Global Change, Ecosystems, Sustainability: Theory, Methods, Practice
Publication Year: 2017
It is impossible to ignore the connection between economic development and ecological sustainability— overwhelming scientific evidence points to anthropogenic pressures slowly destroying life on Earth. The need for corrective action is, therefore, critical.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Section 1: Making Sense of Global Change: Macro Dimensions
- Chapter 2: Ecological Economics: Sustainability, Markets, and Global Change
- Chapter 3: Accounting Prices for Measuring Environmental Changes
- Chapter 4: Green National Accounting Framework for India: Summary of the Report of Partha Dasgupta Committee
- Chapter 5: Towards Green National Accounting: Government of India Expert Group (2011–13), INSEE Conference Panel (December 2013) and the Way Forward
- Chapter 6: Linking Science and Policy: Using the Crowd in the Cloud
- Chapter 7: Traversing Diverse Paths in Ecological Economics with Enigmatic Models
- Chapter 8: A Socio-metabolic Reading of the Long-term Development Trajectories of China and India
- Chapter 9: The Central Role of Surplus Energy in Human Development and a Class-divided Unsustainable Society
- Section 2: Sustainability, Ecosystems, and Institutions: From the Practice
- Chapter 10: Changing Weather Pattern in Sub-Himalayan Northeast India and Interrelations Among the Weather Variables
- Chapter 11: Coping with Natural Disaster: Sundarbans After Cyclone Aila
- Chapter 12: Fire Environment and Community-based Forest Fire Management in the Central Siwalik Region of Nepal
- Chapter 13: Can Educational Campaigns Promote Successful Adaptation to Climate Change? Evidence from a Heat Wave Awareness Programme in Odisha
- Chapter 14: Agricultural Vulnerability to Climate Change: Contribution of Socio-economic Factors
- Chapter 15: Estimating the Economic Benefits of an Improved Aquatic Ecosystem and Watershed Management in the Tanguar Haor Wetland: An Application of Choice Modelling
- Chapter 16: Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Changes on Physical Space for Fishers in Kanyakumari Coast, India
- Chapter 17: Adoption and Diffusion of Micro-irrigation Technologies in Gujarat, Western India: Do Institutions and Policies Matter?
- Chapter 18: Gender Differences in Social Capital and Collective Action: Does Social Identity Matter in Joint Forest Management?
- Chapter 19: Economy—environment Impact Intensity Assessment in an Integrated Framework Analysis to the Rat-hole Coal Mining in Jaintia Hills District, India
- Chapter 20: Measuring Welfare of Forest Dependent Communities in a Mine-spoiled Degraded Ecosystem
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Copyright © Indian Society for Ecological Economics, 2017
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2017 by
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Available
ISBN: 978-93-864-4646-6 (HB)
SAGE Team: Rajesh Dey, Sandhya Gola, Megha Dabral, and Ritu Chopra
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in Adobe Garamond 10/12 pts by Zaza Eunice, Hosur, Tamil Nadu and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
To students and teachers of Ecological Economics
List of Tables[Page xi]
- 9.1 Atmospheric constituents and temperature on selected planets 83
- 9.2 Carbon flux changes between land, water, and air 84
- 9.3 Carbon stock changes in oceans, land, and atmosphere 84
- 9.4 Per capita energy consumption inequality between countries 90
- 9.5 Fossil fuel reserves 93
- 10.1 Unit root test for stationarity of climatic components in Assam during 1950–2010 111
- 10.2 Testing of pair-wise Granger causality between various components of weather in Assam 112
- 10.3 Results of linear regression of different endogenous variables on various explanatory variables 113
- 11.1 Endowments of survey households 122
- 11.2 Definition of damage categories 124
- 11.3 Regression result for productivity differences across damage categories in three survey rounds 127
