Writers Read Better: Narrative: 50+ Paired Lessons That Turn Writing Craft Work Into Powerful Genre Reading


M. Colleen Cruz

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Lessons for Generating Story: Envisioning Characters and Settings

    Part 2: Lessons for Drafting a Narrative, Following Plot, and Finding Significance

    Part 3: Lessons for Revising for Meaning and Significance: Analysis and Critique

    Part 4: Lessons for Perfecting the Prose and Purpose: Deep Interpretation

  • Copyright

    What Your Colleagues Are Saying . . .

    I loved Colleen’s last Writers Read Better book, and I’m enthusiastic about this sibling book! Who better to trust for narrative writing and reading advice than a YA author, leader of advanced writing groups, and creator of countless versions of narrative Units of Study. I’m inspired not only to try these lessons with children, but also to use them myself to improve my own narrative writing. This book’s paired lessons make sense while also feeling unique; while we may know it makes sense to pair reading and writing lessons, getting down to brass tacks of which lessons and in which order can sometimes feel challenging. Thank you, Colleen, for this practical and wise book!

    —Jen Serravallo
    Author of The Reading Strategies Book and
    The Writing Strategies Book

    In this brilliant second book in her Writers Read Better series, Colleen Cruz teaches us how to match lessons about writing narrative with lessons about reading narrative, deepening students’ understanding of this important mode of writing. There’s nothing like it in the professional literature.

    —Carl Anderson
    Author of How’s It Going? and
    A Teacher’s Guide to Writing Conferences

    As a child, I was an intuitive writer and a reluctant reader. Though I did eventually become a lifelong reader, Colleen Cruz’s approach to teaching reading through writing would have started me on the road to meaningful reading much sooner. What a gift that would have been, and what a gift her book is to teachers and students alike who will be opened to the written word through writing words. Even after forty years and over ninety books as a professional writer, I learned a lot about writing in these pages and feel enriched as a reader as well. Thank you, Colleen!

    —James Howe
    Author of Bunnicula and The Misfits

    When reading and writing are taught as reciprocal processes, students’ understanding of both is enhanced. In this book, Colleen Cruz demonstrates how teaching students lessons first as writers, and later as readers, provides them with an insider’s perspective into how these processes work together. In this book filled with detailed lessons, busy teachers will discover a wealth of fresh ideas they may use as a complement to current language arts units and content work or to create their own units of study. This is Cruz doing what she does best: taking the complex and making it simple and doable. This one is a keeper.

    —Lisa Eickholdt
    Author of Learning from Classmates: Using Students’ Writing as Mentor Texts

    Colleen Cruz has a way of making the most sophisticated reading and writing work an absolutely attainable goal. Her lessons feel profound, complex, and authentic, and at the same time simple, clear, and accessible. Perhaps it is Colleen’s combination of wisdom, humanity, and intelligence, or perhaps it is her practical experience in countless classrooms around the globe. Whatever the reason, this book, like all of Colleen’s work, presents a vision for the kind of interconnected writing and reading lives that we all dream of for our students, and offers step-by-step work that will reduce lesson prepping time by half, all while taking our kids further than we thought possible.

    —Kate Roberts
    Author and Literacy Consultant

    As she did in Writers Read Better: Nonfiction, Colleen Cruz again distills her years of teaching and coaching into clear companion lessons that demonstrate an integrated approach to language arts instruction. Moreover, she brings digital writing into conversation with workshop practices, helping writers produce texts that are meant to be read—and experienced—on screen, all the while helping readers learn how to interact with their devices in productive ways. Recognizing that we live in a media-rich world, and that we need to teach our students everything from word processing to digital storytelling, Cruz’s Writers Read Better: Narrative continues to provide insight into the contemporary reading and writing workshop.

    —Troy Hicks
    Professor of English and Education
    Central Michigan University


    For the Wednesday Night Writing Group: Barbara, Connie, Kerri, Sarah, and Australia. Your dedication to the agony and triumphs of writing, paired with your admiration and passion for reading, is only rivaled by your faith in the process.

    List of Videos

    • Video 1
    • Lesson 11: Writing: Deciding When to Summarize
    • Video 2
    • Lesson 11: Reading: Summarizing Text to Check for Comprehension
    • Video 3
    • Lesson 17: Writing: Compelling Stories Thrive on Conflict Crafted by Authors
    • Video 4
    • Lesson 17: Reading: Identifying the Scenes That Point to Conflict in a Story

    Solutions at a Glance

    If you want to address this common reading challenge . . .

