In this volume, international contributors discuss the philosophical basis and history of harm reduction policies and examine their outcomes. They also cover controversial topics related to harm reduction especially conflicts between the public health system, where most programs are located, and a worldwide criminal justice system that further marginalizes drug users. The book describes programs from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Australia.

Pregnancy, Drugs, and Harm Reduction

Pregnancy, drugs, and harm reduction

Shortly after the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) was established, physicians and scientists expressed concern about the effects of drug use during pregnancy. In 1974, P.L. 94–371 was enacted, which “mandated that drug abuse and dependence among women [emphasis added] be given special consideration for treatment and prevention” (Kandall, 1996, p. 196). Subsequently, NIDA funded hundreds of research and demonstration projects that focused on the etiology, consequences, and treatment needs of drug-using women. Although interest in women's issues and federal funding for research continued through the 1970s, 1980s, and into the 1990s, recent substance abuse prevalence data indicate that change has not been positive (National Household Survey, 1994). Women's use of illegal (and legal) drugs ...

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