Government and Housing: Developments in Seven Countries
Publication Year: 1990
The governmental role in housing provision varies significantly from one country to another, from one system to another, and has been in a process of change due to economic, political, and institutional determinants. The resulting actions, in particular, privatization and decentralization, have typically revolved around new roles of national government. Government and Housing addresses issues of housing policy for welfare states (Britain, Sweden, Israel) and capitalist countries more strongly oriented to private profit making (USA, Australia), as well as socialist nations (Hungary, Yugoslavia). This volume originated from the conference on Housing, Policy, and Urban Innovation (Amsterdam, 1988) under the auspices of the Ad Hoc Committee on Housing and the Built Environment of the International Sociological Association. International in scope with expert policy analysis, the contributors ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Decentralization of Housing
- Chapter 2: Economic Restructuring and the Changing Role of the State in U.S. Housing
- Chapter 3: Local Government, the State, and Housing Provision: Lessons from Australia
- Chapter 4: National Housing Policy and Local Politics in Sweden
Part II: Rental Housing
- Chapter 5: The Future Provision of Social Housing in Britain
- Chapter 6: Recent Developments in Rental Housing in the United States
Part III: Public Housing
- Chapter 7: Privatization, Self-Help, and Public Housing Home Ownership in the United States
- Chapter 8: The Privatization of Public Housing in Israel
Part IV: Housing Finance
- Chapter 9: Housing Finance and Housing Policy in the United States: Legacies of the Reagan Era
- Chapter 10: Mortgage-Backed Securities, Inflation-Adjusted Mortgages, and Real-Rate Funding: Recent Initiatives in Housing Finance in Australia
- Chapter 11: Deregulation of Private Rented Housing in Britain: Investors' Responses to Government Housing Policy
Part V: Housing Rehabilitation and Urban Redevelopment
- Chapter 12: Community Development Corporations in the United States: Their Role in Housing and Urban Redevelopment
- Chapter 13: Housing Rehabilitation in Contemporary Britain: The Evolving Role of the State
Part VI: Developments in Socialist Economies
International Editorial Advisory Board[Page 2]
ROBERT B. ALFORD, University of California, Santa Cruz
HOWARD S. BECKER, Northwestern University
BRIAN J.L. BERRY, Carnegie Mellon University
ASA BRIGGS, Worcester College, Oxford University
SPERIDIAO FAISSOL, Rio de Janero State University
JEAN GOTTMANN, Oxford University
SCOTT GREER, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee
BERTRAM M. GROSS, St. Mary's College of California
PETER HALL, University of Reading, England, and University of California, Berkeley
ROBERT J. HAVIGHURST, University of Chicago
EIICHI ISOMURA, Tokyo University
ELIZABETH LICHTENBERGER, University of Vienna
M.I. LOGAN, Monash University
WILLIAM C. LORING, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta
AKIN L. MABOGUNJE, Ibadan, Nigeria
MARTIN MEYERSON, University of Pennsylvania
EDUARDO NEIRA-ALVA, CEPAL, Mexico City
ELINOR OSTROM, Indiana University
P.J.O. SELF, London School of Economics and Political Science
Copyright 1990 by Sage Publications, Inc.
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Printed in the United States of America
Government and housing : developments in seven countries / edited by Willem van Vliet-- and Jan van Weesep.
p. cm. — (Urban affairs annual reviews : v. 36)
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-8039-3666-4. — ISBN 0-8039-3667-2 (pbk.)
1. Housing policy. I. Van Vliet--, Willem, 1952- II. Weesep, J. van. III. Series.
FIRST PRINTING, 1990
Sage Production Editor: Kimberley A. Clark
The Production of This Volume was prompted by the international research conference “Housing, Policy, and Urban Innovation” held in Amsterdam, June 27-July 1, 1988, under the auspices of the Working Group on Housing and the Built Environment of the International Sociological Association, the Netherlands Organization of Research Institutes in the Field of Housing and Urban Research (GS), and the Dutch national program of urban research (Urban Networks). The conference was sponsored and organized by the Center for Metropolitan Research (CGO) at the University of Amsterdam, the Institute of Geographical Research (IRO) at the University of Utrecht, and the OTB Research Institute for Policy Sciences and Technology at Delft University.
