Global Politics and Violent Non-state Actors


Natasha Ezrow

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    About the Author

    Natasha Ezrow is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Essex, where she directs the International Development Program and teaches modules in international relations, terrorism, insurgencies and conflict, as well as the politics of the Middle East, Asia, Latin America and Africa. Her research focuses on violent non-state actors, authoritarian politics, institutional decay, corruption and democratization, and she has published several books on these topics. In addition to teaching and writing, Dr Ezrow has been featured as an analyst on BBC World, BBC News, the BBC Breakfast show and Al Jazeera. She also currently works as a consultant for the United Nations Economic and Social Commission of Western Asia (UNESCWA) and the European Union External Action Service. She holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of California at Santa Barbara (2002).


    I want to thank the students in the Government Department at the University of Essex. Their enthusiasm for global politics and violent non-state groups is what initially inspired this book. Each year I have learned so much from the discussion generated during modules on global politics, violence and violent non-state groups.

    I also want to thank the entire team at SAGE Publications for being incredibly easy to work with. It was a stress-free experience and one that I thoroughly enjoyed. They helped every step of the way to ensure that the final book was much improved from the original drafts.

    On a personal front, I want to thank my parents Jeff and Yvette, and my sister and past co-author, Erica for being so supportive. I have to also thank my daughters, Annika and Karolina for being totally adorable. And last but not least, I want to thank René for being my best friend and partner. I don’t know what I’d do without you. Ich liebe Dich über alles!

    List of Abbreviations

    • ANC African National Congress Party
    • AQI al-Qaeda in Iraq
    • AQIM al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
    • ARENA National Republican Alliance
    • AUC United Self-Defence Forces
    • CV Comando Vermelho
    • DDS Davao Death Sqaud
    • ELN National Liberation Army
    • ETA Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
    • FALN Armed Forces of National Liberation
    • FARC Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
    • FLN National Liberation Front (Algeria)
    • FRELIMO Mozambique Liberation Front
    • FSNL Sandinistas National Liberation Front
    • GAFE Airmobile Special Forces Group
    • GAL Anti-Terrorist Liberation Groups
    • GIA Armed Islamic Group of Algeria
    • IG Islamic Group
    • IS Islamic State
    • IRA Irish Republican Army
    • LDK Democratic League of Kosovo
    • LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
    • MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front
    • MK Umkhonto we Sizwe
    • MNLF Moro National Liberation Front
    • MS-13 Mara Salvatrucha
    • NPFL National Patriotic Front of Liberia
    • OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
    • PCC Primeiro Comando da Capital
    • PFLP Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
    • PIRA Provisional Irish Republican Army
    • PKK Kurdistan Workers’ Party
    • PLO Palestinian Liberation Organization
    • PNV Basque Nationalist Party
    • PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party
    • PSC(S) Private Security Companies
    • RUF Revolutionary United Front
    • TULF Tamil United Liberation Front
    • UNITA National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
  • References

    Aas, K.F. (2013) Globalization and Crime. London: SAGE.
    Abadie, A. (2004) Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism (No. w10859). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
    Abadinsky, H. (2012) Organized Crime. Hampshire: Cengage Learning.
    Abrahms, M. (2004) ‘Are terrorists really rational? The Palestinian example’, Orbis, 48 (3): 53349.
    Abrahms, M. (2008) ‘What terrorists really want: terrorist motives and counterterrorism strategy’, International Security, 32 (4): 78105.
    Abrahms, M. and Gottfried, M.S. (2016) ‘Does terrorism pay? An empirical analysis’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 28 (1): 7289.
    Abuza, Z. (Winter, 2009) ‘Jemaah Islamiyah adopts the Hezbollah model’, Middle East Quarterly, 1526.
    Abuza, Z. (2011) The Ongoing Insurgency in Southern Thailand: Trends in Violence, Counterinsurgency Preparations, and the Impact of National Politics. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.
    Adams, J. (1986) The Financing of Terrorism: How the Groups that are Terrorizing the World Get the Money to do it. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Adams, T.K. (1999) ‘The new mercenaries and the privatization of conflict’, Parameters, 29 (2): 103.
    Adamson, F.B. (2005) ‘Globalisation, transnational political mobilisation, and networks of violence’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 18 (1): 3149.
    Adamson, F.B. (2006) ‘Crossing borders: international migration and national security’, International Security, 31 (1): 16599.
    Agbiboa, D.E. (2013) ‘Why Boko Haram exists: the relative deprivation perspective’, African Conflict & Peacebuilding Review, 3 (1): 14457.
    Aghedo, I. and Osumah, O. (2012) ‘The Boko Haram uprising: how should Nigeria respond?’, Third World Quarterly, 33 (5): 85369.
    Agius, C. and Wolff, M. (2015) ‘Gang truce in El Salvador’, ECPR Standing Group on Organized Crime, 12 (3): 23.
    Agnew, R. (2006) ‘Storylines as a neglected cause of crime’. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43 (2): 119147.
    Aguirre, M. (2006) ‘Failed states or weak democracies? the state in Latin America’,, 17. Transnational Institute, 17 January.
    Akgündüz, Y., Van den Berg, M. and Hassink, W.H. (2015) ‘The impact of refugee crises on host labor markets: the case of the Syrian refugee crisis in Turkey’, Institute for Study of Labour, Discussion Paper Series 8841, 124.
    Akhtar, S. (1999) ‘The psychodynamic dimension of terrorism’, Psychiatric Annals, 29 (6): 3505.
    Alao, A., Mackinlay, J. and Olonisakin, F. (1999) Peacekeepers, Politicians, and Warlords: The Liberian Peace Process. New York: United Nations University Press.
    Albanese, J. and Reichel, P. (eds) (2013) Transnational Organized Crime: An Overview from Six Continents. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Albertson, K. and Fox, C. (2011) Crime and Economics: An Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Alex, P.S. (2004) ‘Frameworks for conceptualising terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 16 (2): 197221.
    Allen, C. (1999) ‘Warfare, endemic violence and state collapse in Africa,Review of African Political Economy, 26 (81): 367384.
    Alleyne, E. and Wood, J.L. (2010) ‘Gang involvement: psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth, and non-gang youth’, Aggressive Behavior, 36 (6): 42336.
    Alonso, R. (2011) ‘Why do terrorists stop? Analyzing why ETA members abandon or continue with terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (9): 696716.
    Altheide, D.L. (2007) ‘The mass media and terrorism’, Discourse & Communication, 1 (3): 287308.
    Altier, M.B., Martin, S. and Weinberg, L.B. (eds) (2016) Violence, Elections, and Party Politics. London and New York: Routledge.
    Andreas, P. and Nadelmann, E. (2006) Policing the Globe. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Angrist, J.D. (1995) ‘The economic returns to schooling in the West Bank and Gaza Strip’, The American Economic Review, 106587.
    Antonio Ocampo, J. (2005) The Inequality Predicament: Report on the World Social Situation 2005. United Nations Department of Public Information.
    Arjona, A. and Kalyvas, S.N. (2009) Rebelling against rebellion: comparing insurgent and counterinsurgent recruitment. Paper presented at Human Security and Ethnicity Workshop: Mobilisation for Political Violence. What Do We Know? at Centre for Research on Inequality, March (Vol. 4, pp. 43655).
    Arnson, C.J. (2000) ‘Window on the past: a declassified history of death squads in El Salvador’. In B. Campbell and A. Brenner (eds), Death Squads in Global Perspective: Murder with Deniability. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 85124.
    Art, R.J. and Richardson, L. (2007) Democracy and Counterterrorism: Lessons from the Past. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace Press.
    Aryasinha, R. (2001) ‘Terrorism, the LTTE and the conflict in Sri Lanka’, Conflict, Security & Development, 1 (2): 2550.
    Asal, V., Brown, M. and Dalton, A. (2012) ‘Why split? Organizational splits among ethno-political organizations in the Middle East’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 56 (1): 94117.
    Asal, V. and Rethemeyer, R.K. (2008) ‘The nature of the beast: organizational structures and the lethality of terrorist attacks’, The Journal of Politics, 70 (2): 43749.
    Ashour, O. (2010) ‘De-radicalization of jihad? The impact of Egyptian Islamist revisionists on al-Qaeda’, Perspectives on Terrorism, 2 (5): 1519.
    Atkinson, A.B. and Brandolini, A. (2006) ‘From earnings dispersion to income inequality’, In F. Farina and E. Savaglio (eds), Inequality and Economic Integration. London: Routledge, pp. 3562.
    Atran, S. (2003a) ‘Genesis of suicide terrorism’, Science, 299 (5612): 15349.
    Atran, S. (2003b) The Strategic Threat from Suicide Terror. AEI Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, 120.
    Avant, D.D. (2005) The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Avant, D. and Sigelman, L. (2010) ‘Private security and democracy: lessons from the US in Iraq’, Security Studies, 19 (2): 23065.
    Ayoob, M. (1995) The Third World Security Predicament: State Making, Regional Conflict, and the International System. Boulder, CO: L. Rienner Publishers.
    Azam, J.P. (2006) ‘On thugs and heroes: why warlords victimize their own civilians’, Economics of Governance, 7 (1): 5373.
    Bahcheli, T., Bartmann, B. and Srebrnik, H. (eds) (2004) De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Bailey, J. and Taylor, M.M. (2009) ‘Evade, corrupt, or confront? Organized crime and the state in Brazil and Mexico’, Journal of Politics in Latin America, 1 (2): 329.
    Baldwin, David A. (1995) ‘Security studies and the end of the Cold War’, World Politics 48 (1): 11741.
    Bangerter, O. (2012) 31: Internal Control Codes of Conduct within Insurgent Armed Groups. Geneva: Small Arms Survey. Available at: (accessed 25 October 2016).
    Barbieri, K. and Reuveny, R. (2005) ‘Economic globalization and civil war’, Journal of Politics, 67 (4): 122847.
    Barker, T. (2010) Biker Gangs and Organized Crime. New York: Routledge.
    Barkey, K (1994) Bandits and Bureaucrats: The Ottoman Route to State Centralization. New York: Cornell University Press.
    Barnett, A., Held, D. and Henderson, C. (eds) (2013) Debating Globalization. Cambridge: Polity.
    Barros, C.P., Passos, J. and Gil-Alana, L.A. (2006) ‘The timing of ETA terrorist attacks’, Journal of Policy Modeling, 28 (3): 33546.
    Basile, M. (2004) ‘Going to the source: why Al Qaeda’s financial network is likely to withstand the current war on terrorist financing’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27 (3): 169185.
    Baylis, J., Wirtz, J.J. and Gray, C.S. (eds) (2013) Strategy in the Contemporary World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Beaton, L. (1972) The Reform of Power: A Proposal for An International Security System. London: Chatto & Windus.
    Beckett, I. (2005) ‘The future of insurgency’, Small Wars & Insurgencies,16 (1): 2236.
    Becker, J. (1981) ‘Another final battle on the stage of history’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 5 (1–2): 89105.
    Becker, M. (2014) ‘Explaining lone wolf target selection in the United States’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37 (11): 95978.
    Berdal, M. (2003) ‘How “new” are “new wars”? Global economic change and the study of civil war’, Global Governance, 9 (4): 477502.
    Bergen, P. and Pandey, S. (2005) ‘The madrassa myth’, New York Times (14 June).
    Berman, E. (2003) Hamas, Taliban and the Jewish Underground: An Economist’s View of Radical Religious Militias (No. w10004). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
    Berman, E. (2011) Radical, Religious, and Violent: The New Economics of Terrorism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Berrebi, C. (2003) ‘Evidence about the link between education, poverty and terrorism among Palestinians’, Princeton University Industrial Relations Section Working Paper (477).
    Betancourt, T.S., Simmons, S., Borisova, I., Brewer, S.E., Iweala, U. and De La Soudière, M. (2008) ‘High hopes, grim reality: reintegration and the education of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone’, Comparative Education Review, 52 (4): 565.
    Betts, A. and Collier, P. (2015) ‘Help refugees help themselves: let displaced Syrians join the labor market’, Foreign Affairs, 94: 84.
    Bezemer, D.J. and Jong-A-Pin, R.M. (2007) World on Fire? Democracy, Globalization and Ethnic Violence. Groningen: University of Groningen.
    Bhasin, T. and Hallward, M. C. (2013) ‘Hamas as a political party: democratization in the Palestinian territories’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 25 (1): 7593.
    Bibes, P. (2001) ‘Transnational organized crime and terrorism. Colombia: a case study’, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 17 (3): 24358.
    Binder, A., Geis, G. and Bruce Jr, D.D. (2001) Juvenile Delinquency: Historical, Cultural & Legal Perspectives,
    edition. Cincinnati, OH: Elsevier.