- 11.4 Description of variables used in regression analyses 130
- 11.5 Summary statistics of the variables used as regressors 131
- 11.6 Determinants of livelihood choices before Aila (bivariate probit regression) 132
- 11.7 Factors explaining coping behaviour after Aila in different rounds (bivariate probit) 133
- 12.1 Description of studied CFUGs 142
- 12.2 Impact of changes in fire regime in community forests after handover to community 150
- 13.1 Random and fixed effect Poisson estimates to explain disaster risk management project impact on death from heat stroke 161
- 14.1 Crop-wise largest producing states in India 168
- 14.2 Source of data against indicators to capture vulnerability 170
- 14.3 Estimates of factor analysis 172
- 15.1 Attributes and levels 182
- 15.2 An example of choice task 182
- 15.3 Definition of attributes and variables 183
- 15.4 Estimated models for the improved aquatic ecosystem and watershed management 184
- 15.5 Marginal willingness to pay for the attribute 186
- 15.6 Estimation of welfare effects (economic surplus) 186 [Page xii]
- 16.1 Total population in Kanyakumari coastal villages 193
- 16.2 Structural changes in the employment 195
- 16.3 Changes in fisher's population in the fishing villages 196
- 16.4 Area of the selected fishing villages 198
- 16.5 Land use/Land cover changes in the selected fishing villages (figures in percentages) 198
- 16.6 Per capita open area in the selected villages for the overall population 199
- 16.7 Per capita availability of area/fisherman (Area <500m from HTL) 199
- 16.8 Per capita availability of area/fisherman (Area >500 m–1 km) 200
- 16.9 Distribution of fishing units in coastal zone of Kanyakumari 201
- A16.1 Shoreline status in the selected villages 201
- 17.1 Area under micro-irrigation in major states in India, 2010 209
- 17.2 Year-wise trends in the adoption of micro-irrigation in Gujarat (2005–06 to 2014–15) 211
- 17.3 Agro-climatic zone-wise number of farmers adopting MIS in Gujarat (2006–07 to 2013–14) 214
- 17.4 Agro-climatic zone-wise area under MIS in Gujarat (2006–07 to 2013–14) 215
- 17.5 Trends in adoption of MI in the dark-zone and tribal talukas 216
- A17.1 District-wise number of farmers adopting MIS in Gujarat, 2006–07 to 2015–16 219
- A17.2 District-wise area under MIS in Gujarat, 2006–07 to 2015–16 220
- 18.1 Gendered differences in social networks differentiated by social identity 234
- 18.2 Gendered differences in social capital benefits differentiated by social identity 236
- 18.3 Men's and women's identity and gender differences in collective action 237
- 18.4 Linking collective identity and women's presence with group maturity 237
- A18.1 Statements used to measure organizational commitment 240
- A18.2 Three-stage model of group maturity 240
- A18.3 Correlation matrix on different attributes of forest management organizations 241
- A19.1 Rice-coal and fish-coal path models and model fit indice 258
- A19.2 Pearson correlation matrix in case of rice-coal path analysis 258
- A19.3a Standardized indirect effects in case of rice-coal path 259
- A19.3b Standardized indirect effects in case of rice-coal path 259
- A19.4 Ranking of size effect on per capita rice production 259
- A19.5 Pearson correlation matrix in case of fish-coal path 259
- A19.6a Standardized direct effects in case offish-coal path 260
- A19.6b Standardized indirect effects in case offish-coal path 260
- A19.7 Ranking of size effect on fish seed production 261
- A19.8 Description of variables in rice-coal path model and fish-coal path model in Jaintia context 261
- 20.1 The present value comparison 268
- 20.2 Time period and state of forest ecosystem 269
- 20.3 Frequency distribution of available replicates 269
- 20.4 Mean values of predictor variables (Mean ± SD) 273
- 20.5 Result of multinomial logistic regression (N = 312) 275
List of Figures[Page xiii]
- 2.1 Elements of sustainable development 16
- 2.2 Settlement price of CER futures at international exchange (USD) 20
- 6.1 The managed commons 43
- 7.1 Attributes of theoretical and statistical models 51
