Hate crime is a particularly pernicious form of criminal behaviour that has significant impacts upon victims, their families and wider communities. In this substantially revised and updated edition the book examines the nature, extent and harms of hate crime, and the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to it. It covers racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic hate crime, as well as other forms of targeted victimisation such as gendered hostility, elder abuse, attacks upon alternative subcultures and violence against sex workers and the homeless. The book also assesses the complexities and controversies surrounding hate crime legislation and policy-making, as well as the continuing challenges associated with the policing of hate.
The second edition features expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics such as online hate and cyberbullying, as well as numerous case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right. The book contains a range of links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter.
Chapter 5: Transphobic Hate Crime
Transphobic Hate Crime
This chapter discusses transphobic hate crime, which, despite being one of the recognised ‘five strands’ of monitored hate crime, has received comparatively little scholarly attention. The chapter begins by discussing the complexities of gender and gender identity, and outlines some of the key debates relevant to the analyses of the nature of transphobic victimisation that follow. It then proceeds by examining the intersection of gender with sex and sexuality, and assesses the importance of their complex relationship within the context of understanding the rationale behind perpetrators’ actions. Following a necessarily brief summary of these theoretical ideas (and those relating to queer and feminist theory) the chapter examines the nature and extent of hate crimes where the victim is a ...