    Blakkisrud, H. and Kolstø, P. (2011) ‘From secessionist conflict toward a functioning state: processes of state- and nation-building in Transnistria’, Post-Soviet Affairs, 27 (2): 178210.
    Blaydes, L. and Rubin, L. (2008) ‘Ideological reorientation and counterterrorism: confronting militant Islam in Egypt’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 20 (4): 46179.
    Blomberg, S.B., Engel, R.C. and Sawyer, R. (2009) ‘On the duration and sustainability of transnational terrorist organizations’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 54 (2): 30330.
    Blomberg, S. B. and Hess, G. D. (2005) ‘The Lexus and the olive branch: globalization, democratization and terrorism’, World Bank Workshop on Security and Development. Available at: (accessed 25 October 2016).
    Bloom, M. (2005) Dying to Kill: the Allure of Suicide Terror. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Bloom, M. (2012) Bombshell: Women and Terrorism. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Boeri, D. (2014) Brutal gang violence reigns in El Salvador. WBUR News, 16 December. Available at: (accessed 6 February 2017).
    Bolz, J. (1995) ‘Chinese organized crime and illegal alien trafficking: humans as a commodity’, Asian Affairs: An American Review, 22 (3): 14758.
    Borjas, G.J. (2013) ‘The analytics of the wage effect of immigration’. IZA Journal of Migration, 2 (1): 1.
    Bosmia, A.N., Griessenauer, C.J. and Tubbs, R.S. (2014) ‘Yubitsume: ritualistic self-amputation of proximal digits among the Yakuza’, Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 6 (2): 5456.
    Boucek, C. (2008) ‘Counter-terrorism from within: assessing Saudi Arabia’s religious rehabilitation and disengagement programme’, The RUSI Journal, 153 (6): 605.
    Bourne, A. (2015) ‘Why ban Batasuna? Terrorism, political parties and democracy’, Comparative European Politics, 13 (3): 32544.
    Bourne, M. (2007) Arming Conflict: The Proliferation of Small Arms. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Boutwell, J. and Klare, M. (1998) ‘Small arms and light weapons: controlling the real instruments of war’, Arms Control Today, 28 (6): 15.
    Bovenkerk, F., Siegel, D. and Zaitch, D. (2003) Organized crime and ethnic reputation manipulation’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 39 (1): 2338.
    Braddock, K. and Horgan, J. (2016) ‘Towards a guide for constructing and disseminating counter-narratives to reduce support for terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39 (5): 381404.
    Brafman, O. and Beckstrom, R.A. (2006) The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations. London: Penguin.
    Brancati, D. (2006) ‘Decentralization: fueling the fire or dampening the flames of ethnic conflict and secessionism?International Organization, 60 (3): 65185.
    Breslow, J. (2015) ‘The staggering death toll of Mexico’s drug wars’. Frontline. Available at: (accessed April 2016).
    Breuil, B.C.O. and Rozema, R. (2009) ‘Fatal imaginations: death squads in Davao City and Medellín compared’, Crime, Law and Social Change, 52 (4): 40524.
    Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2008) ‘Diaspora identity and the potential for violence: toward an identity-mobilization framework’, Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 8 (1): 6788.
    Brisard, J.C. and Martinez, D. (2014) Islamic State: The Economy-based Terrorist Funding. Thomson Reuters Accelus.
    BBC (1984) BBC On This Day: Memories of the Brighton bomb. Available at: (accessed 25 January 2017).
    Brody, R. (1985) Contra Terror in Nicaragua: Report of a Fact-finding Mission, September 1984–January 1985. Boston: South End Press.
    Brookes. S. (1991) ‘The murder of Rio’s street kids’, Insight Magazine. Available at: (accessed 25 October 2016).
    Bruneau, T., Dammert, L. and Skinner, E. (2011) Maras: Gang Violence and Security in Central America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Brynen, R. (2002) ‘Diaspora populations and security issues in host countries’. Paper presented at the Metropolis Interconference Seminar: ‘Immigrants and Homeland’ in Dubrovnik, Croatia (Vol. 4, May).
    Bunker, R.J. (ed.) (2014) Networks, Terrorism and Global Insurgency. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Bunker, R.J. and Sullivan, J.P. (2013) Studies in Gangs and Cartels. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Burnham, G. (2011) ‘Suicide attacks – the rationale and consequences’, The Lancet, 378 (9794): 855-857.
    Bursik Jr, R.J. and Grasmick, H.G. (1993) ‘Economic deprivation and neighbourhood crime rates, 1960–1980’, Laws & Sociology Review, 27: 263.
    Burton, J.W. (1987) Resolving Deep-rooted Conflict: a Handbook. Lanham: MD: University Press of America.
    Buscaglia, E. (2003) ‘Controlling organized crime and corruption in the public sector’, Forum on Crime and Society, 3 (1/2): December.
    Buscaglia, E. (2008) ‘The paradox of expected punishment: legal and economic factors determining success and failure in the fight against organized crime’, Review of Law & Economics, 4 (1): 290317.
    Buscaglia, E. and van Dijk, J. (2003) ‘Controlling organized crime and public sector corruption: results of the global trends study’, Forum on Crime and Society, 3 (1 and 2).
    Buzan, B. (1984) ‘Peace, power, and security: contending concepts in the study of’, Journal of Peace Research, 21 (2): 10925.
    Buzan, B. (1991) ‘New patterns of global security in the twenty-first century’, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944–), 67 (3): 43151.
    Buzan, B. (1997) ‘Rethinking security after the Cold War’, Cooperation and Conflict, 32 (1): 528.
    Buzan, B. (2008) People, States & Fear: an Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Colchester: ECPR Press.
    Buzan, B. and Hansen, L. (2009) The Evolution of International Security Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Byman, D. (1998) ‘The logic of ethnic terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 21 (2): 14969.
    Byman, D. (2005) Deadly Connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Byman, D. (2008) ‘Understanding proto-insurgencies’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 31 (2): 165200.
    Byman, D. (2015) Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know. New york: Oxford University Press.
    Byman, D., Chalk, P., Hoffman, B., Rosenau, W. and Brannan, D. (2001) Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
    Calderón, G., Robles, G., Díaz-Cayeros, A. and Magaloni, B. (2015) ‘The beheading of criminal organizations and the dynamics of violence in Mexico’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59: 134876.
    Callaway, R. and Harrelson-Stephens, J. (2006) ‘Toward a theory of terrorism: human security as a determinant of terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29 (7): 679702.
    Cameron, G. (1999) ‘Multi-track microproliferation: lessons from Aum Shinrikyo and Al Qaida’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 22 (4): 277309.
    Canetti, D. and Pedahzur, A. (2002) ‘The effects of contextual and psychological variables on extreme right-wing sentiments’, Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 30 (4): 31734.
    Caramante, A. (2014) ‘Sao Paulo’s overcrowded prisons stretched to the breaking point’, Insight Crime, 8 October. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Carney, H. (2005) ‘Prosecuting the lawless: human rights abuses and private military firms’, George Washington Law Review, 74: 317.
    Carpenter, A.C. (2010) ‘Beyond drug wars: transforming factional conflict in Mexico’, Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 27 (4): 40121.
    Carter, D.B. (2012) ‘A blessing or a curse? State support for terrorist groups’, International Organization, 66 (1): 12951.
    Castells, M. (2011) The Rise of the Network Society: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture (Vol. 1). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Cederman, L.E. (1997) Emergent Actors in World Politics: How States and Nations Develop and Dissolve. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Cetina, K.K. (2005) ‘Complex global microstructures: the new terrorist societies’, Theory, Culture & Society, 22 (5): 21334.
    Chalk, P. (2008) ‘The Tigers abroad: how the LTTE diaspora supports the conflict in Sri Lanka’, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Summer/Fall: 97104.
    Chapin, W.D. (1996) ‘The Turkish diaspora in Germany’, Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 5 (2): 275301.
    Charrad, M. (2001) States and women’s rights: the making of postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Chayes, S. (2015) Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. London and New York: WW Norton & Company.
    Chebel d’Appollonia, A. (2016) Migrant Mobilization and Securitization in the US and Europe: How Does It Feel to Be a Threat? London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Cheloukhine, S. and Haberfeld, M.R. (2011) Russian Organized Corruption Networks and Their International Trajectories. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
    Chenoweth, E., and Lawrence, A. (2010) Rethinking Violence: States and Non-State Actors in Conflict. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Chenoweth, E., Miller, N., McClellan, E., Frisch, H., Staniland, P. and Abrahms, M. (2009) ‘What makes terrorists tick’, International Security, 33 (4): 180202.
    Chester, C.R. (1976) ‘Perceived relative deprivation as a cause of property crime’, Crime & Delinquency, 22 (1): 1730.
    Chesterman, S. (2016) ‘Dogs of war or jackals of terror? Foreign fighters and mercenaries in international law’, Foreign Fighters and Mercenaries in International Law, 27 July.
    Chesterman, S. and Fisher, A. (2009) Private Security, Public Order: the Outsourcing of Public Services and Its Limits (Vol. 2). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Chesterman, S. and Lehnardt, C. (2007) From Mercenaries to Market: The Rise and Regulation of Private Military Companies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Choudhury, T. and Fenwick, H. (2011) ‘The impact of counter-terrorism measures on Muslim communities’, International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 25 (3): 15181.
    Cilliers, J. and Mason, P. (1999) Peace, Profit or Plunder? The Privatisation of Security in War-torn African Societies. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
    Clunan, A. and Trinkunas, H.A. (2010) Ungoverned spaces: Alternatives to state authority in an era of softened sovereignty. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Cleaver, H. (1998) ‘The Zapatista Effect: the Internet and the rise of an alternative political fabric’, Journal of International Affairs, 51 (2): 62140.
    Coate, R.A. and Thiel, M. (eds) (2010) Identity politics in the age of globalization. Boulder, co: FirstForumPress.
    Cockayne, J. (2010) ‘Chapter ten: crime, corruption and violent economies’, Adelphi Paper, 50 (412–413): 189218.
    Cockburn, A. and Clair, J.S. (1998) Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press. London: Verso.
    Collier, P. (2000) ‘Rebellion as a quasi-criminal activity’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44 (6): 839853.
    Collier, P. and Hoeffler, A. (2002) ‘On the incidence of civil war in Africa’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 46 (1): 1328.
    Collier, P. and Hoeffler, A. (2006) ‘Grand extortion: coup risk and the military as a protection racket’. In Second Workshop on Political Institutions, Development and a Domestic Civil Peace (PIDDCP): PRIO, Hausmannsgate, 11 (April): 19–20.
    Comas, J., Shrivastava, P. and Martin, E.C. (2015) ‘Terrorism as formal organization, network, and social movement’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 24 (1): 4760.
    Conlin, J. (2013) The American Past: A Survey of American History, Volume II: Since 1865. Hampshire: Cengage Learning.
    Conly, C.H. (1993) Street gangs: Current knowledge and strategies. Collingdale, PA: Diane Publishing.
    Corman, S.R. and Schiefelbein, J.S. (2008) ‘Communication and media strategy in the Islamist war of ideas’, Weapons of Mass Persuasion, Strategic Communication to Combat Violent Extremism. New York: Peter Lang.
    Corner, E. and Gill, P. (2015) ‘A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism’, Law and Human Behavior, 39 (1): 23.
    Cornish, D.B. and Clarke, R.V. (eds) (2014) The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
    Cornell, S.E. (2005) ‘The interaction of narcotics and conflict’, Journal of Peace Research, 42 (6): 75160.
    Cornell, S. E. (2006) ‘The narcotics threat in Greater Central Asia: from crime-terror nexus to state infiltration?’, China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, 4 (1): 3767.
    Cragin, K., Chalk, P., Daly, S.A. and Jackson, B.A. (2007) Sharing the Dragon’s Teeth: Terrorist Groups and the Exchange of New Technologies (Vol. 485). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
    Crawford, B. and Lipschutz, R.D. (eds) (1998) The Myth of ‘Ethnic Conflict’: Politics, Economics, and ‘Cultural’ Violence. Berkeley, CA: University of California. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Crayton, J.W. (1983) ‘Terrorism and the psychology of the self’. In L.Z. Freedman and Y. Alexander (eds), Perspectives on Terrorism. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, pp. 3341.
    Crenshaw, M. (1981) ‘The causes of terrorism’, Comparative Politics, 13 (4): 37999.
    Crenshaw, M. (ed.) (1983) Terrorism, Legitimacy, and Power: The Consequences of Political Violence. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
    Crenshaw, M. (1987) ‘Theories of terrorism: instrumental and organizational approaches’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 10 (4): 1331.
    Crenshaw, M. (ed.) (2010) Terrorism in Context. Pennsylvania: Penn State Press.
    Crenshaw, M. (2015) ‘The strategic logic of terrorism’, Conflict After the Cold War: Arguments on Causes of War and Peace, 33: 481.
