Gender & Nation


Nira Yuval-Davis

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Politics and Culture

    A Theory, Culture & Society series

    Politics and Culture analyses the complex relationships between civil society, identities and contemporary states. Individual books will draw on the major theoretical paradigms in politics, international relations, history and philosophy within which citizenship, rights and social justice can be understood. The series will focus attention on the implications of globalization, the information revolution and postmodernism for the study of politics and society. It will relate these advanced theoretical issues to conventional approaches to welfare, participation and democracy.

    SERIES EDITOR: Bryan S. Turner, Deakin University


    J.M. Barbalet, Australian National University

    Mike Featherstone, University of Teeside

    Stephen Kalberg, Boston University

    Carole Pateman, University of California, Los Angeles

    Also in this series

    Welfare and Citizenship

    Beyond the Crisis of the Welfare State?

    Ian Culpitt

    Citizenship and Social Theory

    edited by Bryan S. Turner

    Citizenship and Social Rights

    The Interdependence of Self and Society

    Fred Twine

    The Condition of Citizenship

    edited by Bart van Steenbergen

    National Formation

    Towards a Theory of Abstract Community

    Paul James


    This book is dedicated to Gul, Alain, Ora and to my wonderful friends who've enabled me to go on, and sometimes to even dance


    View Copyright Page


    Writing this book has been, in some ways, a culmination of many years of work — both academically and politically — in the areas of gender and ethnic studies. The original impetus arose from studying gender relations in Israel and the ways they have related to the Zionist settlement project and the Israeli-Arab conflict. I then moved on to study gender and ethnic divisions in South East London and later turned to examine them in other settler societies as well as in Europe. A particularly significant landmark quite early on in the journey has been the international workshop I organized in 1984 on Women and National Reproduction in which I had, for the first time, the opportunity to share with ‘significant others’ from other parts of the globe my ideas on women as ‘bearers of collectivities’ (Yuval-Davis, 1980) and out of which eventually came the volume Woman—Nation—State (Yuval-Davis and Anthias, 1989). Just before the present book went to press, another important signpost emerged. In a much larger conference on Women, Citizenship and Difference, also organized at the University of Greenwich in July 1996 (see the special issue of Feminist Review (autumn 1997) based on this conference and the volume co-edited by Pnina Werbner and myself for Zed Books (1988)), we celebrated the growth of consciousness and insight in this arena of study, at a time when so many new and urgent questions, both political and theoretical, continue to emerge.

    As is already clear from the above, my journey, which has involved personal travel, displacement, shifting and ‘anchoring’ (rather than ‘rerooting'), would not have been possible without the many companions I have had for shorter or longer stretches. I can't possibly name them all here, but in particular I want to mention the other members of the Khamsin collective, especially Avishai Ehrlich; my friend and colleague Floya Anthias with whom I've worked on the Gender and Ethnic Divisions project and on several books; the members of Women Against Fundamentalism, especially Gita Sahgal and Pragna Patel; as well as other friends and colleagues from near and far without whom the ideas and narratives in this book could never have been constructed in the ways they have been. To mention some of them in alphabetical order: Martha Ackelsberg; Alison Assiter; Gill Bottomley; Avtar Brah; Stephen Castles; Amrita Chhachhi; Cynthia Cockburn; Phil Cohen; Clara Connolly; Cynthia Enloe; Robert Fine; Marieme Helie-Lucas; Deniz Kandiyoti: Helma Lutz; Helen Meekosha; Maxine Molineux; Ephraim Nimni; Ruth Pearson; Jindi Pettman; Annie Phizaclea; Ann Phoenix; Shula Ramon; Nora Rätzel; Paula Rayman; Israel Shahak; Max Silverman; Elaine Unterhalter; Gina Vargas; Peter Waterman; and Pnina Werbner.

    Special thanks are due to Daiva Stasiulis (of the Lithuanian connection) with whom I worked on the book Unsettling Settler Societies (Stasiulis and Yuval-Davis, 1995) and who went over the present text in its raw state. Her many useful comments, as well as those of Bryan Turner, the series editor, and the Sage editors, Karen Phillips and Kiren Shoman, have vastly improved the book. I also want to thank my students in the MA in Gender and Ethnic Studies at the University of Greenwich and of the short course Gender and Nation I taught in 1994 at the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague, with whom I have used various drafts of the book for teaching purposes, and who, in response, generously shared with me experiences and insights from their own standpoints. The responsibility for the way it is, however, is of course all mine.

    Given everything else which needs to be done, the writing of this book would not have been possible were it not for the breathing space given to me for a few months as a Morris Ginsburg Fellow at the London School of Economics in 1991; as a Visiting Research Fellow at the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague (in 1992); and as a result of the QR allowance which released me from some weekly teaching hours at the School of Social Sciences (under the benevolent headship of Mike Kelly) at the University of Greenwich (1993—6). I am indebted to all these institutions. Most of the inspiration, however, whenever I got ‘stuck’ in the writing, came while gazing at the sea waves from ‘Romani’ in Happisburgh, Norfolk.

    The last, or probably first, thanks are due of course to Alain, who has constantly been there for me. And to Gul — who did his best — but my English never could come up to his standards.

    Although this book was written as a coherent whole, parts of the various chapters were published as separate papers elsewhere ('Gender and nation', Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1993, 16(4): 621—32; ‘Women as biological reproducers of “the nation”', Women's Studies International Forum, 19(12): 17—24; ‘Women, citizenship and difference', Feminist Review, 1997 (Autumn); ‘Women, ethnicity and empowerment', Feminism and Psychology, 1994, 4(1): 179—98).