Of the more than 220 papers presented at this conference, a selection was made to provide a combination of perspectives on the changing role of government in housing. An attempt was made to ensure a range of disciplinary approaches to the relevant issues and to include nations that represent diverse political economies. Selected papers were subsequently revised or fully rewritten in response to feedback from the editors. In addition, this volume contains a number of specially invited contributions intended to balance the thematic organization of the book. We are grateful to Blaise Donnelly of Sage Publications for his initiative in developing this project and to Susan Clarke, Dennis Judd, and Gary Tobin, series editors of the Urban Affairs Annual Reviews, for their support.—[Page 8]
About the Contributors[Page 287]
CAROLYN TEICH ADAMS is a Professor at Temple University, where she is Chair of the Department of Geography and Urban Studies. She teaches courses in urban public policy, housing, and program evaluation, and has authored numerous articles and books, including an award-winning cross-national study, Comparative Public Policy: The Politics of Social Choice in Europe and America, now in its third edition. In 1988 she published The Politics of Capital Investment, a study of the impact of city investments on housing values in the neighborhoods of Philadelphia. She consults widely with nonprofit organizations on housing and community development, and is currently studying commercial ventures operated by nonprofit organizations.
JOHN S. ADAMS is Professor of Geography, Planning, and Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. He is a Past President of the Association of American Geographers and author of numerous publications, including the recent Housing America in the 1980s (Russell Sage Foundation, 1987).
RICHARD P. APPELBAUM is Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he is Chair of the Sociology Department. He has written extensively on rental housing and homelessness in the United States, and is coauthor of Rethinking Rental Housing (Temple University Press, 1988). He consults with state and local government organizations, as well as with homeless and low-income housing advocacy groups.
RACHEL G. BRATT is an Associate Professor in the Department of Urban and Environmental Policy at Tufts University. She received a Ph.D. from the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at MIT. She is the author of Rebuilding a Low-Income Housing Policy and a coeditor [Page 288]of Critical Perspectives on Housing. She is a current member of the Massachusetts Housing Finance Agency's Multifamily Advisory Committee, and from 1984 to 1986 she served on the Consumer Advisory Council, appointed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
ROBERT A. CARTER is Director-General of the Housing Corporation of New Zealand, the New Zealand government agency for housing policy. Previously, he was Senior Lecturer in Economics at the University of Melbourne, Australia, and he has published extensively on housing and public policy. Prior to taking up his current position, he was Deputy Director of the Ministry of Housing and Construction and was the architect of the Home Opportunity Loans and Victorian Housing Bonds schemes.
DAVID CHAMBERS is Principal Lecturer in the Environment at Thames Polytechnic, London. He is a Director of the Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies at Thames Polytechnic, and is currently involved in multidisciplinary research into local state policies and central-local relations.
ANTHONY D. H. CROOK is Senior Lecturer in Town and Regional Planning at the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom. His major research interest is in private rented housing. He is also involved in housing practice as a board member of nonprofit housing associations and has served as a council member of the National Federation of Housing Associations. He is currently participating in U.K. studies of the impact of the national housing finance system on six metropolitan areas and of the impact of tax concessions on the supply of private rented housing.
PETER DREIER is Director of Housing at the Boston Redevelopment Authority and Housing Policy Adviser to Mayor Ray Flynn. He previously taught sociology at Tufts University. He received his B.A. in journalism from Syracuse University and his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. He is on the boards of the National Low-Income Housing Coalition and the National Housing Institute. He drafted the Community Housing Partnership Act and is coauthor of Who Rules Boston? A Citizen's Guide. His articles have appeared in the Harvard Business Review, Social Policy, Urban Affairs Quarterly, Social Problems, and International Journal of Urban and Regional Research,[Page 289]as well as the New York Times, Washington Post, and elsewhere in the popular press.
MARSHALL M. A. FELDMAN is Assistant Professor of Community Planning in the Graduate Curriculum in Community Planning and Area Development at the University of Rhode Island. His research interest is in urban political economy, particularly in the areas of housing, urban spatial structure, and industrial location. His current work focuses on applying a regulation approach to industrial reorganization and regional change.