    Crenshaw, M. and Pimlott, J. (2015) International Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Oxford: Routledge.
    Cronin, A.K. (2002/2003) ‘Behind the curve: globalization and international terrorism’, International Security 27 (3): 3058.
    Cronin, A.K. (2009) How Terrorism Ends: Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Cronin, A.K. (2012) Ending Terrorism: Lessons for Defeating al-Qaeda. Oxford: Routledge.
    Cronin, A.K. (2015) ‘ISIS is not a terrorist group: why counterterrorism won’t stop the latest jihadist threat’, Foreign Affairs, 94: 87.
    Crozier, B. (1960) The Rebels: a Study of Post-War Insurrections. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Cruz, J.M. (2010) ‘Central American maras: from youth street gangs to transnational protection rackets’, Global Crime, 11 (4): 37998.
    Cruz, J.M. and Durán-Martinez, A. (2016) ‘Hiding violence to deal with the state: criminal pacts in El Salvador and Medellin’, Journal of Peace Research, 53 (2): 197210.
    Curry, G.D. (2015) ‘The logic of defining gangs revisited’. In S.H. Decker and C.C. Pyrooz (eds), The Handbook of Gangs. Chichester: Wiley, pp.727.
    Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2010) ‘Violent radicalization in Europe: what we know and what we do not know’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33 (9): 797814.
    Danzell, O.E. (2010) ‘Political parties: when do they turn to terror?Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55 (1): 85105.
    Dasgupta, S. (2009) ‘Paramilitary groups: local alliances in counterinsurgency operations’, Brookings Counterinsurgency and Pakistan Series Paper (6).
    Davenport, C. and Gates, S. (2014) ‘Four reasons why interstate conflict scholars don’t read intrastate work and why they are wrong, part I’, Political Violence @ a Glance, 21 January. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    David, S.R. (1991) ‘Explaining third world alignment’, World Politics, 43 (2): 23356.
    Davies, J.C. (1962) ‘Toward a theory of revolution’. American sociological review: 519.
    Davies, S. (2010) Global Politics of Health. Cambridge: Polity.
    Davis, B., Mausbach, W., Klimke, M. and MacDougall, C. (eds) (2013) Changing the World, Changing Oneself: Political Protest and Collective Identities in West Germany and the US in the 1960s and 1970s (Vol. 3). New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.
    Davis, D.E. (2010) ‘The political and economic origins of violence and insecurity in contemporary Latin America: past trajectories and future prospects’, Violent Democracies in Latin America, 3562.
    Davis, M.L. (1988) ‘Time and punishment: an intertemporal model of crime’, The Journal of Political Economy, 38390.
    Davis, P.K. and Cragin, K. (2009) Social Science for Counterterrorism: Putting the Pieces Together. Sanata Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
    Dayton, B.W. and Kriesberg, L. (eds) (2009) Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding: Moving from Violence to Sustainable Peace. Oxford: Routledge.
    Dear, K.P. (2013) ‘Beheading the Hydra? Does killing terrorist or insurgent leaders work?’, Defence Studies, 13 (3): 293337.
    de Cataldo Neuberger, L. and Valentini, T. (1996) Women and Terrorism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Decker, S.H., Bynum, T. and Weisel, D. (1998) ‘A tale of two cities: gangs as organized crime groups’, Justice Quarterly, 15 (3): 395425.
    Decker, S.H. and Curry, G.D. (2000) ‘Addressing key features of gang membership: measuring the involvement of young members’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 28 (6): 47382.
    Decker, S.H., Melde, C. and Pyrooz, D.C. (2013) ‘What do we know about gangs and gang members and where do we go from here? Justice Quarterly, 30 (3): 369402.
    Decker, S.H. and Van Winkle, B. (1996) Life in the gang: Family, friends, and violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    de la Calle, L. and Sánchez-Cuenca, I. (2012) ‘Rebels without a territory: an analysis of nonterritorial conflicts in the world, 1970–1997’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 56 (4): 580603.
    Dell, M. (2015) ‘Trafficking networks and the Mexican drug war’, The American Economic Review, 105 (6): 173879.
    della Porta, D. (1992) ‘Institutional responses to terrorism: the Italian case’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 4 (4): 15170.
    della Porta, D. (1995) ‘Left-wing terrorism in Italy’, Terrorism in Context, 10559.
    della Porta, D. and Diani, M. (2006) Social Movements: An Introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Demant, F. and Graaf, B.D. (2010) ‘How to counter radical narratives: Dutch de-radicalization policy in the case of Moluccan and Islamic radicals’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33 (5): 40828.
    De Mesquita, E.B. (2005) ‘The quality of terror’, American Journal of Political Science, 49 (3): 51530.
    Demmers, J. (2007) ‘New wars and diasporas: suggestions for research and policy’, Journal of Peace, Conflict and Development, 11.
    Denov, M.S. (2010) Child Soldiers: Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Densley, J.A. and Stevens, A. (2014) ‘“‘We’ll show you gang”: the subterranean structuration of gang life in London’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, DOI:
    DeRouen, K.R. and Bercovitch, J. (2008) ‘Enduring internal rivalries: new framework for the study of civil war’, Journal of Peace Research, 45 (1): 5574.
    DeRouen Jr, K. and Newman, E. (2014) Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars. Oxford: Routledge.
    Dishman, C. (2001) ‘Terrorism, crime, and transformation’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24 (1): 4358.
    Dishman, C. (2005) ‘The leaderless nexus: when crime and terror converge’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28 (3): 23752.
    Dixon, P. (2009) ‘“Hearts and Minds”? British counter-insurgency strategy in Northern Ireland’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 32 (3): 44574.
    Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. and Caspi, A. (2005) ‘Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency’, Psychological Science, 16 (4): 32835.
    Donnelly, C. (2004, June) ‘Terrorism in the southern Philippines: contextualising the Abu Sayyaf group as an Islamist secessionist organisation’. In Conference Proceedings, 15th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia in Canberra (Vol. 29).
    Doosje, B., Moghaddam, F.M., Kruglanski, A.W., de Wolf, A., Mann, L. and Feddes, A.R. (2016) ‘Terrorism, radicalization and de-radicalization’, Current Opinion in Psychology, 11: 7984.
    Downs, A. (1957) ‘An economic theory of political action in a democracy’, The journal of political economy, 65 (2): 135150.
    Dudley, S.S. (2010) ‘Drug trafficking organizations in Central America: transportistas, Mexican cartels and maras’, Shared Responsibility, 9: 6393.
    Dudley, S.S. (2011) ‘Central America besieged: cartels and maras country threat analysis’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 22 (5): 890913.
    Duffield, M. (1998) ‘Post-modern conflict: warlords, post-adjustment states and private protection’, Civil Wars, 1 (1): 65102.
    Dupont, A. (1999) ‘Transnational crime, drugs, and security in East Asia’, Asian Survey, 39 (3): 43355.
    Dustmann, C., Glitz, A. and Frattini, T. (2008) ‘The labour market impact of immigration’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 24 (3): 477494.
    Duyvesteyn, I. (2000) ‘Contemporary war: ethnic conflict, resource conflict or something else?’, Civil Wars, 3 (1): 92116.
    Egan, V. and Beadman, M. (2011) ‘Personality and gang embeddedness’, Personality and Individual Differences, 51 (6): 74853.
    Ehrlich, P.R. and Liu, J. (2002) ‘Some roots of terrorism’, Population and Environment, 24 (2): 18392.
    Eitle, D., Gunkel, S. and Van Gundy, K. (2004) ‘Cumulative exposure to stressful life events and male gang membership’, Journal of Criminal Justice, 32 (2): 95111.
    Elms, H. and Phillips, R.A. (2009) ‘Private security companies and institutional legitimacy: corporate and stakeholder responsibility’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 19 (03): 40332.
    Elsea, J.K., Schwartz, M. and Nakamura, K.H. (2008) Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
    El-Tom, A. (2009) ‘US envoy gration and his “cookies and honey” strategy for Sudan’, Sudan Tribune. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Enders, W. and Sandler, T. (2000) ‘Is transnational terrorism becoming more threatening? A time-series investigation’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44 (3): 30732.
    Engvall, J. (2006) ‘The state under siege: the drug trade and organised crime in Tajikistan’, Europe-Asia Studies, 58 (6): 82754.
    Ergil, D. (2000) ‘Suicide terrorism in Turkey’, Civil Wars, 3 (1): 3754.
    Erk, J. and Anderson, L.M. (2013) The Paradox of Federalism: Does Self-rule Accommodate or Exacerbate Ethnic Divisions? Oxford: Routledge.
    Esbensen, F.A. and Weerman, F.M. (2005) ‘Youth gangs and troublesome youth groups in the United States and the Netherlands: a cross-national comparison’, European Journal of Criminology, 2 (1): 537.
    Esbensen, F.A., Winfree, L.T., He, N. and Taylor, T.J. (2001) ‘Youth gangs and definitional issues: when is a gang a gang, and why does it matter? Crime & Delinquency, 47 (1): 10530.
    Esteva, G. (1999) ‘The Zapatistas and people’s power’, Capital & Class, 23 (2): 15382.
    Eubank, W. and Weinberg, L. (2001) ‘Terrorism and democracy: perpetrators and victims’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 13 (1): 15564.
    European Union (2003) A Secure Europe in a Better World: European Security Strategy. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies. Available at: (accessed 6 February 2017).
    Ezrow, N.M. and Frantz, E. (2013) Failed States and Institutional Decay: Understanding Instability and Poverty in the Developing World. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Fabick, S.D. (2004) ‘Us and them: Reducing the risk of terrorism’. In C.E. Stout (ed.), Psychology of Terrorism: Coping with the Continuing Threat, Condensed Edition, London: Praeger, pp. 95115.
    Fairbanks, C.H. (2001) ‘Disillusionment in the Caucasus and Central Asia’, Journal of Democracy, 12 (4): 4956.
    Fajnzylber, P., Lederman, D. and Loayza, N. (1998) Determinants of Crime Rates in Latin America and the World: An Empirical Assessment. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
    Fall, B. (2015) ‘The theory and practice of insurgency and counterinsurgency’, Naval War College Review, 17.
    Farrell, T. (1996) ‘Figuring out fighting organisations: the new organisational analysis in strategic studies’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 19 (1): 12235.
    Farrell, T. (2010) ‘Improving in war: military adaptation and the British in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, 2006–2009’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 33 (4): 56794.
    Fearon, J.D. (2004) ‘Why do some civil wars last so much longer than others? Journal of Peace Research, 41 (3): 275301.
    Fearon, J.D. and Laitin, D.D. (2003) ‘Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war’, American Political Science Review, 97 (1): 7590.
    Fellman, P.V. and Wright, R. (2014) ‘Modeling terrorist networks, complex systems at the mid-range’, arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.6989.
    Ferguson, J. (1987) Papa Doc, Baby Doc: Haiti and the Duvaliers. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Fernández-Kelly, P. and Shefner, J. (2006) Out of the Shadows: Political Action and the Informal Economy in Latin America. Pennsylvania: Penn State Press.
    Fields, R.M., Elbedour, S. and Hein, F.A. (2002) ‘The Palestinian suicide bomber’, The Psychology of Terrorism, 2, 193223.
    Fierke, K.M. (2009) ‘Terrorism and trust in Northern Ireland’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 2 (3): 497511.
    Fierke, K.M. (2015) Critical Approaches to International Security. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Filkins, D. (2010) ‘With US aid, warlord builds Afghan empire’, The New York Times, 5 June.
    Finckenauer, J.O. (2012) Mafia and Organized Crime: A Beginner’s Guide. London: Oneworld Publications.
    Finckenauer, J.O. (2005) ‘Problems of definition: what is organized crime?’, Trends in Organized Crime, 8 (3): 6383.
    Finnemore, M. and Sikkink, K. (2001) ‘Taking stock: the constructivist research program in and comparative politics’, Annual review of political science, 4 (1): 391416.
    Fleshman, M. (2001) ‘Counting the costs of gun violence’, Africa Recovery, 15 (4).
    Forest, J.J. (2012) Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria (No. JSOU-12–5). Macdill Air Force Base, FL.: Jsou.
    Forst, B., Greene, J.R. and Lynch, J.P. (eds) (2011) Criminologists on Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Fortna, V.P. (2015) ‘Do terrorists win? Rebels’ use of terrorism and civil war outcomes’, International Organization, 69 (03): 519556.
    Fotiadis, A. (2016) ‘This racist backlash against refugees is the real crisis in Europe’, The Guardian, 25 February. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Francis, B., Humphreys, L., Kirby, S. and Soothill, K. (2013) Understanding Criminal Careers in Organised Crime. London: Home Office.
