright now.’

    “She surrounded him in her arms as if to hold him everywhere.

    “‘David,’ she said, ‘no, no.’

    “Then she came to rest with him against the wall. She rocked him and pressed her cheek against the side of his head. Her face was as if enjoined with him, so intensely was she with him, so perfectly did she care. And David heard her.

    “‘It's me, David, stop now. You know me. David, David, David.’

    “And he became still and his shoulders dropped and his head rested onto her breast as if it had belonged there all along.

    “‘Yes,’ she said. ‘It's alright now. No one's going to hurt you. I have you.’

    “The aides were there, and someone with a shot. But no one moved in the silence, but stood inside the doorway, their arms fallen to their sides. They gazed across the room at David's stillness, and at Mrs. Harrington as she rocked with him, as if to some ancient rhythm.

    “She did no more than gently close her eyes as David's blood upon her cheek mixed with her tears and dropped onto his back and spread into a circle of stain that had in mind some pattern of its own to make. Some memory that, suspended in time, would return and return again.”

    Appendix: Guidelines to Prevent Becoming Involved in a Destructive Way

    What is it about this person that I am overinvolved with? For example, am I fascinated with the pathology or the symptoms? Do I identify with the problem?

    (The problem with these questions is that if you answer “yes,” it does not necessarily indicate the wrong kind of involvement. For example, identification with a client is not a problem unless it is a destructive identification. Those who are most at risk might answer “no,” as they are probably unaware of the needs that are driving the relationship with the client).

    Is something about this client's personality or situation getting me “heated up”?

    (This is okay and can provide motivation for advocacy. The danger arises when we get caught up in principle at the expense of the client by making the client a “cause.” Another danger is that this may be our battle, although we may not be aware of it and may think that it is the client's need.)

    Is my ego getting caught up in this situation? Will this case prove my abilities or worth as a clinician? Have I, as a helper, become the focus of this experience rather than the client? Do I think I'm the only one who can help?

    (It's hard to admit when we get our egos caught up in our work. One caregiver explained that she will get a swelled heart rather than a swelled head when she has a caring experience.)

    Can I stand back and look at this situation from a variety of perspectives? Can I hear the team's point of view, the family's?

    (If we become too immersed in the client's inner world without an alternative perspective, we will no longer be a resource for that person.)

    Might I be unwittingly using this relationship to work out some pain from my own personal history?

    (While helping others with similar problems can be a very healing practice, it requires that we have healed ourselves. For this reason, and many others, many people in the human service fields find counseling, psychotherapy, or other healing work helpful.)

    Am I acting as “The Lone Ranger,” rather than trying to mobilize a team response?

    (Successful caregivers will see themselves as part of a team even if they have to create one from community/client resources.)

    Am I empowering this person by doing the very least possible for the person so that I don't take away any of the client's potential?

    (This may be difficult because it means allowing yourself to watch someone struggle to solve problems instead of just taking over yourself and doing it for the person.)

    Do I believe in the inherent competence of this client? Do I feel a sense of hope for the client?

    (Every client has strengths and inner resources that have not yet been mobilized. If we become immersed in the client's own sense of de-spair and helplessness, then we will probably diminish them and create the client's dependency on us and on the system.)

    Have I utilized all existing resources on behalf of this client. Have I created some if there aren't any?

    (Remember that when caring, you strive to be like a conductor of an orchestra, bringing all the resources to life, rather than being the main resource yourself.)

    Do I have a preconceived idea of what I would like the outcome to be for this client?

    (While we all have to be professionally accountable for outcomes, to take this on as though we really know what the best outcome for this person should be is arrogant. While we do the best we can, successful caregivers strive just to make a difference for the client, no matter how small it might seem, rather than to try to control the client or what happens to the client.)

    Am I avoiding my own life by becoming so caught up with this client or with my work in general?

    (Sometimes, when we are in a personal crisis, it can be helpful to temporarily lose ourselves in work, but to allow work to become part of a pattern of avoidance is the antithesis of caring.)

    Is there a sense of harmony, or a beautiful feeling, even in the face of tragic circumstances, or do I feel emotionally drained without a sense of meaning?

    (This is probably the most challenging question, for which there is no easy answer. You should always strive to make sense out of what you are exposed to and make use of all the spiritual, philosophical, and psychological resources that can help you do this. If it is just too much, then it is okay to back off emotionally and distance yourself in whatever way you can.)