  • References

    Abdo, Nahla and Yuval-Davis, Nira (1995) ‘Palestine, Israel and the Zionist settler project’, in D.Stasiulis and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Unsettling Settler Societies. London: Sage. pp. 291–322.
    Abeyesekera, Sunila (1994) ‘Organizing for peace in the midst of war: experiences of women in Sri-Lanka’. Paper presented for a course Gender and Nation, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.
    Accad, Evelyne (1990) Sexuality and War: Literary Mask of the Middle East. New York: New York University Press.
    Ackelsberg, Martha (forthcoming) ‘Liberalism’ and ‘Community politics’. Draft entries for the Encyclopedia of Women's Studies. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Addis, Elizabetta (1994) ‘Women and the economic consequences of being a soldier’, in ElizabettaAddis, Valeria E.Russo and LorenzaSebesta (eds), Women Soldiers: Images and Realities. London: Macmillan/St Martin's Press.
    Afshar, Haleh (1994) ‘Women and the politics of fundamentalism in Iran’, WAF (Women Against Fundamentalism) Journal, no. 5: 15–21.
    Afshar, Haleh and Dennis, Carolynne (eds) (1992) Women and Adjustment in the Third World. London: Macmillan.
    Ali, Yasmin (1992) ‘Muslim women and the politics of ethnicity and culture in northern England’, in G.Sahgal and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Refusing Holy Orders: Women and Fundamentalism in Britain. London: Verso, pp. 101–23.
    Allen, Sheila and Macey, Marie (1990) ‘At the cutting edge of citizenship: race and ethnicity in Europe 1992’. Paper presented at the conference New Issues in Black Politics, University of Warwick, May.
    Althusser, L. (1971) ‘Ideology and state ideological apparatuses’, in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. London: New Left Books.
    Alund, Aleksandra (1995) ‘Alterity in modernity’, Acta Sociologica, 38: 311–22.
    Amin, Samir (1978) The Arab Nation. London: Zed Books.
    AmnestyInternational (1995) Human Rights Are Women's Rights. London: Amnesty International.
    Amos, Valerie and Parmar, Pratiba (1984) ‘Challenging imperial feminism’, Feminist Review, 17 (Autumn): 3–20.
    ANC (1987) ANC Calls for Advance to People's Power. Lusaka/London: ANC.
    Anderson, Ben (1983) Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
    Anderson, Ben (1991) Imagined Communities (
    revised edn
    ). London: Verso.
    Anderson, Ben (1995) ‘Ice empire and ice hockey: two fin de siecle dreams’, New Left Review, 214: 146–50.
    Anthias, Floya (1991) ‘Parameters of difference and identity and the problem of connections -gender, ethnicity and class’, Revue Internationale de Sociologie, no. 2: 29–52.
    Anthias, Floya (1993) ‘Rethinking categories and struggles: racism, anti-racisms and multi-cul-turalism’. Paper presented at the European workshop Racism and Anti-Racist Movements, University of Greenwich, September.
    Anthias, Floya and Yuval-Davis, Nira (1983) ‘Contextualizing feminism: gender, ethnic and class divisions’, Feminist Review, no. 14: 62–75.
    Anthias, Floya and Yuval-Davis, Nira (1989) introduction’, in NiraYuval-Davis and FloyaAnthias (eds), Woman-Nation-State. London: Macmillan.
    Anthias, Floya and Yuval-Davis, Nira (1992) Racialized Boundaries: Race. Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and the Anti-Racist Struggle. London: Routledge.
    Anzaldua, Gloria (1987) BorderlineslLa Frontera. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute Books.
    Arendt, Hannah (1975) The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch.
    Armstrong, John (1982) Nations before Nationalism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
    Ashworth, Georgina (ed.) (1995) The Diplomacy of the Oppressed: New Directions in International Feminism. London: Zed Books.
    Assad, Talal (1993) Genealogies of Religion. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Assiter, Alison (1996) Enlightened Women: Modernist Feminism in a Postmodern Age. London: Routledge.
    Avineri, S. and Shalit, A. (eds) (1992) Communitarianism and Individualism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bakan, Abigail B. and Stasiulis, Daiva (1994) “Foreign domestic worker policy in Canada and the social boundaries of modern citizenship”, Science and Society, 58(1): 7–33.
    Balibar, Etienne (1990a) The nation form - history and ideology’, New Left Review, XIII (3. summer): 329–61.
    Balibar, Etienne (1990b) ‘Paradoxes of universality’, in D.T.Goldberg (ed.), Anatomy of Racism. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Bang, Rani and Bang, Abhay (1992) ‘Contraceptive technologies — experience of rural Indian women’, Manushi, no. 70: 26–31.
    Barker, Martin (1981) The New Racism. Brighton: Junction.
    Barkley Brown, Elsa (1989) African-American women's quilting: a framework for conceptualizing and teaching African-American women's history’. Signs, 14(4): 921–9.
    Barrett, Michelle (1987) ‘The concept of difference’, Feminist Review, no. 26.
    Barrett, Michelle and McIntosh, Mary (1985) ‘Ethnocentrism in socialist feminist theory’. Feminist Review, no. 20.
    Barrett, Michelle and Phillips, Anne (eds) (1992) Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debates. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bauer, Otto (1940) The National Question (in Hebrew). Hakibutz Haartzi.
    Bauman, Gerd (1994) ‘Dominant and demotic discourses of culture’. Paper presented at the conference Culture, Communication and Discourse: Negotiating Difference in Multi-Ethnic Alliances, University of Manchester, December.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1988) ‘Sociology and post-modernity’, Sociological Review, 36: 790–813.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1995) Life in Fragments. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bennett, Olivia, Bexley.Jo and Warnock, Kitty (eds) (1995) Arms to Fight, Arms to Protect: Women Speak Out about Conflict. London: Panos.
    Berer, Marge (1995) ‘The Quinacrine controversy continues’, Reproductive Health Matters, no. 6 (November): 142–61.
    Beth-Halakhmi, Benjamin (1996) interview with Nira Yuval-Davis’, WAF (Women Against Fundamentalism) Journal, no. 8: 32–4.
    Beveridge, William (1942) Report on Social Insurance and Allied Services. London: HMSO.
    Beyer, Peter (1994) Religion and Globalization. London: Sage.
    Bhabha, Homi (ed.) (1990) Nation and Narration. London: Routledge.
    Bhabha, Homi (1994a) The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.
    Bhabha, Homi (1994b) ‘Subaltern secularism’, WAF (Women Against Fundamentalism) Journal, no. 6: 5–8.
    Bhabha, Jacqueline and Shutter, Sue (1994) Women's Movement: Women under Immigration, Nationality and Refugee Law. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Biehl, Amy (1994) ‘Custom and religion in a non-racial, non-sexist South Africa’, WAF (Women Against Fundamentalism) Journal, no. 5: 51–4.
    Bonnet, Catherine (1995) ‘Rape as a weapon of war in Rwanda’, European Forum of Left Feminists Newsletter, July.
    Bookman, Ann and Morgan.Sancha (eds) (1988) Women and the Politics of EmpowermentPhiladelphia: Temple University Press.
    Boose, Lynda E. (1993) Techno-muscularity and the “Boy Eternal”: from the quagmire to the Gulf, in MiriamCooke and AngelaWoollacott (eds), Gendering War Talk. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Bottomley, Gill (1991) ‘Culture, ethnicity and the politics/poetics of representation’, Diaspora, 1(3): 303–20.