- 7.2 The link between static value and ecological dynamics 58
- 7.3 Causal graph and regression options 59
- 8.1 Per cent of modern energy in domestic energy consumption (DEC) in China, India, the United Kingdom, France, Japan, and the Netherlands between 1600 and 2005 69
- 8.2 Fossil fuel use in gigajoules per capita and year (GJ/cap/a) in the 50 years before and after the key revolutionary event (year of revolution: 0) 70
- 8.3 GDP in trillion 1990 international GK$ and fossil energy carrier use in exajoules per year (EJ/a) in China and India between 1900–50 and 1950–2005 72
- 8.4 Population in million capita and urbanization rate in percentage in China and India between 1900 and 2000 72
- 8.5 The impact of the “Great Leap Forward” in China on fossil fuel use (in gigajoules per capita and year [GJ/cap/a]) and GDP (in trillion international Geary–Khamis dollars [GK$]), 1940–65 74
- 8.6 Physical trade flows of China and India in megatonnes per year (Mt/a) between 1950 and 2010 75
- 8.7 Fossil energy intensity of GDP in megajoules per international Geary–Khamis dollar (MJ/GK$) in China and India between 1950 and 2005 76
- 8.8 Share of the top 1 per cent and 0.1 per cent of income in total income in India (1925–99) and China (1986–2003) 77
- 9.1 Per capita energy use 91
- 9.2 Recent past and future global energy use (Gtoe) at 2 per cent per annum growth 92
- 10.1 Variation in month-wise average minimum temperature in Assam since 1951 104
- 10.2 Variation in month-wise average maximum temperature in Assam since 1951 105
- 10.3 Trend of annual average temperature (minimum and maximum) and their coefficient of month-wise variation in Assam since 1950 106
- 10.4 Changing inter-zonal variability of minimum and maximum temperature in Assam since 1950 107
- 10.5 Changing rainfall (monthly averages) since 1950 in Assam 108
- 10.6 Trend in annual rainfall and share of various seasons in Assam 109 [Page xiv]
- 10.7 Trend in annual rainfall of various zones of Assam and its CV 110
- 10.8 Changes in yearly average max—min temperature gap and its coefficient of variation across the month in Assam 111
- 11.1 Location of the study area 120
- 11.2 Natural resource dependents and migrant workers across landholding classes 123
- 11.3 Major livelihood practices before and after Aila 124
- 11.4 Cyclone damage across landholding classes 125
- 11.5 Loss in productivity across damage categories and recovery over time 126
- 11.6 Damage intensities and coping with surrounding natural resources 128
- 11.7 Damage intensities and coping with migrant labour jobs 129
- 12.1 Map showing study area and studied community forests 140
- 12.2 Monthly leaf litter fall of Shorea robusta in community forest 142
- 12.3 Monthly average precipitation in (a) Hetauda station and (b) Rampur station based on daily precipitation data of 30 years 143
- 12.4 Total annual precipitation in (a) Hetauda station and (b) Rampur station based on daily precipitation data of 30 years 144
- 12.5 Maximum consecutive number of dry days in (a) Hetauda station and (b) Rampur station based on daily precipitation data of 30 years 144
- 12.6 Monthly maximum temperature in (a) Hetauda station and (b) Rampur station based on daily temperature data of 30 years 145
- 12.7 Yearly maximum temperature in (a) Hetauda station and (b) Rampur station based on daily temperature data of 30 years 145
- 12.8 Total number of fire spots detected by MODIS from 2001 to 2011 146
- 12.9 Total number of fire spots detected by MODIS in each year from 2001 to 2011 147
- 12.10 Changes in fire regime in community forests after handover to community 151
- 14.1 Scree plot of eigenvalues after factor 171
- 15.1 Study area (Tanguar Haor) 178
- 16.1 Coastal villages of Kanyakumari district 194
- 16.2 Shoreline status of Kanyakumari coast 197
- 17.1 Process of implementation of MIS under GGRC 207
- 17.2 Details of subsidy provided by Government of Gujarat and GGRC 208
- 17.3 Share (%) of major states in area under MIS (2010) 210