    Achterberg, J. (1990). Woman as healer. Boston: Shambala Press.
    Allan, J.D., & Hall, B.A. (1988). Challenging the focus on technology: A critique of the medical model in a changing health care system. Advances in Nursing Science, 10 (3), 22–34.
    Airman, I., Vinsel, A., & Brown, B. (1981). Dialectic conceptions in social psychology. In L.Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 108–161). New York: Academic Press.
    Argyle, M. (1979). New developments in the analysis of social skills. In A.Wolfgang (Ed.), Nonverbal behavior: Applications and cultural implications (pp. 139–158). New York: Academic Press.
    Arnett, R.C., & Nakagawa, G. (1983). The assumptive roots of empathic listening: A critique. Communication Education, 32, 368–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634528309378558
    Bateson, G. (1935). Culture, contact, and schismogenisis. Man, 35, 178–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2789408
    Bateson, G. (1958). Naven. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Battista, J.R. (1982). The holographic model, holistic paradigm, information theory and consciousness. In K.Wilber (Ed.), The holographic paradigm and other paradoxes (pp. 143–149). Boston: New Science Library.
    Baxter, L.A. (1988). A dialectical perspective on communication strategies in relationship development. In S.Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships. New York: Wiley.
    Baxter, L.A. (1989). Dialectical contradictions in relationship development. Unpublished manuscript, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon.
    Belenky, M.F., Clinchy, B.M., Goldberger, N.R., & Tarule, J.M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.
    Bellah, R.N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W.M., Seidler, A., & Tipton, S.M. (1986). Habits of the heart. New York: Harper & Row.
    Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
    Benner, P., & Wrubel, J. (1989). The primacy of caring: Stress and coping in health and illness. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
    Birdwhistell, R.L. (1970). Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Broome, B.J. (1985). A reconceptualization of empathy and its role in interpersonal communication (Report No. CS 505 161). Fairfax, VA: George Mason University. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 265 584).
    Brown, L. (1986). The experience of care: Patient perspectives. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 8 (2), 56–62.
    Buber, M. (1957). Distance and relation. Psychiatry, 20, 97–104.
    Cameron, M. (1986). The moral and ethical component of nurse-burnout. Nursing Management (Critical Care Management Edition), 17 (4), 42–44.
    Carkhuff, R.R. (1969a). Helping and human relations. Vol. 1: Selection and training. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston.
    Carkhuff, R.R. (1969b). Helping and human relations. Vol. 2: Practice and research. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Chappie, E.D. (1970). Culture and biological man: Explorations in behavioral anthropology. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Clynes, M. (1979). Semantics: Communication and generation of emotion through dynamic expression. In S.Weitz (Ed.), Nonverbal communication: Readings with commentary (pp. 386–397). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Cochrane, D., Oberle, K., Nielsen, S., Sloan-Roseneck, J., Anderson, K., & Finlay, C. (1992). Do they really understand us?American Journal of Nursing, 92 (7), 19–20.
    Condon, W.S. (1979). An analysis of behavioral organization. In S.Weitz (Ed.), Nonverbal communication: Readings with commentary (pp. 149–167). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Cooper, D.A. (1992). Silence, simplicity and solitude. New York: Bell Tower.
    Cronin, S.N., & Harrison, B. (1988). Importance of nurse caring behaviors as perceived by patient with myocardial infarction. Heart and Lung, 117, 374–380.
    Curtin, L.H. (1987). A shortage of nurses: Traditional approaches won't work this time. Nursing Management, 18 (8), 7–9.
    de Chardin, J. (1967). On love. New York: Harper & Row.
    Egan, G. (1982). The skilled helper. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Egolf, D., & Chester, S. (1976). Speechless messages. Nursing Digest, 4 (2), 26–29.
    Eisenberg, L. (1977). Disease and illness. Cult Med Psychiatry, 1, 9–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00114808
    Flaskerud, J.H., Halloran, E.J., Janken, J., Lund, M., & Zetterlund, J. (1979). Avoidance and distancing: A descriptive view of nursing. Nursing Forum, 18 (2), 158–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6198.1979.tb00094.x
    Freud, S. (1961). Civilization and its discontents (J.Strachez, Ed. and Trans.). New York: Norton.
    Friedman, M. (1974). The hidden human image. New York: Dell Publishing.
    Friedman, M. (1983). The confirmation of otherness. New York: Pilgrim Press.
    Fry, S. (1988). The ethic of caring: Can it survive in nursing?Nursing Outlook, 36 (1): 48.
    Fuchs, V.R. (1975). Who shall live. New York: Basic Books.
    Gadow, S.A. (1985). Nurse and patient: The caring relationship. In A.H.Bishop & J.R.Scudder (Eds.), Caring, curing, coping: Nurse, physician, patient relationships (pp. 31–43). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    Gadow, S.A. (1988). Covenant without cure: Letting go and holding on in chronic illness. In J.Watson & M.Ray (Eds.), The ethics of care and the ethics of cure: Synthesis in chronicity. New York: National League for Nursing.