RICHARD L. FLORIDA is Assistant Professor of Public Policy and Management in the School of Urban and Public Affairs at Carnegie-Mellon University. His current research is on the role of housing in advanced industrial societies and the role of technological change in economic development.
FRED GRAY is a Lecturer in Urban Studies at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England. He is convener of the university's Continuing Education Programme. His recent publications include the coauthored Transformation of Britain (Fontana, 1989).
CHESTER HARTMAN is a Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington, D.C. He has taught at Harvard, Yale, Cornell, the University of North Carolina, the University of California, Berkeley, and Columbia. He chairs Planners Network, a national organization of progressive urban and rural planners. His most recent housing books are Housing Issues of the 1990s (coedited with Sara Rosenberry; Praeger, 1989) and Critical Perspectives on Housing (coedited with Rachel Bratt and Ann Meyerson; Temple University Press, 1986).
JÔZSEF HEGEDÜS is a sociologist in the Institute of Sociology at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and a part-time Lecturer in Urban Sociology at Technical University of Budapest. His interests are in urban sociology, sociology of housing, and regional development. His research has included a series of vacancy studies (with Iván Tosics), a case-study series on second homes (with Robert Manchin), and an analysis of housing reforms in Hungary, 1986–1988. His recent publications include “Reconsidering the Roles of the State and the Market in Socialist Housing Systems” (International Journal of Urban and [Page 290]Regional Research, March 1987) and “Self-Help Housing in Hungary” (Trialog, 1988).
W. DENNIS KEATING is Professor of Law and Urban Affairs at Cleveland State University. He formerly directed CSU's Center for Neighborhood Development. He is coauthor of a casebook titled Housing and Community Development Law and has participated in national assessments of community development corporations and community-based housing development. He has published widely on housing and community development policy.
MARK KLEINMAN is Lecturer in Social Administration at the London School of Economics, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Cambridge. For the last six years he has undertaken research in the Department of Land Economy at the University of Cambridge into a number of housing and urban issues. His current research interests include investment in social housing, urban change and economic development, and comparative housing policy. He is coauthor of Private Rented Housing in the 1980s and 1990s (Granta Editions, 1986) and a contributor to Beyond Thatcherism (edited by P. Brown and R. Sparks; Open University Press, 1989) and Social Policy Review 1988/9 (edited by M. Brenton and C. Ungerson; Longman, 1989).
NORMAN KRUMHOLZ is a Professor in the College of Urban Affairs at Cleveland State University, a position he took after a 20-year career as a planning practitioner, including serving as Planning Director for the City of Cleveland for a decade. He created and directed the Center for Neighborhood Development at CSU and teaches neighborhood planning. He served on President Carter's National Commission on Neighborhoods (1979–80), and has been President of the American Planning Association and a winner of the Rome Prize of the American Academy of Rome.
SRNA MANDIČ is a sociologist at the Institute of Sociology, University of Ljubljana, in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, where she has been a principal researcher on a number of projects on residential segregation in Ljubljana, social housing, and housing policy in Yugoslavia. She is currently involved in comparative regional research on housing provision in Yugoslavia.
[Page 291]LARS NORD is an Assistant Professor of Political Science and a Senior Research Associate at the National Swedish Institute for Building Research, Gävle, Sweden, as well as Lecturer in the Department of Government, University of Uppsala. His earlier research concerned Yugoslav internal and foreign policies, socialism, and nonalignment. His current research focuses on Sweden's housing policy and includes a project on the relationship between central and local government.
CHRIS PARIS is currently Associate Professor and Director of the Australian Centre for Local Government Studies, School of Management, Canberra College of Advanced Education, after a stint as a Senior Research Fellow in the Urban Research Unit of the Australian National University. Previously, he was a Senior Researcher at the Centre for Environmental Studies, London. His recent publications include Towards Fair Shares in Australian Housing (with Kendig) and Stability and Change in Australian Housing (with Beed, Stimson, and Hugo). He is currently working on economic restructuring and urban and regional change in Australia.