- 17.4 Trends in no. of MI adopted farmers and area under MI (2005–06 to 2014–15) 212
- 17.5 Year-wise percentage of total MI adopted farmers and area under MI 212
- 17.6 Year-wise percentage of farmers and area under MI by land size classes (2005–06 to 2014–15) 213
- 17.7 Percentage of total farmers by land size classes (2005–06 to 2014–15) 214
- 17.8 Year-wise farmers and area under MI in the dark-zone talukas (2006–07 to 2013–14) 217
- 17.9 Year-wise trends in number of farmers and area under MI in tribal talukas (2006–07 to 2013–14) 217 [Page xv]
- 19.1 DPSIR framework 247
- 19.2 Sustainable livelihood framework 248
- 19.3 Schematic representation of the proposed analytical framework 248
- 19.4 Coal mining area of Jaintia Hills district of Meghalaya, India 249
- 19.5 Coal extraction—Jaintia Hills district (1974–75 to 2009–10) 250
- 19.6 Coal export to Bangladesh from Meghalaya (1989–90 to 2005–06) 251
- 19.7 Area of fallow land (in hectare) in Jaintia Hills district (1900–91 to 2007–08) 252
- 19.8 Dense forest area (log sq. km): 1975–2007 252
- 19.9 Average pH value of water in Kyrukhla stream in pre- and post-monsoon period (1994–2003) 253
- 19.10 Per capita rice production (1990–91 to 2006–07) 254
- 19.11 Fish seed production (1991–92 to 2006–07) 254
- 19.12a Rice-coal path diagram 255
- 19.12b Fish-coal path diagram 256
- 20.1 Location map of Purnapani area inside the Sundergarh district 270
- 20.2 Trend of NPV in Purnapani area 272 [Page xvi]
This book would not have been possible without the cooperation of the authors who have contributed to this book and kept to their deadlines and their patience in seeing this book come together. We are deeply honoured by INSEE's (Indian Society for Ecological Economics) invitation to edit this book. We would like to thank the staff at SAGE—Commissioning Editor, for his interest and efforts in publishing this work, Production Editor, for efficiently handling the production of this book, the copyeditor, and the cover designer.[Page xviii]
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 279]Editors
Pranab Mukhopadhyay is with the Department of Economics, Goa University. He studied at Presidency College (now Presidency University), Kolkata, and Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, and is a Fellow of the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE). His current research interest has been ecosystem services, institutions, and development.
Nandan Nawn is an Associate Professor and the Head of Department of Policy Studies, TERI University, New Delhi, where he teaches various courses in the interface of environment, development, and economics. He is an economist by disciplinary training with a doctoral degree from Jawaharlal Nehru University. His research interests lie in ecological economics, agrarian studies, and environment and development. His works have been published in various journals including , and Recently, he has co-edited . Presently, he is a co-editor of the “Review of Environment and Development” in and the Secretary of the Indian Society for Ecological Economics (INSEE).
Kalyan Das is with OKD Institute of Social Change and Development, Guwahati. He obtained his PhD from Jawaharlal Nehru University. His present research interests are industry, environment, labour market, and livelihood issues, and he is involved in a number of research projects on Northeast India.Contributors
Ramachandra Bhatta is ICAR Emeritus Scientist (economics) and was with National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management. Earlier, he was associated with Erasmus Mundus Program of the European Union at Belgium and also a SANDEE Fellow/Consultant at Maldives during 2008–09.
Rabindra N. Bhattacharya is currently Honorary Adjunct Professor, School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata. Areas of his research interests include environmental economics and development economics. He has published in almost all the leading journals on environmental and development economics and supervised many PhD scholars.
Chandra Sekhar Bahinipati obtained his PhD in economics from Madras Institute of Development Studies, Chennai. Currently he is with Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad. He will be joining Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Tirupati in September 2017. His research interests include climate change economics, economics of adaptation, loss and damage, natural resource management, impact evaluation, environmental economics, and development economics. He has published several research papers in the peer reviewed journals such as , , , , , and .
Kanchan Chopra was Director and Professor, Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, till 2009. She has published extensively and her latest book is titled . She is a Fellow of the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, and of SANDEE. In 2011, she was elected Fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences. In 2016, she received the Boulding Award conferred by the International Society for Ecological Economics.
Narendra Nath Dalei is presently with the Department of Economics and International Business in University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun. He is a recipient of certified reviewer award (2014) and outstanding reviewer award (2015) from . His current areas of research are on degraded ecosystems, mining activities, and livelihood patterns; climate change and agricultural ecosystems; and energy and environmental interactions. He has published several research papers in national and international journals of repute.
Saudamini Das is NABARD Chair Professor at the Institute of Economic Growth. She is presently a Fellow of SANDEE and has been a Maler Scholar at Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics. She works on environmental and climate change issues, including extreme events. Her works have been published in journals such as and , besides as book chapters.
Vikram Dayal works at the Institute of Economic Growth. He is the author of the book titled , Springer Briefs in Economics series in 2014. In 2009, he co-edited the with Kanchan Chopra.
Utpal Kumar De is currently Head, Department of Economics, the North Eastern Hill University, Shillong. His research interests are agricultural economics, issues on environmental and natural resource management, and empowerment of women. Besides completing a number of research projects, he has published 7 books and 75 research articles in various reputed international and national journals.
Sagar Dhara is a male and belongs to an upper caste and class, and to the most rapacious predator species that ever stalked the Earth—humans, and to a net destructive discipline—engineering, that has to take more than a fair share of the responsibility for bringing Earth and human society to tipping points.
Anantha Kumar Duraiappah is with the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development (MGIEP), New Delhi. He has obtained his PhD in economics from the University of Texas in Austin, United States. He is an experienced environmental development economist with more than two decades of experience at the international level. His work focuses largely on the equity of access and use of ecosystem services. He has been the Executive Director of International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) hosted by the United Nations University, Bonn, Germany, and Chief of the Ecosystem Services and Economics Unit of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi, Kenya, apart from teaching at universities in Singapore, Italy, and the Netherlands.
Marina Fischer-Kowalski is professor of Social Ecology and Founder of the Institute of Social Ecology, Vienna, and is presently with Alpen Adria University and the University of Vienna. She has obtained her PhD in sociology from the University of Vienna. She is former President of the International Society for Ecological Economics, and co-editor of the . Her latest book is .
Nilanjan Ghosh is a Senior Economic Advisor at the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), New Delhi, and Senior Fellow at the Observation Research Foundation (ORF), Kolkata. An ecological economist by training, he obtained his PhD from the Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata. His publications include six books and a host of research papers in journals such as , , , , and , as well as book chapters.
Santadas Ghosh is with the Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan. He is a Fellow of SANDEE (Kathmandu) and a Senior Asian Fellow of Asian Centre for Development (Bangladesh). He worked extensively in remote islands in the Sundarbans delta in India, with his primary survey-based research work sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (Government of India), NABARD, and ICSSR. His work contributed to several book chapters in edited volumes on environment and development published by Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press.
Haripriya Gundimeda is with the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay and President of the International Urban Biodiversity Network. She had studied at the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai. Her research has been in diverse areas of environmental economics, energy economics, green accounting, and economics of ecosystems and biodiversity. She has written several monographs on incorporating natural resources and human capital into the national accounts, besides being the coordinating lead author for the chapter on Scenarios and Modelling of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Biodiversity for the Asia Pacific Regional Assessments.
Yamini Gupt is presently with the Department of Business Economics in University of Delhi. Her recent research has been on climate change and the waste sector; degraded ecosystems and change in livelihood pattern; and the economics of the waste sector, having worked on both formal and informal sectors (including hazardous waste). She has to her credit several publications and completed international and Indian projects in these areas.