    First, teach this writing lesson . . .

    Then this paired reading lesson . . .

    Habits and behaviors

    • Lesson 9: Draft Fast to Create Energy
    • Lesson 20: Increasing Suspense Through Revision
    • Lesson 9: Reading Voluminously to Build Momentum
    • Lesson 20: Spotting Moves Authors Use to Build Suspense Helps Readers Make Predictions

    Literal comprehension

    • Part 1 Digital Writing: Apps and Tools to Help Keep Track of Story Ideas
    • Lesson 11: Deciding When to Summarize
    • Lesson 12: Research for Personal Writing
    • Part 1 Digital Reading: Reading Stories Digitally Requires Readers to Purposefully Set Themselves up to Reread
    • Lesson 11: Summarizing Text to Check for Comprehension
    • Lesson 12: Noting When a Writer Uses Research or Artifacts


    • Lesson 5: Letting Characters and Settings Lead Us to Story
    • Lesson 17: Compelling Stories Thrive on Conflict
    • Lesson 5: Following the Path of a Story to Understand Other Elements
    • Lesson 17: Identifying the Scenes That Point to Conflict in a Story

    Text structure

    • Lesson 8: Revising the Arc to Match the Meaning
    • Lesson 24: Designing Beginnings and Endings that Entice and Linger
    • Lesson 8: Connecting the Shape of the Plot to the Theme
    • Lesson 24: Savor Beginnings and Endings


    • Lesson 4: Maps, Photographs, and Songs as Tools for Setting Creation
    • Lesson 7: Studying Places for Stories to Explore
    • Lesson 18: Craft Settings That Connect With Characters’ Emotions
    • Lesson 4: Connecting Setting to Meaning
    • Lesson 7: Making the Connection Between Place and an Author’s Message
    • Lesson 18: Noticing a Relationship Between Setting and Character


    • Lesson 2: Flaws and Quirks for Character Development
    • Lesson 3: Finding Freedom in Familiar Character Types
    • Lesson 21: Craft Dialogue to Match Character Personality and Uniqueness
    • Lesson 2: Studying Flaws to Seek Deeper Meaning
    • Lesson 3: Studying Flaws to Seek Deeper Meaning
    • Lesson 21: Dialogue Gives Insights Into Characters


    • Lesson 22: The Narrator’s Voice Makes Perspective Clear
    • Lesson 27: Choosing and Smoothing Tense
    • Lesson 28: The Many Purposes of Narrative Paragraphs
    • Lesson 22: The Narrator’s Voice Sets up a Reader’s Inferences and Interpretations
    • Lesson 27: Looking to Tense for Meaning
    • Lesson 28: Reading Narrative Paragraphs on Surface and Inferential Levels


    • Lesson 25: Fewer Words Can Make More Impact
    • Lesson 26: Using Symbolism to Give Readers Direction
    • Lesson 25: Considering Words Used and Not Used When Interpreting
    • Lesson 26: Interpreting Symbols in Stories—When Everything Can Have Meaning

    Lesson or message

    • Lesson 6: Finding Important Ideas in the Most Personal Pieces of Our Lives
    • Lesson 29: Using Tools to Make Smart Spelling Decisions
    • Lesson 6: Focusing on the Details of a Text to Uncover Bigger Notions
    • Lesson 29: Knowing an Author Carefully Chooses Words Helps Readers Develop Deeper Understanding


    • Lesson 10: Drafting Stand-Alone Scenes
    • Lesson 19: Stories Extend and Elaborate on Larger Ideas
    • Lesson 23: Knowing the Significance of a Personal Story Can Help Writers to Foreshadow
    • Lesson 10: Studying One Scene for Larger Understanding
    • Lesson 19: Tracking the Weight of a Story
    • Lesson 23: Identifying Foreshadowing in a Story to Help Discover Theme

    Author’s purpose

    • Lesson 1: Write Our Truest Selves
    • Lesson 13: Drafting With Truth in Mind, Leaving Space for Facts
    • Lesson 1: Characters Offer Clues to Authors’ Selves
    • Lesson 13: Deciphering an Author’s Truth and Perspective

    Critical thinking

    • Lesson 14: Drafting With Perspective in Mind
    • Part 3 Digital Writing: Revising Digitally Allows for Powerful Peer Feedback
    • Lesson 30: Making Publishing Decisions Based on the Intended Audience
    • Lesson 14: Considering the Author’s Choice of Perspective and Its Effects
    • Part 3 Digital Reading: Other Readers Can Give New Perspectives
    • Lesson 30: Judging the Effectiveness of an Author’s Decisions