    Bottomley, Gill (1992) From Another Place: Migration and the Politics of Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bottomley, Gill (1993) ‘Post-multiculturalism? The theory and practice of heterogeneity’. Paper presented at the conference Post-colonial Formations: Nations, Culture, Policy, Griffith University, Queensland (June).
    Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bourne, J. and Sivanandan, A. (1980) ‘Cheerleaders and ombudsmen: the sociology of race relations in Britain’, Race and Class, 21(4).
    Bowman, Glenn (1989) ‘Fucking tourists, sexual relations and tourism in Jerusalem's Old City”, Critique of Anthropology, ix, 2: 77–93.
    Bradiotti, Bradiotti, Chazkiewlez, Ewa. Hausler, Sabine and Wieringa, Saskia (1994) Women, the Environment and Sustainable Development: Towards a Theoretical Synthesis. London: Zed.
    Brah, Avtar (1992) ‘Difference, diversity and differentiation’, in J.Donald and A.Rattansi (eds). Race, Culture and Difference. London: Sage.
    Brah, Avtar (1996) Cartographies of Diaspora: Contested Identities. London: Routledge.
    Brunt, Rosalind (1989) ‘The politics of identity’, in S.Hall and M.Jacques (eds), New Times. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Bumey, Elizabeth (1988) Steps to Social Equality: Positive Action in a Negative Climate. London: Runnymede Trust.
    Butler, J. (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.
    Bystydzienski, Jill M. (ed.) (1992) Women Transforming Politics: Worldwide Strategies for Empowerment. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press
    Cain, Harriet and Yuval-Davis, Nira (1990) “The equal opportunities community” and the anti-racist struggle’, Critical Social Policy, no. 29 (Autumn): 5–26.
    Chapkis, Wendy (1981) Loaded Questions: Women in the Military. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute.
    Chatterjee, Partha (1986) Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: a Derivative Discourse. London: Zed.
    Chatterjee, Partha (1990) “The nationalist resolution of the women's question’, in K.Sangari and S.Vaid (eds), Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Chhachhi, Amrita (1991) ‘Forced identities: the state, communalism, fundamentalism and women in India’, in D.Kandiyoti (ed), Women, Islam and the State. London: Macmillan. pp. 144–75.
    Clifford, James (1988) The Predicament of Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Cock, Jacklyn (1992) Women in War in South Africa. London: Open Letters.
    Cohen, Eric (1971) ‘Arab boys and tourist girls in a mixed Jewish-Arab city’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 12(4): 217–33.
    Cohen, J. (1982) Class and Civil Society the Limits of Marxian Critical Theory. Amhurst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Cohen, Phil (1988) The perversions of inheritance’, in P.Cohen and H.S.Bains (eds), Multi-Racist Britain. London: Macmillan.
    Cohen, Phil (1995) ‘Out of the melting pot into the fire next time: local/global cities, bodies, texts’. Paper presented at the BSA conference Contested Cities, Essex University, 11—13 April.
    Cohn, Caroline (1993) ‘Wars, wimps and women: talking gender and thinking war’, in MiriamCooke and AngelaWoollacott (eds), Gendering War Talk. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Connell, R.W (1987) Gender and Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Contention (1995) Special issue Comparative Fundamentalisms, no. 2 (Winter).
    Cooke, Miriam (1993) ‘WO-man, retelling the war myth’, in MiriamCooke and AngelaWoollacott (eds), Gendering War Talk, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Correa, Sonia (1994) Population and Reproductive Rights: Feminist Perspectives from the South. London: Zed in association with DAWN.
    Correa, Sonia and Petchesky, Rosalind (1994) ‘Reproductive and social rights: a feminist perspective’, in G.Sen, A.Germain and L.C.Cohen (eds). Population Policies Considered. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 107–26.
    Cox, Robert W. (1995) ‘Civilizations: encounters and transformations’, Studies in Political Economy, no. 7: 7–32.
    Dahl, R. (1971) Polyarchy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Daly, Markate (1993) Communitarianism: Belonging and Commitment in a Pluralist Democracy. Wadsworth.
    Davis, Angela (1993) ‘Racism, birth control and reproductive rights’, in L.Richardson and VTaylor (eds), Feminist Frontiers II. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Davis, Angela and Martinez, Elizabeth (1994) ‘Coalition building among people of color’, in M.Ochoa and T.Teaiwa (eds), Enunciating Our Terms: Women of Color in Collaboration and Conflict. Inscriptions 7. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Cultural Studies, University of California.
    Davis, F. James (1993) Who Is Black? One Nation's Definition. Pennsylvania State University Press.
    de la Campagne, C. (1983) LInvention du racisms — antique et moyen dge. Paris: University of Paris Press.
    deLepervanche, Marie (1980) ‘From race to ethnicity’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 16(1).
    deLepervanche, Marie (1989) ‘Women, nation and the state in Australia’, in N.Yuval-Davis and F.Anthias (eds), Woman-Nation-State. London: Macmillan. pp. 36–57.
    Delphy, C. (1993) ‘Rethinking sex and gender’, Women Studies International Forum, 16(1): 1–9.
    Deutch, K.W. (1966) Nationalism and Social Communications: an Enquiry into the Foundations of Nationality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Dickanson, Olive P. (1992) Canada's First Nations. Toronto: McClelland and Stanley.
    Dietz, Mary G. (1987) ‘Context is all: feminism and theories of citizenship’, Daedalus, 116:4.
    Donald, James (1993) ‘How English is it? Popular literature and national culture’, in EricaCarter, DonaldJames and JudithSquires (eds), Space and Place: Theories of Identity and Location. London: Lawrence and Wishart in association with New Formations.
    Dransart, Penny (1987) ‘Women and ritual conflict in Inka society’, in SharonMacdonald, PatHolden and ShirleyArdener (eds), Images of Women in Peace and War. London: Macmillan.
    Durkheim, Emile (1965) Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Free Press.
    Edwards, J. (1988) ‘Justice and the bounds of welfare’, Journal of Social Policy, no. 18.
    Ehrlich, Avishai (1987) ‘Israel: conflict, war and social change’, in ColinCreighton and MartinShaw (eds), The Sociology of War and Peace. London: Macmillan.
    Ehrlich, Paul (1968) The Population Bomb. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Eisenstein, Zillah (ed.) (1979) Capitalist Patriarchy. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Eisenstein, Zillah (1989) The Female Body and the Law. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Eisenstein, Zillah (1993) The Color of Gender — Reimaging Democracy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Enloe, Cynthia (1980) Ethnic Soldiers: State Security in Divided Societies. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Enloe, Cynthia (1983) Does Khaki Become You?London: Pluto Press.
    Enloe, Cynthia (1989) Bananas, Beaches, Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. London: Pandora.
    Enloe, Cynthia (1990) ‘Womenandchildren: making feminist sense of the Persian Gulf Crisis’, The Village Voice, 25 September.
    Enloe, Cynthia (1993) The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Esping-Andersen, Gosta (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Evans, David T. (1993) Sexual Citizenship: the Material Construction of Sexualities. LondonRoutledge.
