In this volume, international contributors discuss the philosophical basis and history of harm reduction policies and examine their outcomes. They also cover controversial topics related to harm reduction especially conflicts between the public health system, where most programs are located, and a worldwide criminal justice system that further marginalizes drug users. The book describes programs from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Australia.

From Morphine to Methadone: Maintenance Drugs in the Treatment of Opiate Addiction

From morphine to methadone: Maintenance drugs in the treatment of opiate addiction
ErnestDrucker

By the end of the 19th century, millions of Americans and Europeans were regularly using patent medicines, tonics, salves, potions, and commercially available beverages containing some combination of opiates, cocaine, and alcohol (Berridge & Edwards, 1987; Courtwright, 1985; Musto, 1987). These substances were the frontline medicines of the time—almost universally prescribed by doctors and sold over the counter by pharmacists to remedy a wide range of real and imagined maladies and to treat the pain of injuries and chronic illnesses. Their psychoactive properties were also well recognized and exploited to relieve sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. These drugs had been known to ...

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