    Franco, C. (2007, November) The MS 13 and 18th Street Gangs: Emerging Transnational Gang Threats? Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
    Freeman, L. (2015) ‘The African warlord revisited’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 26 (5): 790810.
    Friedman, T.L. (2006) The world is flat: the globalized world in the twenty-first century. London: Penguin.
    Frisch, E. (2012) ‘Insurgencies are organizations too: organizational structure and the effectiveness of insurgent strategy’, The Peace and Conflict Review, 6: 123.
    Fuller, A. (1991) Return to the Darkest Days: Human Rights in Haiti since the Coup (Vol. 2259). New York: Human Rights Watch.
    Gaibulloev, K. and Sandler, T. (2013) ‘Determinants of the demise of terrorist organizations’, Southern Economic Journal, 79 (4): 77492.
    Galeotti, M. (2002) ‘“Brotherhoods” and “associates”: Chechen networks of crime and resistance’, Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, 11 (2–3): 34052.
    Gallimore, T. (2004) ‘Unresolved trauma: fuel for the cycle of violence and terrorism’. In C.E. Stout (ed.), The Psychology of Terrorism. London: Praeger.
    Galula, D. (2006) Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
    Gambetta, D. (2000) ‘Mafia: the price of distrust’. In D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations, electronic edition, New York: Basil Blackwell, pp. 15875.
    Gambetta, D. (1996) The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
    Garry, J. (2014) ‘Potentially voting across the divide in deeply divided places: ethnic catch-all voting in consociational Northern Ireland’, Political Studies, 62 (1 suppl): 219.
    Gates, S. (2002) ‘Recruitment and allegiance: the microfoundations of rebellion’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 46 (1): 111130.
    Gberie, L. (2005) A Dirty War in West Africa: the RUF and the destruction of Sierra Leone. Indiana: Indiana University Press.
    Gelvin, J.L. (2008) ‘Al-Qaeda and anarchism: a historian’s reply to terrorology’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 20 (4): 563581.
    Getmansky, A. (2013) ‘You can’t win if you don’t fight the role of regime type in counterinsurgency outbreaks and outcomes’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 57 (4): 70934.
    Gill, P., Horgan, J. and Deckert, P. (2014) ‘Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 59 (2): 42535.
    Gill, P. and Young, J.K. (2011) ‘Comparing role-specific terrorist profiles’, available at SSRN 1782008.
    Gissinger, R. and Gleditsch, N.P. (1999) ‘Globalization and conflict: welfare, distribution, and political unrest’, Journal of World-systems Research, 5 (2): 32765.
    Giustozzi, A. (2004) ‘“Good” state vs. “bad” warlords? A critique of state-building strategies in Afghanistan’. Crisis States Research Centre working papers series 1, 51. London: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science.
    Gleditsch, K. S. (2007) ‘Transnational dimensions of civil war’, Journal of Peace Research, 44 (3): 293309.
    Global Research (2016) muslims are the victims of ‘between 82 and 97% of terrorism-related fatalities’: us government. Available at: (accessed 25 January 2016).
    Global Terrorism Database (2015) (accessed 25 January 2017).
    Global Terrorism Index (n.d.) (accessed 25 January 2017).
    Goldberg, P.K. and Pavcnik, N. (2007) Distributional Effects of Globalization in Developing Countries (No. w12885). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
    Goldsmith, A.A. (1999) ‘Africa’s overgrown state reconsidered: bureaucracy and economic growth’, World Politics 51 (4): 52046.
    Goodhand, J. (2000) ‘From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in North-eastern Afghanistan’, Disasters, 24 (2): 87102.
    Goodhand, J. (2001) A synthesis report: Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Nepal and Sri Lanka. London: Conflict, Security & Development Group, Centre for Defence Studies, University of London.
    Goodhand, J. (2004) ‘From war economy to peace economy? Reconstruction and state building in AfghanistanJournal of International Affairs, 58 (1): 155174.
    Goodwin, J. (2006) ‘A theory of categorical terrorism’, Social Forces, 84 (4): 202746.
    Gottfredson, M.R. and Hirschi, T. (1990) A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Grajales, J. (2011) ‘The rifle and the title: paramilitary violence, land grab and land control in Colombia’, Journal of Peasant Studies, 38 (4): 77192.
    Gray, D.H. and LaTour, K. (2010) ‘Terrorist black holes: global regions shrouded in lawlessness’, Global Security Studies, 1 (3): 15463.
    Grieco, J.M. (1988) ‘Anarchy and the limits of cooperation: a realist critique of the newest liberal institutionalism’, International organization, 42 (3): 485507.
    Griffin, J. (1 February 2013) Private Contract Security Services to See Steady Global Demand. Security InfoWatch. Available at: (accessed 25 January 2016).
    Grillo, I. (2012) El Narco: Inside Mexico’s Criminal Insurgency. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Gros, J.G. (1996) ‘Towards a taxonomy of failed states in the New World Order: decaying Somalia, Liberia, Rwanda and Haiti’, Third World Quarterly, 17 (3): 45572.
    Grunenberg, S. and Van Donselaar, J. (2006) ‘Deradicalisering: lessen uit Duitsland, opties voor Nederland?’. In J. van Donselaar and P.R. Rodrigues (eds), Monitor Racisme & Extremisme: zevende rapportage. Amsterdam/Leiden: Anne Frank Stichting/Universiteit Leiden.
    Grynkewich, A.G. (2008) ‘Welfare as warfare: how violent non-state groups use social services to attack the state’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31 (4): 35070.
    Gunaratna, R. (1998) ‘Impact of the mobilized Tamil diaspora on the protracted conflict in Sri Lanka’, Negotiating Peace in Sri Lanka: Effort, Failures and Lessons. London: International Alert.
    Gunaratna, R. (2002) Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Gunaratna, R. and Oreg, A. (2010) ‘Al Qaeda’s organizational structure and its evolution’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33 (12): 104378.
    Gurney, K. (2014) ‘Guatemala extortion generates $61 mn a year: govt’. Insight Crime (18 July). Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Gurr, T.R. (1988) ‘War, revolution, and the growth of the coercive state’, Comparative Political Studies, 21 (1): 4565.
    Gurr, T.R. (1993) ‘Why minorities rebel: a global analysis of communal mobilization and conflict since 1945’, International Political Science Review,14 (2): 161201.
    Gurr, T.R. (2000) Peoples versus states: Minorities at risk in the new century. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace Press.
    Gurr, T.R. (2015) Why Men Rebel. Oxford: Routledge.
    Gvineria, G. (2009) ‘How does terrorism end?’. In P.K. Davis and K. Cragin (eds), Social Science for Counterterrorism, Sanata Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, pp. 25791.
    Haas, N.E., de Keijser, J.W. and Bruinsma, G.J. (2014) ‘Public support for vigilantism, confidence in police and police responsiveness’, Policing and Society, 24 (2): 22441.
    Hacker, F.J. (1976) Crusaders, Criminals, Crazies: Terror and Terrorism in our Time. New York: Norton.
    Hagedorn, J. (2007) Gangs in the GLOBAL CITY: Alternatives to Traditional Criminology. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Hagedorn, J.M. (1998) ‘Gang violence in the post-industrial era’, Crime and Justice, 365419.
    Hagedorn, J.M. (2001) ‘Globalization, gangs, and collaborative research’, in The Eurogang Paradox. Springer Netherlands, pp. 4158.
    Hansen, S.J. (2006) ‘Warlords and peace strategies: the case of Somalia’, Journal of Conflict Studies, 23(2). Available at: (accessed 11 november 2016).
    Harmon, C.C. (2001) ‘Five strategies of terrorism’, Small Wars and Insurgencies, 12 (3): 3966.
    Harris, A.W. (2010) ‘Coming to terms with separatist insurgencies’, Negotiation Journal, 26 (3): 32756.
    Hashim, A.S. (2013) Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency. Oxford: Routledge.
    Hazen, J.M. (2008) ‘Risk and resilience: understanding the potential for violence’, Chapter 8 in Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and resilience, pp. 24573. Available at: (accessed 25 January 2016).
    Hegghammer, T. (2007) ‘Saudi militants in Iraq: backgrounds and recruitment patterns’, Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, 8.
    Hehir, A. (2007) ‘The myth of the failed state and the war on terror: a challenge to the conventional wisdom’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 1 (3): 30732.
    Held, D. (2013) Global Covenant: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Held, D. and McGrew, A.G. (eds) (2007) Globalization theory: Approaches and Controversies (Vol. 4). Cambridge: locPolity.
    Helsinki Watch Organization (1991) Punished Peoples of the Soviet Union: The Continuing Legacy of Stalin’s Deportations (Vol. 1245). New York: Human Rights Watch.
    Hills, A. (1997) ‘Warlords, militia and conflict in contemporary Africa: a re-examination of terms’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 8 (1): 3551.
    Hinnebusch, R.A. and Ehteshami, A. (2002) The Foreign Policies of Middle East States. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
    Hoffman, B. (1998–99) ‘Revival of religious terrorism begs for broad US policy’, Rand Review, 22 (2).
    Hoffman, D. (2004) ‘The civilian target in Sierra Leone and Liberia: political power, military strategy, and humanitarian intervention’, African Affairs, 103 (411): 21126.
    Hoffman, B. (2006) Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Hoffman, B. (2007) The Radicalization of Diasporas and Terrorism: A Joint Conference by the RAND Corporation and the Center for Security Studies, ETH Zurich (Vol. 229). Rand Corporation.
    Hoffman, B. (2008) ‘The myth of grass-roots terrorism: why Osama bin Laden still matters’, Foreign Affairs, 133138.
    Hoffman, B. (2013) ‘Al Qaeda’s Uncertain Future’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36 (8): 63553.
    Hoffman, B. and McCormick, G.H. (2004) ‘Terrorism, signalling, and suicide attack’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27 (4): 24381.
    Hopf, T. (1998) ‘The promise of constructivism in theory’, International Security, 23 (1): 171200.
    Holmqvist, C. (2005) Private Security Companies. Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
    Horgan, J. (2014) The Psychology of Terrorism. Revised and updated second edition. Oxford: Routledge.
    Horgan, J. (2011) Terrorism Studies: A Reader. Oxford: Routledge.
    Horgan, J. and Morrison, J.F. (2011) ‘Here to stay? The rising threat of violent dissident Republicanism in Northern Ireland’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (4): 64269.
    Horowitz, D.L. (2014) ‘Ethnic power sharing: three big problems’, Journal of Democracy, 25 (2): 520.
    Horowitz, D.L. (1989) ‘Incentives and behaviour in the ethnic politics of Sri Lanka and Malaysia’, Third World Quarterly, 11 (4): 1835.
    Howe, H.M. (1998) ‘Private security forces and African stability: the case of executive outcomes’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 36 (2): 30731.
    Huber, J.D. and Powell, G.B. (1994) ‘Congruence between citizens and policymakers in two visions of liberal democracy’, World Politics, 46 (03): 291326.
    Huckerby, J. (2015) ‘When women become terrorists’, New York Times, 21 January. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Hudson, R.A. and Majeska, M. (1999, September) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why? Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
    Huggins, M.K. (2000) ‘Modernity and devolution: the making of police death squads in modern Brazil’. In B. Campbell and A. Brenner (eds), Death Squads in Global Perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 20328.
    Human Rights Watch (2009) ‘You Can Die Any Time’: Death Squad Killings in Mindanao. New York: Human Rights Watch. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Human Rights Watch (2015) World Report 2015: Colombia: Events of 2014. Available at: (accessed 10 February 2017).
    Humphreys, M. and Weinstein, J.M. (2008) ‘Who fights? The determinants of participation in civil war’, American Journal of Political Science, 52 (2): 43655.
    Hunsicker, A. (2006) Understanding International Counter Terrorism: A Professional’s Guide to the Operational Art. Boca Raton, FL: Universal-Publishers.
    Hutchinson, S. and O’Malley, P. (2007) ‘A Crime-Terror Nexus? Thinking on some of the links between terrorism and criminality 1’, Studies in Conflict Terrorism, 30 (12): 10951107.
    Hydén, G. (1999) ‘Top-down democratization in Tanzania’, Journal of Democracy, 10 (4): 14255.
    Hydén, G. Court, J., Mease, K (2003) ‘Civil Society and governance in 16 developing countries’, World Governance Survey Discussion Paper, London.
    Hyde-Price, A. (2009) ‘Realist ethics and the “war on terror’’’, Globalizations 6 (1): 2340.
    International Review of the Red Cross (2009) Interviews with Peter Wallenstein, 91 (873): 719. Available at: (accessed 25 January 2017).
    Isenberg, D. (2009) Shadow Force: Private Security Contractors in Iraq. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
    Jaber, H. (1997) Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Jackson, R. (2006) ‘The state and terrorist sanctuaries: a critical analysis’, British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference (pp. 1820).