    Faludi, Susan (1992) Backlash: the Undeclared War against Women. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Fanon, Franz (1986) Black Skin, White Masks (1952). London: Pluto.
    Feminism and Nonviolence Study Group (1983) Piecing It Together: Feminism and Nonviolence. London: Calvert.
    Feminist Review (1984) Special issue Many Voices, One Chant: Black Feminist Perspectives, no. 1” (Autumn).
    Fine, Robert (1994) ‘The “new nationalism” and democracy: a critique of pro patria Democratization, 1(3): 423–43.
    Fisher, Jo (1989) Mothers of the Disappeared. London: Zed.
    Focus on Gender (1994) Special issue Population and Reproductive Rights, 2 (2, June), Oxfam
    Forbes Martin, Susan, (ed.) (1992) Refugee Women. London: Zed.
    Foster, Elaine (1992) ‘Women and the inverted pyramid of the Black Churches in Britain’, in GSahgal and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Refusing Holy Orders: Women and Fundamentalism in Britain. London: Verso, pp. 45–68.
    Foucault, M. (1980a) Herculine Barbin. New York: Colophon.
    Foucault, M. (1980b) Power! Knowledge: Selected Interviews 1972—77 (ed. C.Gordon). Brighton: Harvester.
    Friedman, Jonathan (1994) Cultural Identity and Global Process. London: Sage.
    Fuszara, Malgorzata (1993) Abortion and the formation of the public sphere in Poland’, in N.Funk and M.Mueller (eds), Gender, Politics and Post-Communism. London: Routledge.
    Gaitskell, Deborah and Unterhalter, Elaine (1989) ‘Mothers of the nation: a comparative analysis of nation, race and motherhood in Afrikaner nationalism and the African National Congress’, in N.Yuval-Davis and F.Anthias (eds), Woman-Nation-State. London: Macmillan.
    Gans, H.J. (1979) ‘Symbolic ethnicity: the future of ethnic groups and cultures in America’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 2(2).
    Gatens, M. (1991) A critique of the sex/gender distinction’, in S.Gunew (ed.), A Reader in Feminist Knowledge. London: Routledge. pp. 139–57.
    Geertz, Clifford (ed.) (1963) Old Societies and New States. New York: Free Press.
    Geertz, Clifford (1966) ‘Religion as. a cultural system’, in M.Bainton (ed.), Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion. London: Tavistock.
    Geiiner, E. (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Giddens, Anthony (1989) Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
    Gilbert, Sandra (1983) ‘Soldiers’ heart: literary men, literary women and the Great War’, in Signs Special Issue on Women and Violence, 8(3): 422–50.
    Gilligan, Carol (1982) In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's DevelopmentCambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gilman, Sander L. (1985) Difference and Pathology Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Gilman, Sander L. (1991) The Jew's Body. New York: Routledge.
    Gilroy, Paul (1987) There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack. London: Hutchinson.
    Gilroy, Paul (1994) The Black Atlantic, Modernity and Double Consciousness. London: Verso
    Gilroy, Paul (1996) ‘Revolutionary conservatism and the tyrannies of unanimism’, New Formations, no. 28: 65–84.
    Goodale, J. (1980) ‘Gender, sexuality and marriage’, in C.MacCormac and M.Strathern (eds), Nature, Culture and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gordon, Linda (1991) ‘On difference’, Genders, no. 10 (Spring): 91–111
    Gordon, Paul (1989) Citizenship for Some? Race and Government Policy 1979—1989. London: Runneymede Trust.
    Grant, Rebecca (1991) The sources of gender bias in international relations theory’, in RGrant and K.Newland (eds), Gender and International Relations. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 8–26.
    Grant, Rebecca and Newland, Kathleen (eds) (1991) Gender and International Relations. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Greenfeld, Liah (1992) Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Grewal, Inderpal and Kaplan, Caren (eds) (1994) Scattered Hegemonies: Postmodernity and Transnational Feminist Practices. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Gutierrez, Natividad (1995) ‘Mixing races for nation building: Indian and immigrant women in Mexico’, in D.Stasiulis and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Unsettling Settler Societies: Articulations of Gender, Ethnicity, Race and Class. London: Sage.
    Habermas, J. (1992) ‘Citizenship and national identity: some reflections on the future of Europe’, Praxis International, 12(1).
    Hall, Catherine (1994) ‘Rethinking imperial histories: the Reform Act of 1867’, New Left Review, no. 208: 3–29.
    Hall, Stuart (1984) ‘The state in question’, in D.McLennan, D.Held and S.Hall (eds), The Idea of the Modern State. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Hall, Stuart (1987) ‘Minimal selves’, in Identity, the Real Me, ICA Document 6. London: ICA. pp. 44–6.
    Hall, Stuart (1992) ‘New ethnicities’, in J.Donald and A.Rattansi (eds), ‘Race’, Culture and Difference. London: Sage.
    Hall, Stuart (1996) ‘Who needs “identity?’”, introduction to S.Hall and P.du Gay (eds), Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage.
    Hall, Stuart and Held, David (1989) ‘Citizens and citizenship’, in StuartHall and MartinJacques (eds), New Times. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Haraway, Donna (1988) ‘Situated knowledge: the science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective’, Feminist Studies, 14(3): 575–99.
    Haraway, Donna (1990) Simians, Cyborgs and Women: the Reinvention of Women. London: Free Association Books.
    Harding, S. (1986) The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Harris, D. (1987) Justifying State Welfare: the New Right v. the Old Left. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Hartman, Betsy (1987) Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: the Global Politics of Population Control and Contraceptive Choice. New York: Harper and Row.
    Hartman, Heidi I. (1981) ‘The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: towards a more progressive union’, in L.Sargent (ed.), Women and Revolution. London: Pluto.
    Hartman, Heinz (1995) ‘Clash of cultures, when and where: critical comments on a new theory of conflict — and its translation into German’, International Sociology, 10(2): 115–25.
    Hasan, Manar (1994) ‘The murder of Palestinian women for family “honour” in Israel’. MA dissertation, Gender and Ethnic Studies, University of Greenwich.
    Hassan, Riffat (1993) ‘The issue of women's and men's equality in the Islamic tradition’, in L.Grob, R.Hassan and H.Gordon (eds), Women's and Men's Liberation Testimonies of Spirit. Greenwood.
    Held, D. (1984) ‘Central perspectives on the modern state’, in D.McLennan, D.Held and S.Hall (eds), The Idea of the Modern State. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Helie-Lucas, Marieme (1987) ‘The role of women during the Algerian liberation struggle and after’. Paper presented at the conference Women and the Military System, Siunto Baths, Finland, January.
    Helie-Lucas, Marieme (1993) ‘Women living under Muslim laws’, in J.Kerr (ed), Ours by Rights: Women's Rights as Women's Rights. London: Zed.
    Heng, Geraldine and Devan, Janadas (1992) ‘State fatherhood: the politics of nationalism, sexuality and race in Singapore’, in AndrewParker, MaryRusso, DorisSomner and PatriciaYaeger (eds), Nationalisms and Sexualities. New York: Routledge. pp. 343–64.
    Heroes, Helga Maria (1987) ‘Women and the welfare state: the transition from private to public dependence’, in A.Showstack Sassoon (ed.), Women and the State. London: Hutchinson. pp. 72–92.
