A critical, global counterpoint to more western-centric that will appeal to critical leadership scholars, those teaching leadership from a critical perspective and those teaching leadership with an international focus. Split into two parts; its first part presents the local and regional variations in leadership from across the globe, with each of the twenty individual authors presenting the histories, cultures, tensions and social changes that shape the practice of everyday leadership in their respective region. Regions and countries included are: the Arab Middle East, Argentina, ASEAN, Australia, Brazil, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Scandinavia, South Africa, Turkey, UK, USA. In the second part, the editors then critically analyses these chapters and identify the key themes and specific issues, enabling the reader to challenge their own leadership perceptions and move beyond the normative, uncritical approach to leadership. Suitable reading for leadership students, researchers and practitioners looking to enhance their knowledge of global leadership.

Brazil: Tensions, Contradictions and Development

Brazil: Tensions, Contradictions and Development

Brazil: Tensions, Contradictions and Development

Maria José Tonelli: Professor in Organizational Behaviour at FGV-EAESP – São Paulo School of Business Administration, Brazil


Despite the populist images promoted by carnival, Brazil remains very conservative and adopts a patriarchal style of leadership up to this day. Personal relations are still extremely important and paternalism overrides meritocracy in many Brazilian organizations (Motta and Caldas, 1997). Yet, old styles or premodern forms of organizations coexist with new and innovative models of organizations.

These characteristics permeate the Brazilian organizational cultures which, combined with the low level of education, weaken Brazilian productivity. Inequalities permeate gender questions, and despite having a higher level of education nowadays women still suffer with lower salaries than men for the same position.

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