Global Commons: Issues, Concerns and Strategies presents a comprehensive international perspective on the global commons—natural resource domains that are not subject to national jurisdictions and are accessible to all nations. These include the oceans, atmosphere and outer space, and specific locations such as Antarctica. Due to their critical importance in maintaining human lives and livelihoods, and their vulnerability to depletion, the collaborative preservation of the global commons is of great relevance to all human communities. Leading world powers, such as France, are increasingly adopting environmental policies as key to their functioning as democracies. After the Paris Climate Conference, there has been a spurt in cooperation between major nations, such as France and India, in the fight against climate change. This book provides exhaustive coverage of all the major facets of preservation of the global commons. It will, therefore, prove indispensable to all stakeholders in a new, just and sustainable world order.
Chapter 10: The Massive Problem of Microplastics in the Global Commons: An Overview
The Massive Problem of Microplastics in the Global Commons: An Overview
Today we cannot imagine a world without plastics. Due to its various properties, plastics dominate every sphere of human lives. Although the first synthetic plastic like Bakelite was invented in the early 20th century, its use was limited largely to the military up to World War II. Large-scale production began only in the 1950s (Geyer, Jambeck, and Law 2017). Plastic is inexpensive, lightweight, strong, durable, corrosion-resistant and have high thermal and electrical insulation properties. These factors enabled a wide range of applications and benefits, which ranged from medical use, technological advances, ...