Governing as Governance


Jan Kooiman

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    Governance, or as the Dutch say besturen, has interested me for many years. It featured in my dissertation Besturen is Beslissen (To Govern is to Decide 1970), in an introductory text Besturen (1980), and in the edited volume Modern Governance (1993). In this book this interest is fully explored. Its inception began about seven years ago as a Research Report, in which I summed up not only my own ideas on governance, but also the work of my collaborators and PhD students at the time. The result of this common effort was promising enough for me to commit myself to transforming this material into what is published here. In the last few years several colleagues in the Netherlands and abroad were willing to look at drafts of the book in the making, for which I am immensely grateful. Henrik Bang, Jan Berting, Matthias Finger, Rainer Greca, Hubert Heinelt, Flip Idenburg, Nick Huls, Svein Jentoft, Walter Kickert, Frans van Nispen, Stephen Osborne, Roger Pullin, Charles Raab and Roger Sibeon took the trouble to go through the whole manuscript or parts of it. Not only were the comments they gave on the text of great help, but their encouragement and support for the project was of even greater value. In the book I also make use of the work of many of my students, some implicitly, others explicitly. Here I especially mention Margaretha (Inez) van Eeden and Jeroen Warner, both of whom have been of great help during the whole process. I express my gratitude to all of those at Sage Publications who contributed to a professional and congenial way in bringing this book to completion. I also would like to thank all those colleagues and friends who in the course of the past few years told me that they are looking forward to this book. I hope I don't disappoint them.


    I dedicate this book to Cornelia and to the memory of Rienkje.

  • Glossary

    • Governance: theoretical conceptions on governing interactions.
    • Governability: quality of governing interactions of a social-political system/entity as a whole.
    • Governing: interactions to solve societal problems or create societal opportunities, care for institutional aspects of these interactions, and setting normative principles for them.
    • Interaction: a mutually influencing relation between two or more actors or entities. In an interaction an action/intentional level and a structural/ contextual level are distinguished.
    • Interference: a relatively open, flexible and spontaneous societal interaction.
    • Interplay: a ‘horizontal’ and semi-formalised societal interaction. Intervention: a ‘vertical’ and formalised societal interaction.
    • Action: will-power available in governing interactions.
    • Factual and evaluative system: potential (cultural) pictures available for governing interactions.
    • Image-building: process of creating mental pictures as guidelines for governing interactions.
    • Instrument choice: process of selecting available means for governing interactions.
    • Resource: potential means available for governing interactions. Social-political capital: potential will-power available in governing interactions.
    • Co-governance: a mode of governing consisting of collaborating or co-operating governing entities (interplays).
    • Hierarchical governance: a mode of governing consisting of authoritative relations between societal entities (interventions).
    • Self-governance: a mode of governance consisting of predominantly autonomous governing entities (interferences).
    • First order governing: governing interactions for solving societal problems or creating societal opportunities.
    • Meta governing: governing interactions setting the normative principles of rationality, responsiveness, performance and responsibility for governance itself.
    • Second order governing: governing interactions to take care for and maintain governing institutions as contexts for first order governance.
    Societal Features
    • Complexity: multitude of often overlapping interactions.
    • Diversity: qualitative differences of interacting societal entities.
    • Dynamics: tensions within and between interactions.
    • Interdependence: mutual dependence of societal entities at the intentional level of societal interactions.
    • Inter-penetration: mutual dependence of societal entities at the structural level of societal interactions.


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