    Jackson, R (2007) ‘The core commitments of critical terrorism studies’, European Political Science 6 (3): 24451.
    Jackson, R. (2008) ‘The ghosts of state terror: knowledge, politics and terrorism studies’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 1 (3): 37792.
    Jarstad, A.K. and Sisk, T.D. (eds) (2008) From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Jarvis, L. and Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘What is cyberterrorism? Findings from a survey of researchers’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 27 (4): 65778.
    Jasperse, M., Ward, C. and Jose, P.E. (2012) ‘Identity, perceived religious discrimination, and psychological well-being in Muslim immigrant women’, Applied Psychology, 61 (2): 25071.
    Jayasekara, S. (2007) LTTE Fundraising and Money Transfer Operations. Presented at the International conference on countering Terrorism, held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 18–20 October.
    Johnston, D. (2008) ‘Lifting the veil on corporate terrorism: the use of the criminal code terrorism framework to hold multinational corporations accountable for complicity in human rights violations abroad’, U. Toronto Fac. L. Rev., 66: 137187.
    Jones, S.G. and Libicki, M.C. (2008) How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
    Jordan, J. (2009) ‘When heads roll: assessing the effectiveness of leadership decapitation’, Security Studies, 18 (4): 71955.
    Juergensmeyer, M. (2005) Terror in the Mind of God: The global rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Kaldor, M. (2013) New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Kalyvas, S. N. (2005) ‘Warfare in civil wars’. In I. Duyvesteyn and J. Angstrom (eds), Rethinking the Nature of War. Abingdon: Frank Cass, pp. 88108.
    Kalyvas, S.N. (2006) The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kalyvas, S.N. (2015) ‘How civil wars help explain organized crime – and how they do not’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59 (8): 151740.
    Kalyvas, S.N. and Kocher, M.A. (2007) ‘How “free” is free riding in civil wars? Violence, insurgency, and the collective action problem’, World Politics, 59 (2): 177216.
    Kan, P.R. (2012) Cartels at War: Mexico’s Drug-fueled Violence and the Threat to US National Security. Lincoln, NE: Potomac Books, Inc.
    Kaplan, D.E. and Dubro, A. (2012) Yakuza: Japan’s Criminal Underworld. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Karakatsanis, N.M. (2008) ‘Political learning as a catalyst of moderation: lessons from democratic consolidation in Greece’, Democratisation, 15 (2): 386409.
    Karklins, R. (2005) The System Made Me Do It: Corruption in Post-communist Societies. London and New York: ME Sharpe.
    Karstedt, S. (2012) ‘Contextualizing mass atrocity crimes: the dynamics of ‘extremely violent societies’, European Journal of Criminology, 9(5): 499513.
    Kass, I. and O’Neill, B.E. (1997) The Deadly Embrace: The Impact of Israeli and Palestinian Rejectionism on the Peace Process. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Kaufmann, C. (2007) ‘A security dilemma: ethnic partitioning in Iraq’, Harvard International Review, 28 (4): 44.
    Kay, B.H. (1999) ‘Violent opportunities: the rise and fall of “King Coca” and Shining Path’, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 41 (3): 97127.
    Kearney, V. (2013) ‘Security forces in the Troubles’, BBC, February. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Keen, D. (1998) ‘The economic functions of violence in civil wars (special issue)’, The Adelphi Papers, 38 (320): 189.
    Keen, D. (2012) ‘Greed and grievance in civil war’, International Affairs, 88 (4): 75777.
    Keen, D. (2000) Incentives and Disincentives for Violence. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers; International Development Research Centre. (pp. 1942).
    Kegley, C.W. and Blanton, S.L. (2015) World Politics: Trend and Transformation, 2016–2017. Toronto: Nelson Education.
    Kelley, M. (2014) Terrorism and the Growing Threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Al-Shabaab. Hamburg: Anchor Academic Publishing.
    Kennedy-Pipe, C. and McInnes, C. (1997) ‘The British army in Northern Ireland 1969–1972: from policing to counter-terror’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 20 (2): 124.
    Kenney, M. (2007) ‘The architecture of drug trafficking: network forms of organization in the Colombian cocaine trade’, Global Crime, 8 (3): 23359.
    Keohane, R.O. (1989) International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    King, M. and Taylor, D.M. (2011) ‘The radicalization of home-grown jihadists: a review of theoretical models and social psychological evidence’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (4): 60222.
    Kinsey, C. (2007) ‘Problematising the role of private security companies in small wars’, Small Wars and Insurgencies, 18(4): 584614.
    Kiras, J.D. (2007) ‘Irregular warfare: terrorism and insurgency’, Understanding Modern Warfare, 224.
    Kirchheimer, O. (1966) ‘The transformation of the Western European party systems’. In J. LaPalombara and M. Wiener (eds), Political Parties and Political Development, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 177200.
    Kirwin, M. (2006) ‘The security dilemma and conflict in Côte d’Ivoire’, Nordic Journal of African Studies, 15 (1): 4252.
    Kleemans, E.R. and Van de Bunt, H.G. (1999) ‘The social embeddedness of organized crime’, Transnational Organized Crime, 5 (1): 1936.
    Klein, M.W. and Maxson, C.L. (2010) Street Gang Patterns and Policies. Oxford University Press.
    Kolhatkar, S. (2003) In Afghanistan, US Replaces One Terrorist State with Another. Silver City, NM and Washington, DC: Foreign Policy in Focus.
    Kolstø, P. (2006) ‘The sustainability and future of unrecognized quasi-states’, Journal of Peace Research, 43 (6): 72340.
    Koonings, K. and Kruijt, D. (2004) Armed Actors: Organised Violence and State Failure in Latin America. London: Zed Books.
    Krause, K. (2012) ‘Hybrid violence: locating the use of force in postconflict settings’, Global Governance, 18 (1): 3956.
    Krieger, H. (2001) The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974–1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Krieger, T. and Meierrieks, D. (2011) ‘What causes terrorism?’, Public Choice, 147 (1–2): 327.
    Krueger, A.B. and Laitin, D.D. (2008) ‘Kto kogo? A cross-country study of the origins and targets of terrorism’, Terrorism, economic development, and Political Openness, 14873.
    Krueger, A.B. and Malečková, J. (2003) ‘Education, poverty and terrorism: is there a causal connection? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17 (4): 11944.
    Kruglanski, A.W. and Fishman, S. (2006) ‘The psychology of terrorism: ‘syndrome’ versus ‘tool’ perspectives’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 18 (2): 193215.
    Kukhianidze, A. (2009) ‘Corruption and organized crime in Georgia before and after the “Rose Revolution’’’, Central Asian Survey, 28 (2): 215234.
    Kumaraswamy, P.R. and Copland, I. (eds) (2013) South Asia: The Spectre of Terrorism. Oxford: Routledge.
    Kupatadze, A. (2012) ‘Organized crime, political transitions and state formation’. In A. Kupatadze, Organized Crime, Political Transitions and State Formation in Post-Soviet Eurasia. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 18193.
    Kupchan, C.A. and Kupchan, C.A. (1995) ‘The promise of collective security’, International Security, 20 (1): 5261.
    LaFree, G. and Freilich, J.D. (2012) ‘Editor’s introduction: quantitative approaches to the study of terrorism’, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28 (1): 15.
    Lane. E. (2010) ‘The rise of the UK’s private security companies’, BBC News, 2 November. Available at (accessed 31 October 2016)
    Langdon, L., Sarapu, A.J. and Wells, M. (2004) ‘Targeting the leadership of terrorist and insurgent movements: historical lessons for contemporary policy makers’, Journal of Public and International Affairs-Princeton, 15: 5978.
    Laqueur, W. (1996) ‘Postmodern terrorism’, Foreign Affairs, 75 (5): 2436.
    Laqueur, W. (1977) A History of Terrorism. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
    Laqueur, W. (2003) No end to war: Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Le Billon, P. (2001) ‘The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts’, Political Geography, 20 (5): 56184.
    Lebson, M. (2013) ‘Why refugees rebel: towards a comprehensive theory of refugee militarization’, International Migration, 51 (5): 13348.
    Leiken, R.S. (2005) ‘Europe’s angry Muslims’, Foreign Affairs, 84 (4): 12035.
    Lerman, D. (2014) ‘Islamic state’s oil refining undercut by airstrikes’, Bloomberg, 8 November. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Lezhnev, S. (2006) Crafting Peace: Strategies to Deal with Warlords in Collapsing States. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
    Lia, B. and Skjolberg, K. (2004) Causes of terrorism: an expanded and updated review of the literature. Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutts Rapportdatabase (Norwegian Defence Research Establishment).
    Li, Q. (2005) ‘Does democracy promote or reduce transnational terrorist incidents?Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (2): 27897.
    Li, Q. and Schaub, D. (2004) ‘Economic globalization and transnational terrorism: a pooled time-series analysis’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48 (2): 23058.
    Lipset, S.M. (2000) ‘The indispensability of political parties’, Journal of Democracy, 11 (1): 4855.
    Lisanti, D. (2010) ‘Do failed states really breed terrorists? An examination of terrorism in sub-saharan africa comparing statistical approaches with a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis’. In CAPERS Workshop at NYU, May, pp.126.
    Lischer, S.K. (2006) Dangerous Sanctuaries: Refugee Camps, Civil War, and the Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid. New York: Cornell University Press.
    Longman, J. (2016) ‘IS increases use of child soldiers, says US report’, BBC News, 19 February. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Lynch, D. (2002) ‘Separatist states and post-Soviet conflicts’, International Affairs, 78 (4): 831848.
    Lynch, D. (2004) Engaging Eurasia’s Separatist States: Unresolved Conflicts and De Facto States. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace Press.
    Lynn-Jones, S.M. (1998) ‘Why the United States should spread democracy’, Discussion Paper 98–07, Cambridge, MA: Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University.
    Mackinlay, J. (2000) ‘Defining warlords’, International Peacekeeping, 7 (1): 4862.
    Mackinlay, J. (1998) ‘War lords’, The RUSI Journal, 143 (2): 2432.
    Mair, S. (2005) ‘The new world of privatized violence’, New Trends in International Politics and Society, 4762.
    Makarenko, T. (2004) ‘The crime-terror continuum: tracing the interplay between transnational organised crime and terrorism’, Global Crime, 6 (1): 129145.
    Makarenko, T. (2012) ‘Foundations and evolution of the crime-terror nexus’. In F. Allum and S. Gilmour (eds), Routledge Handbook of Transnational Organized Crime, pp. 234249.
    Mallory, S.L. (2011) Understanding Organized Crime. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
    Mannes, A. (2003) Profiles in Terror: The Guide to Middle East Terrorist Organizations. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Manwaring, M. (2011) ‘Security, stability and sovereignty challenges of politicized gangs and insurgents in the Americas’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 22 (5): 860889.
    Manwaring, M.G. (2005) ‘Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency’. Dissertation submitted to Army War College Strategic Studies Inst Carlisle Barracks PA.
    Marchal, R. (2007) ‘Warlordism and terrorism: how to obscure an already confusing crisis? The case of Somalia’, International Affairs, 83 (6): 10911106.
    Marcus, A. (2009) Blood and Belief: The PKK and the Kurdish Fight for Independence. New York: NYU Press.
    Markowitz, L.P. (2012) ‘Tajikistan: authoritarian reaction in a post-war state’, Democratization, 19 (1): 98119.
    Marten, K. (2012) Warlords: Strong-arm Brokers in Weak States. New York: Cornell University Press.
    Mason, T.D. and Krane, D.A. (1989) ‘The political economy of death squads: toward a theory of the impact of state-sanctioned terror’, International Studies Quarterly, 33 (2): 17598.
    Mathieu, F. and Dearden, N. (2007) ‘Corporate mercenaries: the threat of private military and security companies’, Review of African Political Economy, 34 (114): 74455.
    Matthews, C. (2014) ‘Fortune 5: the biggest organized crime groups in the world’, Fortune, 14 September. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Matusitz, J. (2013) Terrorism and Communication. Florida: SAGE Publications, University of Central Florida.
    Mavin, D. (2015) ‘Calculating the revenue from antiquities to Islamic State’, Wall Street Journal, 11 February. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Mazzei, J. (2009) Death Squads or Self-Defense Forces? How Paramilitary Groups Emerge and Challenge Democracy in Latin America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
    McAllister, I. (2004) ‘“The Armalite and the ballot box”: Sinn Fein’s electoral strategy in Northern Ireland’, Electoral Studies, 23 (1): 123142.
    McCormick, E.M. (2003) Enemy Aliens: Double Standards and Constitutional Freedoms in the War on Terrorism. New York: The New Press.
    McCormick, G.H. (2003) ‘Terrorist decision making’, Annual Review of Political Science, 6 (1): 473507.