KEITH P. RASEY is a mid-career Ph.D. candidate in Cleveland State University's Urban Studies Program. He has served in several federal agencies, including the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, where he was Director of the Program Evaluation Division in Housing, and several presidential and departmental task forces. He was also Director of Policy and Program Development of the National Council of State Housing Agencies, and participated in a study of the impact of federal cutbacks in the Community Development Block Grant Program on local government in Ohio.
ELIZABETH A. ROISTACHER is Professor of Economics, Queens College of the City University of New York. She served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1980–81, and has written widely on housing economics and housing policy. Her publications include “Housing and the Welfare State in the United States and Western Europe” (Netherlands Journal of Housing and Environmental Research, 1987) and “A Tale of Two Conservatives: Housing Policy Under Reagan and Thatcher” (Journal of the American Planning Association, 1984).
HILARY SILVER is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Urban Studies at Brown University. Her major interests and publications are in the [Page 292]areas of low-income housing, local economic development, home work, the service industries, and urban inequality. Her chapter in this volume is drawn from a forthcoming book comparing American, British, and Dutch housing policies in the 1980s. She previously taught at Columbia University and has held visiting positions at New York University, the University of Sussex, and the University of Lille.
MICHAEL A. STEGMAN is Chair of the Department of City and Regional Planning at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has written extensively on the subjects of national housing policies, housing finance, and affordable housing. His current research activities include an evaluation of the U.S. federal government's public housing privatization program, and a five-year study of the social and economic impacts of home ownership on lower-income families. From 1979 to 1981, he was a member of President Carter's administration, serving as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Research in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
IVÁN SZELÉNYI is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. Previously, he was Distinguished Professor at the Graduate School of the City University of New York (1986–88), Karl Polanyi Professor at the University of Wisconsin—Madison (1981–86), Foundation Professor of Sociology at Flinders University of South Australia (1976–81), and Research Fellow at the Institute of Sociology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1963–75). He is author of The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power (Harcourt Brace, 1979), Urban Inequalities Under State Socialism (Oxford University Press, 1983), and Socialist Entrepreneurs: Embourgeoisement in Rural Hungary (Polity Press, 1988), and is cowinner of the 1989 C. Wright Mills Award.
IVÁN TOSICS is a Sociologist at the Institute for Building Economy and Organization, in Budapest. His interests concern housing policy and urban sociology. His past research has examined the history of housing and the changing urban social structure of Budapest. More recently, he has focused on Hungarian housing policy reform at local and central levels. His recent publications include “Dilemmas of Reducing Direct State Control: Recent Tendencies in Hungarian Housing Policy” (in Between State and Market: Housing in the Post-Industrial Era, edited by B. Turner, J. Kemeny, and L. J. Lundqvist; Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1987), “Privatization in Housing Policy: The Case of the [Page 293]Western Countries and That of Hungary” (International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, March 1987), and, with S. Lowe, “The Social Use of Market Processes in British and Hungarian Housing Policies” (Housing Studies, July 1988).
WILLEM van VLIET-- is an Urban and Environmental Sociologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder. His research interests concern cross-national analysis, urban and community planning, and housing. His published works include contributions to anthologies and journals in the field and a number of edited books, including most recently Housing Markets and Policies Under Fiscal Austerity (1987), Women, Housing, and Community (1989), and The International Handbook of Housing Policies and Practices (1990).
JAN van WEESEP is Associate Professor in the Department of Applied Geography and Planning at the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. He is the Director of the Urban Research Program of the Institute of Geographical Research. His interest in housing focuses on the relationship of housing to urban development and social developments. His recent publications include studies of condominium conversion in the United States and the Netherlands, the sale of public housing, and housing market effects of social segmentation in cities.
ELIA WERCZBERGER is Professor of Urban Planning at the Public Policy Program at Tel Aviv University and Head of its Program in Real Estate Appraisal. His research has been concerned with the housing market, housing maintenance, mathematical planning models, multiple-criteria decision making, and environmental quality. He has published in various journals, including Environment and Planning, Regional Science and Urban Economics, Housing Studies, and the Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics.