Hate crime is a particularly pernicious form of criminal behaviour that has significant impacts upon victims, their families and wider communities. In this substantially revised and updated edition the book examines the nature, extent and harms of hate crime, and the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to it. It covers racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic hate crime, as well as other forms of targeted victimisation such as gendered hostility, elder abuse, attacks upon alternative subcultures and violence against sex workers and the homeless. The book also assesses the complexities and controversies surrounding hate crime legislation and policy-making, as well as the continuing challenges associated with the policing of hate.
The second edition features expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics such as online hate and cyberbullying, as well as numerous case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right. The book contains a range of links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter.
Vulnerability, ‘Difference’ and Gendered Violence
A significant feature of contemporary hate studies is a growing interest in those forms of harassment and violence that are motivated by hostility towards group identities but are not routinely viewed as hate crimes. This chapter examines the factors behind why these victim groups find themselves at the margins of the hate debate even though their victimisation appears to bear all of the hallmarks of that suffered by those groups officially accorded hate crime victim status by the criminal justice system.
After a necessarily brief discussion of relevant theoretical developments the chapter considers the nature of some of these different forms of targeted hostility. Beginning with attacks upon members of alternative subcultures, the chapter then examines ...