    Herrnstein, Richard and Murray, Charles A. (1994) The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press.
    Hill-Collins, Patricia (1990) Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment. London: HarperCollins.
    Hobsbawm, Eric (1990) Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terance (eds) (1983) The Invention of Traditions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hood-Williams, John (1996) ‘Goodbye to sex and gender’, Sociological Review, 44(1): 1–16.
    hooks, bell (1981) Ain't I a Woman. Black Women and Feminism. London: South End Press.
    hooks, bell (1991) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. London: Turnaround.
    Hutchinson, John and Smith, Anthony D. (eds) (1994) Nationalism — the Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hyman, A. (1985) Muslim Fundamentalism. Institute for the Study of Culture, no. 174.
    IgnatiefT, M. (1993) Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalisms. London: BBC Books/Chatto and Windus.
    Jakubowicz, Andrew (1984) ‘State and ethnicity: multiculturalism as an ideology’, Australia and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 17(3).
    Janowitz, Morris (1991) The Professional Soldiers: a Social and Political Portrait. New York.
    Jayasuriya, L. (1990) ‘Multiculturalism, citizenship and welfare: new directions for the 1990s’. Paper presented at the 50th Anniversary Lecture Series, Department of Social Work and Social Policy, University of Sydney.
    Jayawardena, Kumari (1986) Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World. London: Zed.
    Jayawardena, Kumari (1995) The White Woman's Other Burden: Western Women and South Asia during British Rule. London: Routledge.
    Jones, Adam (1994) ‘Gender and ethnic conflict in ex-Yugoslavia’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 17, (1): 115–29.
    Jones, Kathleen B. (1990) ‘Citizenship in a woman-friendly polity’, Signs, 15:4.
    Jordan, WD. (1974) The White Man's Burden Historical Origins of Racism in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Joseph, Suad (1993) ‘Gender and civil society’, Middle East Report, no. 183: 22–6.
    Kandiyoti, Deniz (1988) ‘Bargaining with patriarchy’, Gender and Society, 2(3): 274–90.
    Kandiyoti, Deniz (1991a) identity and its discontents: women and the nation’, Millennium, 20(3): 429–44.
    Kandiyoti, Deniz (ed.) (1991b) Women, Islam and the State. London: Macmillan.
    Kazi, Seema (1993) ‘Women and militarization: a gender perspective’. MA dissertation, ISS, The Hague.
    Keane, John (ed.) (1988) Civil Society and the State: New European Perspectives. London. Verso.
    Kedourie, Elie (1993) Nationalism (1960). Cambridge: Blackwell.
    Kimble, Judith and Unterhalter, Elaine (1982) ‘“We opened the road for you, you must go forward”: ANC Women's Struggles, 1912—1982’, Feminist Review, no. 12: 11–36.
    King, Ursula (ed.) (1995) Religion and Gender. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Kitching, Gavin (1985) ‘Nationalism: the instrumental passion’, Capital and Class, 25: 98–116.
    Knight, Chris (1991) Blood Relations: Menstruation and the Origins of Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Knopfelmacher, Professor (1984) ‘Anglomorphism in Australia’, The Age, Melbourne, 31 March.
    Koontz, Claudia (1986) Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family and Nazi Politics. London: Cape.
    Kosmarskaya, Natalya (1995) ‘Women and ethnicity in former day Russia - thoughts on a given theme’, in H.Lutz, A.Phoenix and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Crossfires: Nationalism, Racism and Gender in Europe. London: Pluto.
    Kosofsky Sedgwick, Eve (1992) ‘Nationalisms and sexualities in the age of Wilde’, in A.Parker, M.Russo, D.Sommer and P.Yacgger (eds), Nationalities and Sexualities. London: Routledge.
    Kristeva, Julia (1993) Nations Without Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Kymlicka, Will (1995) Multicultural Citizenship: a Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Lacan, J. (1982) The meaning of the phallus' (1958), in J.Mitchell and J.Rose (eds), Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne. London: Macmillan.
    Laqueur, T. (1990) Making Sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Laszlo, Ervin (ed.) (1993) The Multi-Cultural Planet. Oxford: One World.
    Lavie, Smadar (1992) ‘Blow-ups in the borderzones: 3rd world Israeli authors' groping for home’, New Formations, special issue on Hybridity, no. 18, Winter.
    Lavie, Smadar and Sweden burg, Ted (eds) (1996) Displacement, Diaspora and Geographies of Identity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Lechte, John (1994) ‘Freedom, community and cultural frontiers’. Paper presented to the conference Citizenship and Cultural Frontiers, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, 16 September.
    Lemelle, S. and Kelly, R. (eds) (1994) Imagining Home: Class, Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. London: Verso.
    Lenin, V. (1977) The State and Revolution (1917). Moscow: Progress.
    Lentin, Ronit (1995) ‘Woman — the peace activist who isn't there: Israeli and Palestinian women working for peace’. Paper written for the Irish Peace Institute Research Centre, University of Limerick.
    Lentin, Ronit (forthcoming) ‘Genocide’. Draft entry for the Women's Studies Encyclopedia. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Leonardo, Micaela di (1985) ‘Morals, mothers, militarism: antimilitarism and feminist theory’, Feminist Studies, 11(3, Autumn): 599–618.
    Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1969) The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Boston.
    Lewis, Reina (1996) Gendering Orientalism. London: Routledge.
    Lister, Ruth (1990) The Exclusive Society: Citizenship and the Poor. London: Child Poverty Action Group.
    Lloyd, Cathy (1994) ‘Universalism and difference: the crisis of anti-racism in the UK and France’, in A.Rattansi and S.Westwood (eds), Racism. Modernity and Difference. Cambridge: Polity.
    Lowenhaupt Tsing, Anna (1993) In the Realms of the Diamond Queen. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Luckman, Thomas (1967) The Invisible Religion. London: Macmillan.
    Lutz, Helma (1991) ‘The myth of the “Other”: western representation and images of migrant women of so-called “Islamic background”, International Review of Sociology, New Series, no. 2 (April): 121–38.
    Macdonald, Macdonald, Holden, Pat and Ardener, Shirley (eds) (1987) Images of Women in Peace and War. London: Macmillan.
    McTighe MusilCaryn (1990), Preface, in LisaAlbrecht and Rose M.Brewer (eds). Bridges of Power: Women's Multi-Cultural Alliances. New York: New Society.
    Maitland, Sara (1992) ‘Biblicism: a radical rhetoric?’, in G.Sahgal and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Refusing Holy Orders: Women and Fundamentalism in Britain. London: Verso, pp. 26–44.
    Makhlouf ObermeyerCarla (1994) ‘Reproductive choice in Islam: gender and the state in Iran and Tunisia’, in Women Living Under Muslim Laws (eds), Women's Reproductive Rights in Muslim Communities and Countries: Issues and Resources. Dossier prepared for the NGO Forum, UN conference Population and Development Policies, Cairo.
    Mangan, J.A. (ed.) (1996) Tribal Identities: Nationalism, Europe, Sport. London: Frank Cass.
    Mani, Lata (1989) ‘Contentious traditions: the debate on Sati in colonial India’, in K.Sangari and S.Vaid (eds), Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