    McCormick, G.H. and Giordano, F. (2007) ‘Things come together: symbolic violence and guerrilla mobilisation’, Third World Quarterly, 28 (2): 295320.
    McEvoy, J. (2014) Power-sharing Executives: Governing in Bosnia, Macedonia, and Northern Ireland. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    McEvoy, J. and O’Leary, B. (eds) (2013) Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Places. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Mearsheimer, J.J. (1995) ‘A realist reply’, International Security, 20 (1): 8293.
    Menkhaus, K. (2006) ‘Quasi-states, nation-building, and terrorist safe havens’, Journal of Conflict Studies, 23 (2).
    Merari, A. (1993) ‘Terrorism as a strategy of insurgency’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 5 (4): 21351.
    Merari, A. (1998) ‘Attacks on civil aviation: trends and lessons’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 10 (3): 926.
    Merkl, P.H. (ed.) (1986) Political Violence and Terror: Motifs and Motivations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Merkl, P.H. (1995) ‘Radical right parties in Europe and anti-foreign violence: a comparative essay’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 7 (1): 96118.
    Metz, S. (1994) ‘Insurgency after the Cold War’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 5 (1): 6382.
    Meyer, J.W. (2000) ‘Globalization sources and effects on national states and societies’, International Sociology, 15 (2): 233248.
    Michels, R. (1959) Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Ligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy. New York: Dover.
    Mickolus, E.F. and Simmons, S.L. (2002) Terrorism, 1996–2001: A Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Midtbøen, A.H. (2014) ‘The invisible second generation? Statistical discrimination and immigrant stereotypes in employment processes in Norway’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40 (10): 165775.
    Miller, L. (2006) ‘The terrorist mind: a psychological and political analysis’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50 (2): 12138.
    Mingst, K.A. and Arreguín-Toft, I.M. (2013) Essentials of International Relations (6th international student edn). New York: Norton.
    Miranda, R. and Ratliff, W.E. (1992) The Civil War in Nicaragua: Inside the Sandinistas. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
    Mishal, S. and Rosenthal, M. (2005) ‘Al Qaeda as a dune organization: toward a typology of Islamic terrorist organizations’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28 (4): 27593.
    Mishal, S. and Sela, A. (2006) The Palestinian Hamas: Vision, Violence, and Coexistence. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Mittelman, J. (2010) Hyperconflict: Globalization and Insecurity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Mobley, B.W. (2012) Terrorism and Counterintelligence: How Terrorist Groups Elude Detection. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Molzahn, C., Ríos, V. and Shirk, D.A. (2012) Drug violence in Mexico: Data and analysis through 2011. Trans-Border Institute, University of San Diego, San Diego.
    Monteleone, C., Caruso, R., and Locatelli, A. (2014) ‘Some insights on the link between terrorism, organised crime and “New wars’’’, Understanding Terrorism, 22: 23754.
    Morrison, J.F. (2015) ‘Peace comes dropping slow’. In I. Tellidis and H. Toros (eds), Researching Terrorism, Peace and Conflict Studies: Interaction, Synthesis and Opposition.Abingdon: Routledge.
    Morselli, C. (2009) Inside Criminal Networks. New York: Springer.
    Mueller, J. (2013) War and Ideas: Selected Essays. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Mueller, J and Stewart, M. (2016) ‘Misoverestimating ISIS: comparisons with Al-Qaeda’. Perspectives on Terrorism 10 (4). Available at: (accessed 11 November 2016).
    Muir, J. (20 June 2016) ‘Islamic State group: the full story’, BBC News. Available at: (accessed 1 September 2016).
    Mulaj, K. (2010) Violent Non-state Actors in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Muro, D. (2013) ‘ETA: Basque nationalist and separatist organization’, The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Nacos, B. (2016) Mass-mediated Terrorism: Mainstream and Digital Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Nadarajah, S. and Sriskandarajah, D. (2005) ‘Liberation struggle or terrorism? The politics of naming the LTTE’, Third World Quarterly, 26 (1): 87100.
    Nagle, L.E. (2003) ‘The challenges of fighting global organized crime in Latin America’, Fordham International Law Journal, 26.
    Nakhle, C. (6 December 2015) ‘ISIS sells its oil but who is buying it?Al Jazeera. Available at: (accessed 31 October 2016).
    Napoleoni, L. (2014) The Islamist Phoenix: The Islamic State (ISIS) and the Redrawing of the Middle East. New York: Seven Stories Press.
    Nasuti, P. (2012) The Determinants of Anti-Corruption Reform in the Republic of Georgia. Available at: (accessed 30 January 2016).
    Newland, K. and Plaza, S. (2013) ‘What we know about diasporas and economic development’. Migration Policy Institute, Policy Brief, 5: 114.
    Newman, E. (2007) ‘Weak states, state failure, and terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 19 (4): 46388.
    Nicholas, R.M., Barr, R.J. and Mollan, R.A. (1993) ‘Paramilitary punishment in Northern Ireland: a macabre irony’, Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 34 (1): 905.
    Nye, J.S. (2003) ‘US power and strategy after Iraq’, Foreign Affairs, 82 (4): 6073.
    Nye, J.S. (2004) Soft power: the means to success in world politics, New York: Public Affairs.
    Nye, J.S. and Lynn-Jones, S.M. (1988) ‘International security studies: a report of a conference on the state of the field’, International security, 12 (4): 527.
    O’Brien, B. (1999) The long war: the IRA and Sinn Fein. Syracuse University Press.
    O’Brien, K.J. (1996) ‘Rightful resistance’, World Politics, 49 (1): 3155.
    O’Donnell, G. A. (1998) Polyarchies and the (un) rule of law in Latin America. Instituto Juan March de Estudios e Investigaciones.
    O’Donnell, G.A. (2004) ‘Why the rule of law matters’, Journal of Democracy,15 (4): 3246.
    Oehme III, C. G. (2008) ‘Terrorists, insurgents, and criminals – growing nexus?Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31 (1): 8093.
    O’Leary, B. (2005) ‘Mission Accomplished? Looking Back at the IRA’, Field Day Review, 1, 21745.
    O’Leary, B. (2007) ‘IRA: Irish Republican Army (Oglaigh na hEireann)’, Terror, insurgency and the state. In M. Heiberg, B. O’Leary and J. Tirman (eds), Terror, Insurgency, and the state: Ending Protracted Conflicts. University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 189228.
    Olesen, T. (2004) ‘Globalising the Zapatistas: from Third World solidarity to global solidarity?’, Third World Quarterly, 25 (1): 25567.
    Olzak, S. (2011) ‘Does globalization breed ethnic discontent?’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55 (1): 332.
    Omeje, K. (2007) ‘The diaspora and domestic insurgencies in Africa’, African Sociological Review, 11 (2): 94107.
    O’Neill, B.E. (2001) Insurgency & Terrorism: Inside Modern Revolutionary Warfare. Washington, DC: Brassey’s Inc.
    O’Neill, W.G. (2002) ‘Beyond the slogans: how can the UN respond to terrorism’, Responding to Terrorism: What Role for the United Nations, International Peace Academy, 517.
    Onuoha, F.C. (2014) Why Do Youth Join Boko Haram? Special Report. Washington, DC: US Institute for Peace.
    Oots, K.L. (1989) ‘Organizational perspectives on the formation and disintegration of terrorist groups’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 12(3): 139152.
    O’Rourke, L.A. (2009) ‘What’s special about female suicide terrorism?Security Studies, 18 (4): 681718.
    Osorio, A.E.F (2013) The First Chechen War. Moscow: Higher School of Economics.
    Palma, O. (2015) ‘Transnational networks of insurgency and crime: explaining the spread of commercial insurgencies beyond state borders’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 26 (3): 47696.
    Pape, R. (2005) Dying to win: The strategic logic of suicide terrorism. New York: Random House.
    Patrick, S. (2006) ‘Weak states and global threats: fact or fiction?Washington Quarterly, 29 (2): 2753.
    Pearce, J. (1990) Colombia: Inside the labyrinth. London: Latin America Bureau.
    Pearlstein, R.M. (1991) The mind of the political terrorist. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.
    Pearson, G. and Hobbs, D. (2003) ‘King pin? A case study of a middle market drug broker’, The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 42 (4): 33547.
    Pedahzur, A. (2005) Suicide terrorism. Cambridge: Polity.
    Pedahzur, A. and Perliger, A. (2006) ‘The changing nature of suicide attacks: a social network perspective’. Social forces, 84 (4): 19872008.
    Pegg, S. (1998) De Facto States in the International System. Institute of International Relations, University of British Columbia.
    Penglase, B. (2009) ‘States of insecurity: everyday emergencies, public secrets, and drug trafficker power in a Brazilian favela’, PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review, 32 (1): 4763.
    Pennell, S., Melton, R. and Hoctor, D. (2001) Assessment of a Multi-Agency Approach to Drug Involved Gang Members. San Diego Association of Governments.
    Pérouse de Montclos, M.A. (2003) ‘A refugee diaspora: when the Somali go west’. In K. Koser (ed.), New African Diaspora. London: Routledge, pp. 3755.
    Peters, K. and Richards, P. (1998) ‘“Why we fight”: voices of youth combatants in Sierra Leone’, Africa, 68 (2): 183210.
    Petersen, R.D. (2001) Resistance and rebellion: lessons from Eastern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
    Peterson, J.K., Skeem, J., Kennealy, P., Bray, B. and Zvonkovic, A. (2014) ‘How often and how consistently do symptoms directly precede criminal behavior among offenders with mental illness?’, Law and Human Behavior, 38 (5): 439.
    Pezzin, L.E. (1995) ‘Earnings prospects, matching effects, and the decision to terminate a criminal career’, Journal of quantitative criminology, 11 (1): 2950.
    Pham, J.P. (2011) ‘Foreign influences and shifting horizons: the ongoing evolution of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb’, Orbis, 55 (2): 24054.
    Phillips, B.J. (2015) ‘Enemies with benefits? Violent rivalry and terrorist group longevity’, Journal of Peace Research, 52 (1): 6275.
    Phillips, D.L. (2008) ‘Disarming, demobilizing, and reintegrating the Kurdistan Worker’s Party’, American Foreign Policy Interests, 30 (2): 7087.
    Phillips, P.J. (2011) ‘Lone wolf terrorism’, Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, 17: 1.
    Piazza, J.A. (2006) ‘Rooted in poverty? Terrorism, poor economic development, and social cleavages’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 18 (1): 15977.
    Piazza, J.A. (2009) ‘Is Islamist terrorism more dangerous? An empirical study of group ideology, organization, and goal structure’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 21 (1): 6288.
    Piquero, A.R. (ed.) (2012) Rational Choice and Criminal Behavior: Recent Research and Future Challenges. Oxford: Routledge.
    Popescu, N. (2006) ‘“Outsourcing”de facto statehood: Russia and the secessionist entities in Georgia and Moldova’, CEPS Policy Briefs, (1–12): 18.
    Posen, B.R. (1993) ‘The security dilemma and ethnic conflict’, Survival, 35 (1): 2747.
    Post, J.M. (1987) ‘Rewarding fire with fire: effects of retaliation on terrorist group dynamics’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 10 (1): 2335.
    Post, J.M. (1990) ‘Terrorist psycho-logic: terrorist behavior as a product of psychological forces’. In W. Reich (ed.), Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 2540.
    Post, J.M., Ali, F., Henderson, S.W., Shanfield, S., Victoroff, J. and Weine, S. (2009) ‘The psychology of suicide terrorism’, Psychiatry, 72 (1): 1331.
    Post, J., Sprinzak, E. and Denny, L. (2003) ‘The terrorists in their own words: interviews with 35 incarcerated Middle Eastern terrorists’, Terrorism and political Violence, 15 (1): 17184.
    Price, B.C. (2012) ‘Targeting top terrorists: how leadership decapitation contributes to counterterrorism’, International Security, 36 (4): 946.
    Rabasa, A. (2014) Political Islam in Southeast Asia: Moderates, Radical and Terrorists (No. 358). Oxford: Routledge.
    Randall, V. and Svåsand, L. (2002) ‘Party institutionalization in new democracies’, Party Politics, 8 (1): 529.
    Rapoport, D.C. (2001) ‘The fourth wave: September 11 in the history of terrorism’, Current History, 100 (650): 419424.
    Rapoport, D.C. (2004) ‘The four waves of modern terrorism’, Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 4673.
    Rasmussen, M.V. (2003) A new kind of war: Strategic culture and the war on terrorism, Copendigen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
    Reilly, B. and Reynolds, A. (1999) Electoral systems and conflict in divided societies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Reinares, F. (2001) European Democracies Against Terrorism: Governmental Policies and Intergovernmental Cooperation. The Oñati Internationl Institute of the Sociology of Law, London: Ashgate.
