Hate crime is a particularly pernicious form of criminal behaviour that has significant impacts upon victims, their families and wider communities. In this substantially revised and updated edition the book examines the nature, extent and harms of hate crime, and the effectiveness of criminal justice responses to it. It covers racist, religiously motivated, homophobic, disablist and transphobic hate crime, as well as other forms of targeted victimisation such as gendered hostility, elder abuse, attacks upon alternative subcultures and violence against sex workers and the homeless. The book also assesses the complexities and controversies surrounding hate crime legislation and policy-making, as well as the continuing challenges associated with the policing of hate.
The second edition features expanded discussions of international perspectives and contemporary topics such as online hate and cyberbullying, as well as numerous case studies covering issues such as lone wolf extremists, Islamophobia, asylum seekers and the far right. The book contains a range of links to online material that accompany the extensive lists of further reading in each chapter.
Chapter 2: Racist Hate Crime
Racist Hate Crime
Offences motivated by hate or prejudice towards the victim's ethnic identity are the most common type of hate crime in terms of sheer numbers, and also the most familiar in terms of political, public and academic recognition. As such there is an extensive body of literature devoted to issues of race and ethnicity, to the relationship between race and the criminal justice system, and to the needs and experiences of victims of racist crime.
This chapter seeks to address some of the key points from this body of literature which have implications for our understanding of racist hate crime. It begins by examining race within the context of its emergence as an issue of significance in the UK, before moving ...