    Marsden, G. (1980) Fundamentalism and American CultureOxford: Oxford University Press.
    Marshall, T.H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Marshall, T.H. (1975) Social Policy in the Twentieth Century (1965). London: Hutchinson.
    Marshall, T.H. (1981) The Right to Welfare and Other Essays. London: Heinemann.
    Martin, Denis-Constant (1995) ‘The choices of identity’, Social Identities, 1(1): 5–16.
    Martin, Jeannie (1991) ‘Multiculturalism and feminism’, in G.Bottomley, M.deLepervanche and J.Martin (eds), Intersexions. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
    Marx, Karl (1975) ‘On the Jewish question’, in Early Writings. Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 211–42.
    Massey, Doreen (1994) Space, Place and Gender. Cambridge: Polity.
    Meaney, Geratdine (1993) ‘Sex and nation: women in Irish culture and polities’, in E.Smyth (ed.), Irish Women's Studies. Dublin: Attic Press, pp. 230–44.
    Meekosha, Helen and Dowse, Leanne (1996) ‘Enabling citizenship: gender, disability and citizenship’. Paper presented at the conference Women, Citizenship and Difference, University of Greenwich, July.
    Melucci, A. (1989) Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society. London: Verso.
    Mercer, Kubena (1990) ‘Welcome to the jungle: identity and diversity in postmodern politics’, in J.Rutherford (ed.), Identity, Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence and Wishart Meyer,
    JohnW (1980) ‘The world polity and the authority of the nation-state’, in A.Bergesen (ed), Studies of the Modern World System. New York: Academic.
    Meznaric, Silva (1995) ‘The discourse of endangered nation, ethnicity, gender and reproductive policies in Croatia’. Paper presented at the ESRC seminar series, Gender, Class and Ethnicity in Post Communist States, organized by Maxine Molineux, University of London.
    Minh-ha, Trinh T. (1989) Woman, Native, Other. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Modood, Tariq (1988) ‘“Black”: racial equality and Asian identity’, New Community, 14(3).
    Modood, Tariq (1994) ‘Political blackness and British Asians’, Sociology, 28 (November): 859–76.
    Moghadam, Valentine (1994) Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies. London: Zed.
    Moghadam, Valentine (forthcoming) ‘Revolution’. Draft entry for the Women's Studies Encyclopedia. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Mohanty, Chandra Talpade (1991) ‘Under western eyes: feminist scholarship and colonial discourses’, in C.T.Mohanty, A.Russo and L.Torres (eds), Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Mohanty, Chandra Talpade, Russo, Ann and Torres, Lourdes (eds) (1991) Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Molineux, Maxine (1994) ‘Women's rights and the international context: some reflections on the post-communist states’, Millennium, 23(2): 287–314.
    Moore, H. (1988) Feminism and Anthropology. Oxford. Polity.
    Morgan, Robyn (1989) The Demon Lover on the Sexuality of Terrorism. London: Methuen.
    Morris, Lydia (1994) Dangerous Classes: the Underclass and Social Citizenship. London: Routledge.
    Mosse, George L. (1985) Nationalism and Sexuality: Middle Class Morality and Sexual Norms in Modern Europe. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Mouffe, Chantal (1993) ‘Liberal socialism and pluralism: which citizenship?’, in J.Squires (ed.), Principled Positions. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Mullard, Chris (1980) Racism in Society and Schools. London: Institute of Education, London University.
    Nairn, T. (1977) The Break-Up of Britain. London: Verso.
    Najmabadi, Afsane (1995) ‘Feminisms in an Islamic republic: “years of hardship, years of growth”’. Paper presented at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
    Nandy, Ashis (1983) The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    National Peace Council (1995) ‘Peace action in Russia and Chechnya’ (leaflet). London: NPC.
    Nederveen PietcrseJan (1994) ‘Globalization as hybridization’. Working paper no. 152, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.
    Neuberger, Benjamin (1986) National Self Determination in Post-Colonial Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    Nicholson, Linda J. (ed.) (1990) Feminism/Postmodernism. London: Routledge.
    Nimni, Ephraim (1991) Marxism and Nationalism. London: Pluto.
    Nimni, Ephraim (1996) ‘The limits to liberal democracy’. Unpublished paper given at the departmental seminar of the Sociology Subject Groups at the University of Greenwich, London.
    Oakley, Ann (1985) Sex, Gender and Society (1972). London: Temple Smith.
    Oakley, Ann and Mitchell, Juliet (eds) (1997) Who's Afraid of Feminism. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    O'Connor, Julia S. (1993) ‘Gender, class and citizenship in the comparative analysis of welfare state regimes: theoretical and methodological issues’, British Journal of Sociology, 44(3): 501–18.
    Office of Multi-Cultural Affairs (1989) National Agenda for a Multi-cultural Australia. Canberra. Australian Government Printing Service.
    Oldfield, Adrian (1990) Citizenship and Community: Civic Republicanism and the Modern World. London: Routledge.
    Oliver, Michael (1995) Understanding Disability: from Theory to Practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Orloff, Ann Shola (1993) ‘Gender and the social rights of citizenship: the comparative analysis of gender relations and welfare states’, American Sociological Review, 58 (June): 303–28.
    Ortner, S. (1974) is female to male as nature is to culture?’, in M.Rosaldo and L.Lamphere (eds), Women, Culture and Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Parekh, Bhiku (1990) ‘The Rushdie affair and the British press: some salutary lessons’, in Free Speech. Report of a seminar by the CRE, London.
    Parker, Parker, Russo, Mary, Sommer, Doris and Yaeger, Patricia (eds) (1992) Nationalisms and Sexualities. New York: Routledge.
    Pateman, Carole (1988) The Sexual Contract. Cambridge.
    Polity. PatemanCarole (1989) The Disorder of Women. Cambridge: Polity.
    Peled, Alon (1994) ‘Force, ideology and contract: the history of ethnic conscription’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 17(1): 61–78.
    Peled, Yoav (1992) ‘Ethnic democracy and the legal construction of citizenship: Arab citizens of the Jewish state’, American Political Science Review, 86(2): 432–42.
    Petchesky, Rosalind and Weiner, Jennifer (1990) Global Feminist Perspectives on Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health. Conference report. Hunter College, New York.
    Peterson, V.S. (ed.) (1992) Gendered States: Feminist (Re) Visions of International Relations Theory. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    Petrova, Dimitrina (1993) ‘The winding road to emancipation in Bulgaria’, in N.Funk and M.Mueller (eds), Gender, Politics and Post-Communism. London: Routledge.
    Pettman, Jan Jindi (1992) Living in the Margins: Racism, Sexism and Feminism in Australia. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
    Pettman, Jan Jindi (1995) ‘Race, ethnicity and gender in Australia’, in D.Stasiulis and N.Yuval-Davis (eds). Unsettling Settler Societies. London: Sage.
    Pettman, Jan Jindi (1996) Worlding Women: a Feminist International Politics. London: Routledge.
    Pheterson, Gail (1990) ‘Alliances between women — overcoming internalized oppression and internalized domination’, in L.Albrecht and R.Brewer (eds), Bridges of Power: Women's Multi-Cultural Alliances. New Society.