    Reinares, F. (2004) ‘Who are the terrorists? Analyzing changes in sociological profile among members of ETA’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 27 (6): 46588.
    Reiner, I. (1992) Gangs, Crime and Violence in Los Angeles: Findings and Proposals. Office of Juvenile Justice and Deliquency prevantion.
    Reno, W.S. (1993) ‘Foreign firms and the financing of Charles Taylor’s NPFL’, Liberian Studies Journal, 28 (2): 17588.
    Reno, W. (1995) Corruption and state politics in Sierra Leone (Vol. 229). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Reno, W. (1997) ‘War, markets, and the reconfiguration of West Africa’s weak states’, Comparative Politics, 24 (4): 493510.
    Reno, W. (1999) Warlord Politics and African States. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
    Reno, W. (2000) ‘Shadow States and the Political Economy of Civil Wars’. In M. Berdal and D.M. Malone (eds), Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, pp. 4368.
    Reynal-Querol, M. (2002) ‘Ethnicity, political systems, and civil wars’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 46 (1): 2954.
    Ribando, C.M. (2007) Gangs in Central America (August). Library of Congress, Washington Dc: Congressional Research Service.
    Rich, B. and Conduit, D. (2015) ‘The impact of jihadist foreign fighters on indigenous secular-nationalist causes: contrasting Chechnya and Syria’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38 (2): 113131.
    Rich, P.B. (ed.) (1999) Warlords in International Relations. London: Macmillan.
    Richani, N. (2010) ‘State capacity in postconflict settings: explaining criminal violence in El Salvador and Guatemala’, Civil Wars, 12 (4): 431455.
    Richards, A. (2014) ‘Conceptualizing terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37 (3): 21336.
    Richards, L. (2006) ‘Corporate mercenaries: the threat of private military and security companies,War on Want, 126.
    Richmond, O.P. (2003) ‘Realizing hegemony? Symbolic terrorism and the roots of conflict’, Studies in conflict and terrorism, 26 (4): 289309.
    Rid, T. and Hecker, M. (2009) ‘The terror fringe’, Policy Review, 158, 3.
    Risen, J. and Mazzetti, M. (2009) ‘Blackwater guards tied to secret CIA raids’, The New York Times, 10 December.
    Ritzer, G. ed. (2008) The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Ritzer, G. and Atalay, Z. (2010) Readings in Globalization: Key Concepts and Major Debates. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Rizzo, M. (2003) ‘Why do children join gangs?, Journal of Gang Research, 11 (1): 6575.
    Robb, J. (2007) Brave New War: The Next Stage of Terrorism and the End of Globalization. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Roberts, K. (1990) ‘Bullying and bargaining: the United States, Nicaragua, and conflict resolution in Central America’, International Security, 15 (2): 67102.
    Robertson, R. (1992) Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (Vol. 16). London: SAGE.
    Robinson, T.P. (2001) ‘Twenty-first century warlords: diagnosis and treatment?’, Defence Studies, 1 (1): 12145.
    Robison, K.K., Crenshaw, E.M. and Jenkins, J.C. (2006) ‘Ideologies of violence: the social origins of Islamist and leftist transnational terrorism’, Social Forces, 84 (4): 200926.
    Rodgers, D. (1999) Youth Gangs and Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Literature Survey. World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development SMU.
    Rodgers, D. (2004) Old Wine in New Bottles Or New Wine in Old? Conceptualising Violence and Governmentality in Contemporary Latin America. London: Development Research Centre, Development Studies Institute.
    Rodgers, D. (2006) ‘Living in the shadow of death: gangs, violence and social order in urban Nicaragua, 1996–2002’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 38 (2): 26792.
    Rodrik, D. (1997) ‘Has globalization gone too far?California Management Review, 39 (3): 2953.
    Rogers, P. (2012) ‘Nigeria: the generic context of the Boko Haram violence’, Monthly Global Security Briefing, Oxford Research Group, pp. 15.
    Ross, J.I. (1993) ‘Structural causes of oppositional political terrorism: towards a causal model’, Journal of Peace Research, 30 (3): 31729.
    Ross, J.I. and Gurr, T.R. (1989) ‘Why terrorism subsides: a comparative study of Canada and the United States’, Comparative Politics, 21 (4): 405426.
    Rotberg, R.I. (2003) State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror. Washington, DC: Brooking Institute Press.
    Roth, M.P. and Sever, M. (2007) ‘The Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as criminal syndicate: funding terrorism through organized crime, a case study’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (10): 90120.
    Rothchild, D. and Groth, A.J. (1995) ‘Pathological dimensions of domestic and international ethnicity’, Political Science Quarterly, 110 (1): 6982.
    Rotman, E. (2000) ‘The globalization of criminal violence’, Cornell JL & Pub. Pol’y, 10: 1.
    Ruble, N.M. and Turner, W.L. (2000) ‘A systemic analysis of the dynamics and organization of urban street gangs’, American Journal of Family Therapy, 28 (2): 11732.
    Rudner, M. (2013) ‘Al-Qaeda’s twenty-year strategic plan: the current phase of global terror’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36 (12): 95380.
    Russell, C.A. and Miller, B.H. (1977) ‘Profile of a terrorist’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 1 (1): 1734.
    Russett, B., Layne, C., Spiro, D.E. and Doyle, M.W. (1995) ‘The democratic peace’, International Security, 19 (4): 164184.
    Sageman, M. (2004) Understanding terror networks. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Saideman, S.M., Lanoue, D.J., Campenni, M. and Stanton, S. (2002) ‘Democratization, political institutions, and ethnic conflict: a pooled time-series analysis, 1985–1998’, Comparative Political Studies, 35 (1): 10329.
    Salam, A. and Abdullahi, E.F. (2014) Indonesia’s counter-terrorism policy, 2001–2009. International Conference on Law, Order and Criminal Justice, 19–20 November, International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC).
    Salehyan, I. (2007) ‘Transnational rebels: neighboring states as sanctuary for rebel groups’, World Politics, 59 (2): 21742.
    Salehyan, I. (2008) ‘The externalities of civil strife: refugees as a source of international conflict’, American Journal of Political Science, 52 (4): 787801.
    Sanchez, M. (2006) ‘Insecurity and violence as a new power relation in Latin America’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 606 (1): 17895.
    Sánchez -Cuenca, I. and de la Calle, L. (2009) ‘Domestic terrorism: the hidden side of political violence’, Annual Review of Political Science, 12, 3149.
    Sánchez-Jankowski, M. (1991) Islands in the street: Gangs and American urban society. University of California Press.
    Sánchez-Jankowski, M. (2003) ‘Gangs and social change’, Theoretical criminology, 7 (2): 191216.
    Sartori, G. (2005) Parties and party systems: A framework for analysis. Colchester: ECPR press.
    Sandler, T. and Enders, W. (2004) ‘An economic perspective on transnational terrorism’, European Journal of Political Economy, 20 (2): 30116.
    Sanford, V. (2003) Buried secrets: Truth and human rights in Guatemala. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Sanín, F.G. and Giustozzi, A. (2010) ‘Networks and armies: structuring rebellion in Colombia and Afghanistan’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33 (9): 836853.
    Scahill, J. (2011) Blackwater: The rise of the world’s most powerful mercenary army. London: Profile Books.
    Schaefer, R.W. (2010) The Insurgency in Chechnya and the North Caucasus: From Gazavat to Jihad. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
    Schinkel, W. (2010) Aspects of violence: A critical theory. New York: Springer.
    Schmid, A.P. (ed.) (2011) The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. London: Routledge.
    Schneckener, U. (2006) ‘Fragile statehood, armed non-state actors and security governance’, Private actors and security governance, 4: 2340.
    Schneckener, U. (2007) Armed Non-State Actors and the Monopoly of Force. In A. Bailes, U. Schneckener and H. Wulf (eds), Revisiting the State Monopoly on the Legitimate Use of Force, pp. 1018. Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), Policy Paper No. 24.
    Schneider, G., Barbieri, K. and Gleditsch, N.P. (2003) ‘Does globalization contribute to peace? A critical survey of the literature’, Globalization and armed conflict, 329.
    Schwedler, J. (2006) Faith in Moderation: Islamist Parties in Jordan and Yemen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Schwedler, J. (2011) ‘Can Islamists become moderates? Rethinking the inclusion-moderation hypothesis’, World Politics, 63 (2): 347376.
    Schweitzer, G.E. and Schweitzer, C.D. (2002) A Faceless Enemy: The Origins of Modern Terrorism. New York: Basic Books.
    Security InfoWatch (n.d.) Global demand for security services is driven by rising urbanization, the real and perceived risks of crime and terrorism, and a belief that public safty measures are insufficient. Available at: (accessed 24 january 2017).
    Sedgwick, M. (2007) ‘Inspiration and the origins of global waves of terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (2): 97112.
    Shapiro, G. (2003) ‘Terror reigns supreme and the cycle of violence is seemingly endless in the triple frontier’, NYL Sch. J. Hum. Rts., 19, 895.
    Shapiro, J.N. and Jung, D.F. (2014) ‘The terrorist bureaucracy: inside the files of the Islamic State in Iraq’, Boston Globe, 14 December.
    Shapiro, J.N., and Weidmann, N.B. (2015) ‘Is the phone mightier than the sword? Cellphones and insurgent violence in Iraq’, International Organization, 69 (2): 24774.
    Shapiro, Y. (1991) The Road to Power: Herut Party in Israel. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
    Shaw, E.D. (1986) ‘Political terrorists: dangers of diagnosis and an alternative to the psychopathology model’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 8 (3): 35968.
    Sheffer, G.G. (2006) ‘Diasporas and terrorism’. In L. Richardson (ed), The Roots of Terrorism. London: Routledge, pp. 11732.
    Shelley, L. (1999) ‘Identifying, counting and categorizing transnational criminal organizations’, Transnational Organized Crime, 5 (1): 118.
    Shelley, L.I. (2014) Dirty entanglements: corruption, crime, and terrorism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Shelley, L.I. and Melzer, S.A. (2008) ‘The nexus of organized crime and terrorism: two case studies in cigarette smuggling’, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 32 (1): 4363.
    Silke, A. (1998) ‘Motives of paramilitary vigilantism in Northern Ireland’, Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, 7 (2): 12l56.
    Silke, A. (ed.) (2003) Terrorists, Victims and Society: Psychological Perspectives on Terrorism and its Consequences. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
    Silke, A. and Taylor, M. (2000) ‘War without end: comparing IRA and loyalist vigilantism in Northern Ireland’, The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 39 (3): 24966.
    Simons, A. and Tucker, D. (2007) ‘The misleading problem of failed states: a ‘socio-geography’ of terrorism in the post-9/11 era’, Third World Quarterly, 28 (2): 387401.
    Singer, P.W. (2011) Corporate Warriors: the Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. Cornell, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Singh, B.P. and Verma, A. (2015) ‘Cyber terrorism – an international phenomena and an eminent threat’, IITM Journal of Management and IT, 6 (1): 1648.
    Siqueira, K. (2005) ‘Political and militant wings within dissident movements and organizations’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (2): 21836.
    Sluka, J.A. (2000) Death squad: the anthropology of state terror. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Small Arms and Light Weapons, Africa (2008) A Resource guide for Religions for Peace, United Nations, 128.
    Small Arms Survey (2012) Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Research Notes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Small Arms Survey (October 2013) Parts for Small and Light Weapons. 35: 14.
    Smetana, J.G., Campione-Barr, N. and Metzger, A. (2006) ‘Adolescent development in interpersonal and societal contexts’, Annual Review of Psychology, 57: 25584.
    Smillie, I. (2013) ‘Blood diamonds and non-state actors’, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 46: 1003.
    Smith, B.L. and Morgan, K.D. (1994) ‘Terrorists right and left: empirical issues in profiling American terrorists’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 17 (1): 3957.
    Smith, C.F., Rush, J. and Burton, C.E. (2013) ‘Street gangs, organized crime groups, and terrorists: differentiating criminal organizations’, Investigative Sciences Journal, 5 (1).
    Smith, C.J., Zhang, S.X. and Barberet, R. (eds) (2011) Routledge Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Routledge.
    Smith, M.L.R. and Neumann, P.R. (2005) ‘Motorman’s long journey: changing the strategic setting in Northern Ireland’, Contemporary British History, 19 (4): 41335.
    Soibelman, M. (2004) ‘Palestinian suicide bombers’, Journal of investigative psychology and offender profiling, 1 (3): 17590.
    Soloman, E. and Jones, S. (2015) ‘Isis Inc: Loot and taxes keep jihadi economy churning’, FT, 14 December. Available at: (accessed 24 January 2017).
    Spaaij, R. and Hamm, M.S. (2015) ‘Key issues and research agendas in lone wolf terrorism’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38 (3): 16778.
