Hate crime is a particularly pernicious form of criminal behaviour that has significant impacts upon victims, their families and wider communities. In this substantially revised and updated edition the book examines the nature, extent and harms of hate crime, and the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to it. It covers racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic hate crime, as well as other forms of targeted victimisation such as gendered hostility, elder abuse, attacks upon alternative subcultures and violence against sex workers and the homeless. The book also assesses the complexities and controversies surrounding hate crime legislation and policy-making, as well as the continuing challenges associated with the policing of hate.
The second edition features expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics such as online hate and cyberbullying, as well as numerous case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right. The book contains a range of links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter.
Chapter 3: Religiously Motivated Hate Crime
Religiously Motivated Hate Crime
Since the turn of the millennium, and fuelled in the main by reactions to the threat of extremism and acts of terror, we have seen greater scrutiny over the extent to which particular religious identities and practices are compatible with the values of secular societies. Although this growth in attention has helped to promote an enhanced awareness of religious diversity and distinctions between religious and ethnic identity, it has also had rather more negative implications for faith communities targeted on the basis of their religious beliefs.
To begin, this chapter examines the relationship between religious identity and British criminology and discusses events that have seen religiously motivated hate crime emerge as a source of academic and political concern. ...