    Phillips, Anne (1993) Democracy and Difference. Cambridge: Polity.
    Phillips, Derek (1993) Communitarian Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Phillips, Melanie (1990) ‘Citizenship sham in our secret society’, The Guardian, 14 September.
    Portuguese, Jackie (1996) ‘The gendered politics of fertility policies in Israel’. Unpublished PhD dissertation draft, University of Exeter.
    Ramazanoglu, Caroline (1989) Feminism and the Contradictions of Oppression. London: Routledge.
    Rattansi, Ali (1992) ‘Changing the subject? Racism, culture and education’, in J.Donald and A.Rattanzi (eds), Race, Culture, Difference. London: Sage.
    Rattansi, Ali (1994) ‘“Western” racisms, ethnicities and identities in a “postmodern” frame’ in AliRattansi and SallyWestwood (eds), Racism. Modernity and Identity: on the Western Front. Cambridge: Polity, pp. 15–86.
    Rätzel, Nora (1994) “Harmonious “Heimat” and disturbing “Auslander”’, Feminism and Psychology, special issue Shifting Identities, Shifting Racisms (ed. K. Bhavnani and A. Phoenix), 4, (1): 81–98.
    Raymond, Janice G. (1993) Women as Wombs. San Francisco: Harper.
    Rex, John (1995) ‘Ethnic identity and the nation state: the political sociology of multi-cultural societies’, Social Identities, 1(1): 21.
    Riley, Denise (1987) ‘Does sex have a history? Women and feminism’, New Formations, no. 1 (Spring).
    Riley, Denise (1981a) The free mothers’, History Workshop Journal:59–119.
    Riley, Denise (1981b) Feminist thought and reproductive control: the state and the “right to choose”, in Cambridge Women Studies Group (eds), Women in Society: Interdisciplinary Essays. London: Virago.
    Robertson, Roland (1992) Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage.
    Roche, Maurice (1987) ‘Citizenship, social theory and social change’, Theory and Society, no. 16: 363–99.
    Rosaldo, Renate (1991) ‘Reimagining national communities’. Paper presented at the symposium Colonial Discourses: Postcolonial Theory, University of Essex, 7—10 July.
    Roseneil, Sasha (1995) Disarming Patriarchy: Feminism and Political Action at Greenham. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Rowbotham, Sheila (1973) Hidden from History. London: Pluto.
    Rowbotham, Sheila (1992) Women in Movement: Feminism and Social Action. London: Routledge.
    Rozario, Santi (1991) ‘Ethno-religious communities and gender divisions in Bangladesh: women as boundary markers’, in G.Bottomley, M.deLepervanchc and J.Martin (eds) (1991) Intersexions: Gender/Class/Culture/Ethnicity. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
    Rubin, Gayle (1975) ‘The traffic in women: notes on the “political economy” of sex’, in RaynerRapp-Reiter, Towards an Anthropology of Women. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Ruddick, Sara (1983) ‘Pacifying the forces: drafting women in the interests of peace’, Signs, 8(3): 490–531.
    Ruddick, Sara (1989) Maternal Thinking: towards a Politics of Peace. London: The Women's Press.
    Sahgal, Gita (1992) ‘Secular spaces: the experience of Asian women organizing’, in G.Sahgal and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Refusing Holy Orders: Women and Fundamentalism in Britain. London: Virago.
    Sahgal, Gita and Yuval-Davis, Nira (eds) (1992) Refusing Holy Orders: Women and Fundamentalism in Britain. London: Virago.
    Said, Edward (1978) Orientalism. London: Routledge.
    Sandel, Michael J. (1982) Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sartre, Jean-Paul (1948) Anti-Semite and Jew. New York: Schoken.
    Scales-Trent, Judy (1995) Notes of a White Black Woman: Race, Colour, Community. Pennsylvania University Press.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik (1995) ‘Muiticulturalism and universalism in the USA and EU Europe’. Paper for the workshop Nationalism and Ethnicity, Berne, March.
    Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. (1992) The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society. New York: Norton.
    Schlesinger, Philip (1987) ‘On national identity: some conceptions and misconceptions criticized’, Social Science Information, 26(2).
    Schutz, Alfred (1976) ‘The stranger, an essay in social psychoIogy’ (1944), in A.Brodersen (ed), Alfred Schutz: Studies in Social Theory: Collected Papers II. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 91–106.
    Seifert, Ruth (1995) ‘Destructive constructions: the military, the nation and gender dualism’, in ErikaHaas (ed.), Feminismus und Dekonstruktion. Munich: Profil Verlag.
    Shahak, Israel (1994) Jewish Religion: the Burden of 3000 Years. London: Pluto.
    Shanin, Theodor (1986) ‘Soviet concepts of ethnicity: the case of a missing term’, New Left Review, no. 158: 113–22.
    Shils, Edward (1957) ‘Primordial, personal, sacred and civil ties’, British Journal of Sociology, 7: 113–45.
    Showstack Sassoon, Anne (ed.) (1987) Women and the State: the Shifting Boundaries of Public and Private. London: Hutchinson.
    Siboni, Daniel (1974) Le nom et le corps. Paris: University of Paris Press.
    Siboni, Daniel (1983) Lajuive — une transmission inconscient. Paris: University of Paris Press.
    Signs (1983) Special issue Women and Violence, 8(3).
    Simmel, George (1950) The Stranger’, in H.K.Wolff (ed), The Sociology of George Simmel. New York: Free Press of Glencoe. pp. 402–9.
    Smith, Anthony (1971) Theories of Nationalism. London: Duckworth.
    Smith, Anthony (1986) The Ethnic Origin of Nations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Smith, Anthony (1995) Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity.
    Snyder, L.L. (1968) The New Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Sociology (1989) Special issue Patriarchy, 23(2).
    Southall Black Sisters (1990) Against the Grain: a Celebration of Survival and Struggle. London: SBS.
    Soysal, Yasemin (1994) Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Spelman, Elizabeth (1988) Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought. London: The Women's Press.
    Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1991) ‘Reflections on cultural studies in the post-colonial conjuncture’, Critical Studies, special issue Cultural Studies Crossing Borders, 3(1): 63–78.
    Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1993) Outside in the Teaching Machine. London: Routledge.
    Staffulah KhanVerity (ed.) (1979) Minority Families in Britain: Support and Stress. London: Macmillan.
    Stalin, J.C. (1972) The National Question and Leninism (1929). Calcutta: Mass Publications.
    Stasiulis, Daiva and Yuval-Davis, Nira (eds) (1995) Unsettling Settler Societies: Articulations of Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Class. London: Sage.
    Stiehm, Judith Hicks (1989) Arms and the Enlisted Woman. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Stolcke, Verena (1987) “The nature of nationality’. Paper presented at the conference Women and the State, Wissenschaftsinstitut, Berlin.
    Stolcke, Verena (1995) ‘Talking culture: new boundaries, new rhetorics of exclusion in Europe’, Current Anthropology, 16(1): 1–23.
    Strathern, Marilyn (1996a) ‘Enabling identity? Biology, choice and the new reproductive technologies’, in S.Hall and P.du Gay (eds), Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage. pp. 37–52.
    Strathern, Marilyn (1996b) ‘Kinship knowledge’. Paper presented at the international symposium Governing Medically Assisted Human Reproduction, University of Toronto, February.