    Gaut, D. (1983). Development of a theoretically adequate description of caring. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 5 (3), 313–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019394598300500405
    Gendron, D. (1988). The expressive form of caring: Monograph 2. Perspectives in caring. Toronto: University of Toronto.
    Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Aldine.
    Gordon, R.D. (1985, August). The search for multi-methodological approaches to empathic communication development (Report No. CS 505 011). Honolulu: University of Hawaii. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 261 419).
    Haley, J. (1963). Marriage therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 8, 213–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1963.01720090001001
    Harman, W. (1982). The new science and holonomy. In K.Wilber (Ed.), Holographic paradigm and other paradoxes (p. 139). Boston: New Science Library.
    Harman, W. (1987a). Toward an extended science. Noetic Science Review, 3, 9–14.
    Harman, W. (1987b). Further comments on an extended science (commentary). Noetic Science Review, 4, 22–25.
    Hiraki, A. (1992). Tradition, rationality, and power in introductory nursing textbooks: A critical hermeneutics study. Advances in Nursing Science, 14 (3), 1–12.
    Hull, J.B. (1985, March 27). Hospital nightmare: Cuts in staff demoralize nurses as care suffers. Wall Street Journal.
    Hutchinson, S.A. (1986). Creating meaning: Grounded theory of NICU nurses. In W.C.Chenitz & J.M.Swanson (Eds.), From practice to grounded theory: Qualitative research in nursing. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
    Jackson, D. (1959). Family interaction, family homeostasis and some implications for conjoint family psychotherapy. In J.H.Masserman (Ed.), Individual and family dynamics. New York: Grune & Stratton.
    Jones, K. (1988). A message from the ASHHRA president, Kerman Jones. Human Resources Administrator, 21 (1), 1–3.
    Jordan, J. (1989). Relational development: Therapeutic implications of empathy and shame. Stone Center tapes. (Available from Stone Center, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA).
    Kendon, A. (1979). Movement coordination in social interaction: Some examples described. In S.Weitz (Ed.), Nonverbal communication: Readings with commentary (pp. 119–134). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Kramer, M. (1974). Reality shock: Why nurses leave nursing. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.
    Krieger, D. (1979). Therapeutic touch: How to use your hands to heal. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Laing, R.D. (1961). The self and others. New York: Pantheon Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203210321
    Langer, S.K. (1967). Mind: An essay on human feeling (Vol. 1). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
    Larson, P. (1984). Important nurse caring behaviors perceived by patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 11, 46–50.
    Leininger, M. (1978). The phenomenon of caring. Part V. Nursing Research Report, 12 (1), 2, 14.
    Leininger, M. (1981). Caring: An essential human need—Proceedings of three national caring conferences. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.
    Leininger, M. (1984). Care: The essence of nursing and health. In M.Leininger (Ed.), Care: The essence of nursing and health (pp. 3–15). Thorofare, NJ: Slack.
    Leininger, M. (1986). Care facilitation and resistance factors in the culture of nursing. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 8 (2), 1–12.
    Lief, H.I., & Fox, R.C. (1963). Training for “detached concern” in medical students. In H.I.Lief & N.R.Lief (Eds.), The psychological basis of medical practice. New York: Harper & Row.
    Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Locke, S., & Colligan, D. (1986). The healer within. New York: E. P. Dutton.
    Maslach, C. (1983). Burnout: The cost of caring. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mayer, D. (1987). Oncology nurses versus cancer patients: Perceptions of nurse caring behaviors—A replication study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 14, 48–52.
    Mayeroff, M. (1971). On caring. New York: Harper & Row.
    McKinlay, J.B. (1979). A case for refocusing upstream: The political economy of illness. In E.G.Jaco (Ed.), Patients, physicians, and illness (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Miliar, F.E., & Rogers, L.E. (1976). A relational approach to interpersonal communication. In R.R.Millers (Ed.), Explorations in interpersonal communication (pp. 87–102). Beverly Hills: Sage.
    Miller, J.B. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon.
    Miller, K.I., Stiff, J.B., & Ellis, B.H. (1988). Communication and empathy as precursors to burnout among human service workers. Communication Monographs, 55, 250–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758809376171
    Montgomery, C. (1990). Nurses’ perceptions of significant caring communication encounters. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51–07A, 2198. (University Microfilms No. AAD 90–30091).
    Montgomery, C. (1991a). Caring v. curing. Common Boundary, 9 (6), 37–40.
    Montgomery, C. (1991b). The care-giving relationship: Paradoxical and transcendent aspects. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 23 (2), 91–104.
    Montgomery, C. (1992). The spiritual connection: Nurses’ perceptions of the experience of caring. In D.Gaut (Ed.), The presence of caring in nursing (pp. 39–52). New York: National League for Nursing Press.
