Hate crime is a particularly pernicious form of criminal behaviour that has significant impacts upon victims, their families and wider communities. In this substantially revised and updated edition the book examines the nature, extent and harms of hate crime, and the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to it. It covers racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic hate crime, as well as other forms of targeted victimisation such as gendered hostility, elder abuse, attacks upon alternative subcultures and violence against sex workers and the homeless. The book also assesses the complexities and controversies surrounding hate crime legislation and policy-making, as well as the continuing challenges associated with the policing of hate.
The second edition features expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics such as online hate and cyberbullying, as well as numerous case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right. The book contains a range of links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter.
Perpetrators of Hate Crime
This chapter assesses the profile, motivations and activities of hate crime perpetrators. It debates evidence which suggests that those convicted of hate offences are typically male, from deprived backgrounds and with a history of criminal or violent behaviour, and argues that this portrait may only reveal some of the overall profile of a typical perpetrator of hate. It also examines whether hate acts are really ‘stranger danger’ crimes or whether the offender does, in many cases and at least to some extent, actually know their victim. The chapter also explores cultures of racism that develop in some communities and how these can be born out of frustration at perceptions that local minority ethnic groups are receiving preferential ...