    Tabet, Paola (1996) ‘Natural fertility, forced reproduction’, in D.Leonard and L.Atkins (eds), Sex in Question: French Materialist Feminism. London: Taylor and Francis.
    Tajfel, H. (1965) ‘Some psychological aspects of the colour problem’, in R.Hooper (ed), Colour in Britain. London: BBC.
    Thornton DillBonnie (1988) The dialectics of black womanhood’, in SandraHarding (ed), Feminism and Methodology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Tillich, Paul (1957) The Dynamics of Faith. New York: Harper and Row.
    Tsagarousianou, Roza (1995) ‘“God, patria and home”: “reproductive politics” and nationalist (redefinitions of women in East/Central Europe’, Social Identities, 1(2): 283–313.
    Turner, Bryan (1990) ‘Outline of a theory on citizenship’, Sociology, 24(2): 189–218.
    Turner, Bryan (1994) Orientalism. Postmodernism and Globalism. London. Routledge.
    Urdang, Stephanie (1989) And Still They Dance: Women, War and the Struggle for Change in Mozambique. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Van den Berghe, P. (1979) The Ethnic Phenomenon. New York: Elsevier.
    Vargas, Virginia (1995) ‘Women's movement in Peru, rebellion into action’, in S.Wieringa (ed). Subversive Women. London: Zed.
    Vogel, Ursula (1989) ‘Is citizenship gender specific?’. Paper presented at PSA Annual Conference, April.
    Voronina, Olga A. (1994) ‘Soviet women and politics: on the brink of change’, in B.J.Nelson and N.Chowdhury (eds), Women and Politics Worldwide. New Haven. CT: Yale University Press. pp. 722–36.
    Walby, Sylvia (1990) Theorizing Patriarchy. Oxford: Black well.
    Walby, Sylvia (1994) ‘Is citizenship gendered?’, Sociology, 28(2): 379–95.
    Walker, Martin (1993) ‘Sisters take the wraps off the brothers’, The Guardian, 6 May.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel (1974) The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the 16th Century. New York: Academic.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel (1980) The Modern World System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the World Economy 1650—1750. New York: Academic.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel (1989) The Modern World System III: the Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World Economy 1730—1840. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Warring, Annette (1996) ‘National bodies: collaboration and resistance in a gender perspective’. Paper presented at the session Women and War at the conference European Social Science History, the Netherlands, May.
    Weed, Elizabeth (1989) Coming to Terms: Feminism. Theory, Politics. London: Routledge.
    Werbner, Pnina and Yuval-Davis, Nira (eds) (1988) Women, Citizenship and Difference. London: Zed Books.
    Wexler, Philip (1990) ‘Citizenship in a semiotic society’, in BryanTurner (ed.), Theories of Modernity and Postmodernity. London: Sage.
    WGNRR (1991) Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights, Newsletter, no. 35 April-June.
    Wheelwright, Julie (1991) ‘Women at war’, The Guardian, 24 January.
    Wicringa, Saskia (ed.) (1995) Subversive Women: Women's Movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. London: Zed.
    Wieviorka, Michel (1994) ‘Racism in Europe: unity and diversity’, in A.Rattansi and SallieWestwood (eds), Racism. Modernity and Identity. Cambridge: Polity.
    Williams, Raymond (1983) Keywords. London: Fontana.
    Wilson, William J. (1987) The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
    WING (1985) Worlds Apart: Women under Immigration and Nationality Laws, Women, Immigration and Nationality Group. London: Pluto.
    Wobbe, Theresa (1995) ‘The boundaries of community: gender relations and racial violence’, in H.Lutz, A.Phoenix and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Crossfires: Nationalism, Racism and Gender in Europe. London: Pluto.
    Woollacott, Angela (1993) ‘Sisters and brothers in arms: family, class and gendering in World War I Britain’ in M.Cooke and A.Woollacott (eds), Gendering War Talk. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    WREI (1992) Women in the Military: International Perspectives, Women Research and Education Institute. Proceedings of the conference, Washington, DC, 30 April.
    Yeatman, Anna (1992) ‘Minorities and the politics of difference’, Political Theory Newsletter, 4(1): 1—11.
    Young, Iris Marion (1989) ‘Polity and group difference: a critique of the ideal of universal citizenship’, Ethics, 99.
    Yuval-DavisNira (1980) ‘The bearers of the collective: women and religious legislation in Israel’, Feminist Review, no. 4: 15–27.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1984) ‘Anti-semitism, anti-Zionism and the struggle against racism’, Spare Rib, April.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1985) ‘Front and rear: the sexual division of labour in the Israeli army’, Feminist Studies, 11(3): 649–76.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1987a) ‘Marxism and Jewish nationalism’, History Workshop Journal, no. 24 (Autumn).
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1987b) ‘The Jewish collectivity and national reproduction in Israel’, in Khamsin (ed.), Women in the Middle East. London: Zed.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1989) ‘National reproduction and the “demographic race” in Israel’, in N.Yuval-Davis and F.Anthias (eds), Woman-Nation-Slate. London: Macmillan. pp. 92–109.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1991a) The gendered Gulf War: women's citizenship and modern warfare’, in HaimBresheeth and NiraYuval-Davis (eds), The Gulf War and the New World Order. London: Zed.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1991b) The citizenship debate: women, the state and ethnic processes’, Feminist Review, no. 39: 58–68.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1991c) Anglomorphism and the construction of ethnic and racial divisions in Australia and Britain’, in R.Nile (ed.), Immigration and the Politics of Ethnicity and Race in Australia and Britain. Canberra: Bureau of Immigration.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1992a) ‘Jewish fundamentalism and women's empowerment’, in G.Sahgal and N.Yuval-Davis (eds), Refusing Holy Orders: Women and Fundamentalism in Britain. London: Verso, pp. 198–226.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1992b) ‘Multi-culturalism, fundamentalism and women’, in J.Donald and A.Rattansi (eds), Race, Culture and Difference. London: Sage.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1993) ‘Gender and nation’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16(4): 621–32.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1994a) ‘Identity politics and women's ethnicity’, in V.M.Moghadam (Ed.). Identity Politics and Women. Boulder, CO: West view Press.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira (1994b) ‘Women, ethnicity and empowerment’, in K. Bhavnani and A. Phoenix (eds), Shifting Identities, Shifting Racisms, special issue of Feminism and Psychology, 4(1): 179–98.
    Yuval-Davis, Nira and Anthias, Floya (eds) (1989) Woman-Nation-State. London: Macmillan.
    Zajovic, Stasa (ed.) (1994) Women for Peace. Belgrade: Women In Black.
    Zerai, Worku (1994) ‘Women in the Eritrean military’. Unpublished project for a course Gender and Nation. Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.
    Zubaida, S. (1989) ‘Nations: old and new. Comments on Anthony D. Smith's “The myth of the ‘modern nation’ and the myths of nations’”. Paper presented at the Anthropology Seminar Series, University College, London.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website