Md Hafiz Iqbal is a Bangladesh Civil Service Cadre Officer and is with Edward College. He received his BSS (economics) and MSS (economics) from the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Later, he did MS (development economics) from Hiroshima University, Japan, and MSc (climate change and development) from Independent University, Bangladesh.
Promita Mukherjee is currently a PhD Scholar at the Department of Economics, the University of Calcutta. Her area of research deals with forest conservation and rural livelihood. She has also published a couple of research articles in some leading journals.
Lekha Mukhopadhyay has obtained her PhD from the University of Calcutta and is presently Associate Professor in the Economics department of Jogamaya Devi College, University of Calcutta. She has been a Fulbright Fellow in Environmental Leadership Program (2012–13) and World Bank Post-doctoral Fellow (2001–02). For a number of research works, she collaborated with various internationally reputed universities and research institutes, including Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), United States and Asia, University of California Riverside, United States, and SANDEE. Her research interests encompass environmental planning and management, mining-environment-economy, common property resources, and participatory forest management.
M.N. Murty is a Professor of Economics (Retired), Institute of Economic Growth. He is currently Visiting Honorary Professor, TERI University, and Fellow, SANDEE. He specializes in public economics and environmental and resource economics. He has published 10 books including 6 books on environment and resource economics, and a large number of research papers in national and international journals of economics.
Priya Parasuram is presently with National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, Chennai. Her research interest includes social aspects of the coastal vulnerability and coastal management, traditional wisdom, regional- and national-level solutions for livelihood security, and concepts on improved community-level resilience against coastal hazards.
Rajakumari S. is presently with National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, Chennai. She has worked with several coastal/marine research studies, especially on pollution monitoring, delineation of sediment cells, assessment of tourism carrying capacity along the East coast of Tamil Nadu, multi-criteria analysis using remote sensing data, and coastal fishing space modelling.
Biswajit Ray is with the Department of Economics, University of Calcutta. His research focuses on issues relating to environmental economics, experimental economics, social economics, and gender and development. He has published several research papers from leading publishers and also served as a referee of several journals.
Lok Mani Sapkota has been working in the different aspects of participatory forest management in Asia and the Pacific. He has MSc in natural resources management from Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, and is currently associated with RECOFTC—the Center for People and Forests, Thailand.
Anke Schaffartzik enjoys finding meaning through number crunching. As a researcher and lecturer at the Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, she has immersed in an interdisciplinary environment in which collaboration with ecological economists and political ecologists allows her to investigate linkages between resource use and socio-economic development, focusing on international resource use and trade.
Stephen C. Smith is with the Institute for International Economic Policy at George Washington University, Washington, DC. Smith received his PhD in economics from Cornell University, New York. He has been a Fulbright Research Scholar, a Jean Monnet Research Fellow, an IZA Research Fellow, a Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Institution, a Nonresident Senior Fellow at Brookings, a Fulbright Senior Specialist, a member of the Advisory Council of BRAC USA, and an Associate Editor of the . Smith has co-authored (with Michael Todaro) , authored , and co-edited (with Jennifer Brinkerhoff and Hildy Teegen) . He has also authored or co-authored about 45 journal articles, numerous book chapters, and other publications.
Amarnath Tripathi doctorate in economics from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, is with the Institute of Economic Growth. His research interests include agriculture, natural resource management, food security, food system, and climate change. He has published several articles in journals of high repute, such as Environmental Management, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, and Economic and Political Weekly.
P.K. Viswanathan serves as Professor (Economics) at the Amrita School of Business, Amrita University, Kochi, India. Earlier he was with Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad. He has obtained his PhD in economics from the Institute for Social and Economic Change, Mysore University, Bengaluru. His research and teaching interests relate to economics of natural resources management; agrarian transformation and rural livelihoods; aspects of technology, institutions, policies, and governance; and Welfare Impacts of Trade Certifications in India's Plantation Sector.