    Speckhard, A. and Akhmedova, K. (2006) ‘Black widows: the Chechen female suicide terrorists’, Female suicide bombers: dying for equality, 84 (1): 6380.
    Spergel, I.A. (1995) The youth gang problem: A community approach. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 145281.
    Stace. T. (2016) ‘A bit of numeracy can take the heat out of the asylum debate’, The Conversation (18 May). Available at: (accessed 24 January 2017).
    Starita, C.L. (2007) Exploitation of border security by MS-13 in aiding al Qaeda’s agenda for domestic terrorism in the United States. ProQuest. Dissertation. START Database.
    Steinberg, L. and Morris, A.S. (2001) ‘Adolescent development’, Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 2 (1): 5587.
    Steinberg, M. (2008) ‘PKK terrorists named “Drug Kingpins”: nations move against narcoterrorism’, Executive Intelligence Review, 4852.
    Stern, J. (2000) The ultimate terrorists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Stern, J. and Berger, J.M. (2015) ISIS: The state of terror. London: HarperCollins.
    Striegher, J.L. (2013) ‘The deradicalisation of terrorists’, Salus Journal, 1 (1): 19.
    Strom, K., Hollywood, J., Pope, M., Weintraub, G., Daye, C. and Gemeinhardt, D. (2010) Building on clues: Examining successes and failures in detecting US terrorist plots, 1999–2009, Institute for Homeland Security Solutions.
    Sullivan, J.P. (2006) ‘Maras morphing: revisiting third generation gangs’, Global Crime, 7 (3–4): 487504.
    Sullivan, J.P. and Bunker, R.J. (2002) ‘Drug cartels, street gangs, and warlords’, Small Wars and Insurgencies, 13 (2): 4053.
    Sullivan, J.P. and Elkus, A. (2008) ‘State of siege: Mexico’s criminal insurgency’, Small Wars Journal, 12: 112.
    Sung, H.E. (2004) ‘State failure, economic failure, and predatory organized crime: a comparative analysis,Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41 (2): 111129.
    Swanson, A. (2015) ‘How the Islamic State makes its money’, Washington Post, 18 November. Available at: (accessed 24 January 2017).
    Taber, R. (1970) The War of the Flea: A Study of Guerrilla Warfare Theory and Practice. St Albans: Paladin.
    Takeyh, R. and Gvosdev, N. (2002) ‘Do terrorist networks need a home?, Washington Quarterly, 25 (3): 97108.
    Tankebe, J. (2009) ‘Self-help, policing, and procedural justice: Ghanaian vigilantism and the rule of law’, Law & society review, 43 (2): 24570.
    Tarrow, S. (2007) ‘Inside insurgencies: politics and violence in an age of civil war’, Perspectives on Politics, 5 (3): 587600.
    Taulbee, J. L. (2002) ‘The privatization of security: modern conflict, globalization and weak states’, Civil Wars, 5 (2): 124.
    Thachuk, K.L. (2001a) ‘The sinister underbelly: organized crime and terrorism’. In R. Kugler and E. Frost (eds), The Global Century, Globalization and National Security, Vol II. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, pp. 74360.
    Thachuk, K. (2001b) ‘Transnational threats: falling through the cracks?’, Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement, 10 (1): 4767.
    Thiranagama, S. (2014) ‘Making Tigers from Tamils: long-distance nationalism and Sri Lankan Tamils in Toronto’, American Anthropologist, 116 (2): 26578.
    Thomas, C. (2001) ‘Global governance, development and human security: exploring the links’, Third World Quarterly, 22 (2): 15975.
    Thomas, T.S. and Kiser, S.D. (2002) Lords of the Silk Route: Violent Non-state Actors in Central Asia (Vol. 43). Collingdale, PA: Diane Publishing.
    Thomas, T.S., Kiser, S.D. and Casebeer, W.D. (2005) Warlords rising: Confronting violent non-state actors. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
    Thornberry, T. P., Freeman-Gallant, A., Lizotte, A., Krohn, M. and Smith, C. (2003) ‘Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviour’, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31: 17184.
    Thornton, W. H. (2003) ‘Cold War II: Islamic terrorism as power politics’, Antipode, 35 (2): 20511.
    Tilly, C. (2003) The politics of collective violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tishkov, V. (2004) Chechnya: Life in a war-torn society (Vol. 6). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Tonwe, D.A. and Eke, S.J. (2013) ‘State fragility and violent uprisings in Nigeria: the case of Boko Haram’, African Security Review, 22 (4): 23243.
    Trejo, G. and Ley, S. (2013) Votes, Drugs, and Violence, Subnational Democratization and the Onset of Inter-Cartel Wars in Mexico, 1995–2006. Unpublished Paper, Notre Dame University.
    Turbiville Jr, G.H. (2010) ‘Firefights, raids, and assassinations: tactical forms of cartel violence and their underpinnings’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 21 (1): 12344.
    Türkeş-Kılıç, S. (2015) ‘Political party closures in European democratic order: comparing the justifications in DTP and Batasuna decisions’, Journal of European Public Policy, 118.
    Tyler, P. (4 March 2000) ‘Russian vigilantes fight drug dealers’, New York Times, World Edition. Available at: (accessed 24 January 2017).
    UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2011) ‘Illicit money: how much is out there? Available at: (accessed on 24 January 2017).
    Urdal, H. (2006) ‘A clash of generations? Youth bulges and political violence’, International studies quarterly, 50 (3): 60729.
    van Scherpenberg, J. (2000) Transnationale Organisierte Kriminalität: Die Schattenseite der Globalisierung. SWP.
    Väyrynen, R. (ed.) (1991) New directions in conflict theory: Conflict resolution and conflict transformation. London: SAGE.
    Venkatesh, S.A. and Levitt, S.D. (2000) ‘“Are we a family or a business?” History and disjuncture in the urban American street gang’, Theory and Society, 29 (4): 42762.
    Victoroff, J. (2005) ‘The mind of the terrorist: a review and critique of psychological approaches’, Journal of Conflict resolution, 49 (1): 342.
    Vigil, J.D. (2010) Barrio gangs: Street life and identity in Southern California. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Vinci, A. (2007) ‘Existential motivations in the Lord’s Resistance Army’s continuing conflict’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 30 (4): 337351.
    Von Hippel, K. (2002) ‘The roots of terrorism: probing the myths’, The political quarterly, 73 (s1): 2539.
    von Lampe, K. (2016) ‘The ties that bind: a taxonomy of associational criminal structures’. In G.A. Antonopoules (ed.), Illegal Entrepreneurship, Organized Crime and Social Control. New York: Springer International Publishing pp. 1935.
    Vowell, P.R. and May, D.C. (2000) ‘Another look at classic strain theory: poverty status, perceived blocked opportunity, and gang membership as predictors of adolescent violent behavior’, Sociological inquiry, 70 (1): 4260.
    Wacquant, L. (2008) ‘The militarization of urban marginality: lessons from the Brazilian metropolis’, International Political Sociology, 2 (1): 5674.
    Wade, S.J. and Reiter, D. (2007) ‘Does democracy matter? Regime type and suicide terrorism’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51 (2): 329348.
    Wæver, O. (1995) ‘Securitization and desecuritization’. In R. Lipschutz (eds), On Security. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 4686.
    Wagenlehner, G. (1978) ‘Motivation for political terrorism in West Germany’. In M.H. Livingstone (ed.), International Terrorism in the Contemporary World. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 195203.
    Walt, S.M. (1991) ‘The renaissance of security studies’, International Studies Quarterly, 35 (2): 21139.
    Waltz, K.N. (1959) Man, the state, and war: A theoretical analysis. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Waltz, K.N. (1988) ‘The origins of war in neorealist theory’, The Journal of interdisciplinary history, 18 (4): 61528.
    Waltz, K.N. (1993) ‘The emerging structure of international politics’, International security, 18 (2): 4479.
    Wardlaw, G. (1989) Political terrorism: Theory, tactics and counter-measures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Warren, J.W. (2015) ‘On defeating the Islamic State’, Parameters, 45 (1): 129133.
    Waterman, S. (2013) ‘Study: Americans fear terrorism attacks more than violent crime’. Washington Times (13 April). Available at: (accessed 3 February 2017).
    Webber, C. (2007) ‘Revaluating relative deprivation theory’, Theoretical Criminology, 11 (1): 97120.
    Weimann, G. (2005) ‘The theater of terror: the psychology of terrorism and the mass media’, Journal of aggression, maltreatment & trauma, 9 (3–4): 379390.
    Weinberg, L. (1991) ‘Turning to terror: the conditions under which political parties turn to terrorist activities’, Comparative Politics, 42338.
    Weinberg, L. and Eubank, W.L. (1987) ‘Italian women terrorists’, Terrorism: An International Journal, 9 (3): 241262.
    Weinberg, L. and Pedahzur, A. (2004) Religious fundamentalism and political extremism. (Vol. 3). Hove: Psychology Press.
    Weinberg, L., Pedahzur, A. and Canetti-Nisim, D. (2003) ‘The social and religious characteristics of suicide bombers and their victims’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 15 (3): 13953.
    Weinberg, L., Pedahzur, A. and Perliger, A. (2008) Political Parties and Terrorist Groups,
    edn. Oxford: Routledge.
    Weinstein, J.M. (2005) ‘Resources and the information problem in rebel recruitment’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (4): 598624.
    Wendt, A. (1992) ‘Anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics’, International organization, 46 (2): 391425.
    Wendt, A. (1995) ‘Constructing international politics’, International Security, 20 (1): 7181.
    Wennmann, A. (2014) ‘Negotiated exits from organized crime? Building peace in conflict and crime-affected contexts’, Negotiation Journal, 30 (3): 25573.
    Whiting, M. (2016) ‘Moderation without change: the strategic transformation of Sinn Fein and the IRA in Northern Ireland’, Government and Opposition, 124.
    Whitney, K.M. (1996) ‘SIN, FRAPH, and the CIA: US covert action in Haiti’, Sw. JL & Trade Am., 3: 303.
    Whittaker, D. (2013) Terrorism: Understanding the Global Threat. Oxford: Routledge.
    Wickham-Crowley, T.P. (1990) ‘Terror and guerrilla warfare in Latin America, 1956–1970’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 32 (2): 20137.
    Wiegand, K.E. (2009).‘ Reformation of a terrorist group: Hezbollah as a Lebanese political party’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32 (8): 66980.
    Wiktorowicz, Q. (2004) ‘Conceptualizing Islamic activism’, ISIM Newsletter,14, p.1.
    Wiktorowicz, Q. (2006) ‘Anatomy of the Salafi movement’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29 (3): 20739.
    Williams, P. D. (2008) ‘Violent non-state actors and national and international security’, Interational Relations and Security Network, 125.
    Williams, P. D. (2009) Criminals, militias, and insurgents: organized crime in Iraq. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
    Williams, P. D. (2012) Security Studies: An Introduction. Oxford: Routledge.
    Williams, P. (2014) Russian organized crime. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Wilson, M.C. and Piazza, J.A. (2013) ‘Autocracies and terrorism: conditioning effects of authoritarian regime type on terrorist attacks’, American Journal of Political Science, 57 (4): 94155.
    Wimmer, A. (2002) Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflict: Shadows of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Wimmer, A., Cederman, L.E. and Min, B. (2009) ‘Ethnic politics and armed conflict: a configurational analysis of a new global data set’, American Sociological Review, 74 (2): 31637.
    Windle, J. and Briggs, D. (2015) ‘Going solo: the social organization of drug dealing within a London street gang’, Journal of Youth Studies, 18 (9): 117085.
    Winkates, J. (2006) ‘Suicide terrorism: martyrdom for organizational objectives’, Journal of Third World Studies, 23 (1): 87.
    Womer, S. and Bunker, R.J. (2010) ‘Sureños gangs and Mexican cartel use of social networking sites’, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 21 (1): 8194.
    Woodworth, P. (2001) Dirty war, clean hands: ETA, the GAL and Spanish democracy. Cork: Cork University Press.
    World Bank (2012) Fighting Corruption in Public Services: Chronicling Georgia’s Reforms. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
    Worrall, J., Mabon, S. and Clubb, G. (2015) Hezbollah: From Islamic Resistance to Government. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
    Wucker, M. (2004) ‘Haiti: So many missteps’, World Policy Journal, 21 (1): 4149.
    Young, J. (2003) ‘Merton with energy, Katz with structure: the sociology of vindictiveness and the criminology of transgression’, Theoretical Criminology, 7 (3): 388414.
    Zack-Williams, A.B. (2001) ‘Child soldiers in the civil war in Sierra Leone’, Review of African Political Economy, 28 (87): 7382.
    Zimmermann, E. (2011) ‘Globalization and terrorism’, European Journal of Political Economy, 27: S152S161.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website