Hate crime is a particularly pernicious form of criminal behaviour that has significant impacts upon victims, their families and wider communities. In this substantially revised and updated edition the book examines the nature, extent and harms of hate crime, and the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to it. It covers racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic hate crime, as well as other forms of targeted victimisation such as gendered hostility, elder abuse, attacks upon alternative subcultures and violence against sex workers and the homeless. The book also assesses the complexities and controversies surrounding hate crime legislation and policy-making, as well as the continuing challenges associated with the policing of hate.
The second edition features expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics such as online hate and cyberbullying, as well as numerous case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right. The book contains a range of links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter.
Homophobic Hate Crime
This chapter presents an analysis of the nature, extent and impact of homophobic hate crime. After discussing definitions of homophobia, the chapter assesses how the historical outlawing of sex between males, and its concomitant over-policing, has adversely affected the relationship between gay communities and the police. The lack of trust and confidence between the two parties has been a major factor in the reluctance of victims of homophobia to report incidents to the police. The chapter then outlines how legislative developments, such as the Criminal Justice Act 2003 and the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008, have brought more equality under the law for gay people and may have helped to improve the confidence that such communities have in ...