    Morse, J.M., Solberg, S.M., Neander, W.L., Botorff, J.L., & Johnson, J.L. (1990). Concepts of caring and caring as a concept. Advances in Nursing Science, 13 (1), 1–14.
    Munley, A., Sr. (1985). Sources of hospice staff stress and how to cope with it. Nursing Clinics of North America, 20 (2), 343–355.
    Noddings, N. (1984). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral development. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Novak, P. (1990). The practice of attention. Parabola, 15 (2), 4–13.
    Ornstein, R., & Sobel, D. (1987). The healing brain. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Pasacreta, J.V., & Jacobsen, P.B. (1989). Addressing the need for staff support among nurses caring for the AIDS population. Oncology Nursing Forum, 16 (5), 658–662.
    Pelletier, K.R., & Herzing, D.L. (1989). Psychoneuroimmunology: Toward a mind-body model. In A.A.Sheikh & K.A.Sheikh (Eds.), Eastern and western approaches to healing (pp. 344–394). New York: Wiley.
    Pettegrew, L.S., & Logan, R. (1987). The health care context. In C.R.Berger & S.H.Chaffee (Eds.), Handbook of communication science. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Pribram, K.H. (1971). Languages of the brain: Experimental paradoxes and principles in neuropsychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Quinn, J. (1989). On healing, wholeness, and the haelan effect. Nursing and Health Care, 10 (10), 553–556.
    Rawlins, W.K. (1983). Openness as problematic in ongoing friendship: Two conversational dilemmas. Communication Monographs, 50, 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758309390150
    Reeder, F. (1991). The importance of knowing what to care about: A phenomenological inquiry using laughing at oneself as a clue. In P.Chinn (Ed.), Anthology on caring (pp. 259–280). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Reilly, D. (1978). Teaching and evaluating the affective domain in nursing programs. New York: Charles Slack.
    Reusch, J., & Bateson, G. (1951). Communication and human relations: An interdisciplinary approach. In J.Reusch & G.Bateson (Eds.), Communication: The social matrix of psychiatry. New York: Norton.
    Reverby, S. (1987). A caring dilemma: Womanhood and nursing in historical perspective. Nursing Research, 36 (1), 5–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198701000-00003
    Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, M. (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia: Davis.
    Rossi, E. (1986). The psychobiology of mind-body healing. New York: Norton.
    Sieburg, E. (1973, April). Interpersonal confirmation: A paradigm for conceptualization and measurement (Report No. cs500881). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Montreal Quebec. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED 098 634).
    Stiver, I.F. (1991). The meaning of care: Refraining treatment models. In J.V.Jordan, A.G.Kaplan, J.B.Miller, I.P.Stiver, & J.L.Surrey (Eds.), Women's growth in connection. New York: Guilford.
    Taylor, R.L., & Watson, J. (1989). They shall not hurt: Human suffering and human caring. Boulder, CO: Associated University Press.
    Thompson, T.L. (1986). Communication for health professionals. Lanham, MD: Harper & Row.
    Villard, K.L., & Whipple, L.J. (1976). Beginnings in relational communication. New York: Wiley.
    Watson, J. (1985). Nursing: Human science and human care. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Watson, J. (1988a). Nursing: Human science and human care—A theory of nursing. New York: National League for Nursing.
    Watson, J. (1988b). New dimensions of human caring theory. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1 (4), 175–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431848800100411
    Watson, J. (1989, October). Caring: A core value in health policy—Consequences. Paper presented at the American Academy for Nursing conference, Denver, CO.
    Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J., & Jackson, D.D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication. New York: Norton.
    Werner, H., & Kaplan, B. (1963). Symbol formation: An organismic-developmental approach to language and the expression of thought. New York: Wiley.
    Wheeler, K. (1988). Anursing science approach to understanding empathy. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 2 (2), 95–102.
    Whitehead, A.N. (1953). Science in the modern world. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
    Wilber, K. (1982). The holographic paradigm and other paradoxes. Boston: New Science Library.
    Wilson, H.S., & Kneisel, C.R. (1988). Psychiatric nursing (
    3rd ed.
    ). Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.

    About the Author

    Carol Leppanen Montgomery is Assistant Professor of nursing at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and is an associate with the Center for Human Caring. She received her master's degree in psychiatric nursing from the University of Colorado and her doctorate in communication from the University of Denver. As a clinical nurse specialist she provided psychiatric consultation-liaison services to medical hospitals. She currently provides mental health services to the homeless through the Colorado Mental Health Association's pro bono program and conducts educational programs on caring and feminine consciousness. Her research was the recipient of the Common Boundary Thesis/Dissertation Award and the Colorado Nurses Association's Award for Outstanding Achievement.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website