    Strategy flexibility

    • Lesson 15: Research Makes Fiction Believable
    • Part 2 Digital Writing: Choosing the Best Platform for Your Story
    • Lesson 15: Researching Outside a Text Can Open New Interpretations
    • Part 2 Digital Reading: The Platform Affects the Way You Interact With a Story

    Response to texts

    • Lesson 16: Exploring Deeper Meaning in Drafts to Begin Revision
    • Part 4 Digital Writing: Using Digital Tools to Call Attention to Theme
    • Lesson 16: Identifying an Author’s Deeper Meaning Through Rereading and Writing
    • Part 4 Digital Reading: Looking Across Highlights, Bookmarks, and Notes to Help Identify Unifying Themes


    Finishing this book so close to the release of the last one has made writing these acknowledgments particularly challenging. There are so many people for whom I still feel such intense gratitude from the last book that it is difficult to not just write ditto and call it a day.

    That said, I still owe so many people gigantic thank-yous for this book and the last.

    As always, my first thank-you goes to my friend and mentor Lucy Calkins, whose unwavering support, balanced with brutal honesty, has allowed me to do things I could never have imagined possible. I’d also like to thank Laurie Pessah for her wry jokes and constant encouragement, Amanda Hartman for her constant realness, and Mary Ehrenworth for her enthusiasm.

    I’d also like to thank the entire Teachers College Reading and Writing Project team. There’s not a day that goes by that I don’t realize how lucky I am to work among some of the most brilliant, dedicated, and supportive educators in the world. I’d like to especially thank Hareem Atif Khan for giving me undeserved pep talks, Cheryl Tyler for helping talk through the challenges schools face, Jennifer Kean for helping me stay focused on accessibility, Cornelius Minor for commiserating with me over the book–family balance, Shana Frazin for checking in on me, and Brooke Gellar for reminding me that things could always be worse.

    I need to thank three educator-friends who have been with me every step of the way. Thank you to Kate Roberts for talking through the development of this book during several car rides and playdates in my living room. Thank you to Maggie Roberts for being a constant sounding board when trouble came up. Thank you to Jennifer Serravallo for being the educational sparring partner and constant support I didn’t know I needed.

    I owe a huge debt of thanks to the teachers, administrators, and schools who piloted this work from its earliest to last stages. In particular, P.S. 116, P.S. 295, P.S. 18, the Springs School, Hewlett Elementary, the American School in Paris, and Roosevelt Elementary. A huge personal thank-you to the incredible individual pilot teachers and administrators from across the world (literally), who either taught the lessons from the book or allowed me to teach the lessons in their classrooms, collected student work, and allowed photography and video recording, particularly Christina Nosek, Ryan Scala, Tracey Frazier, Owen McCormack, Kerri Hook, Joseph Teague, Ali Gabriele, Stephanie Dickinson, Debra Kojima, and Tracy Shuckhart.

    I am especially grateful to the group of people this book is dedicated to: my Wednesday Night Writing Group. We’ve been meeting in my living room at least twice a month for over a decade. This group of dedicated writers and readers has shared their writing, book recommendations, and lives with me in ways that have made the work of this book so much richer and more grounded than it could ever have been without them.

    Thank you to the entire Corwin team. The journey for this series has been an adventurous one. But I am grateful for the steady support and unending positivity of this book’s team. I am thankful to Lisa Leudeke for her belief in me and this series. Thank you to Wendy Murray for ushering it through its beginning stages. I feel especially grateful for my personal fixer, Tori Bachman, who took each of the disasters that had befallen this book, big and small, in stride and made the final stages of the process joyful. Thank you to Brian Grimm and Deena Meyer, for helping me imagine ways to ensure this book gets into the hands of the right audience. I’d also like to thank Mark Bast, Amy Schroller, Nicole Shade, and Sharon Wu, without whom this book would not exist, for dealing with the most annoying nitty-gritty aspects of this book.

    A ginormous thank-you to my family, who were most directly affected by the creation of this book during a very trying year for our family. I need to thank my mom, whose constant encouragement and belief in time, space, and the power of listening were instrumental to my becoming a writer. I am thankful to my dad for reminding us daily that a life without projects is no kind of life. I am grateful to Nico for insisting that I come out of my office and play every day. I am thankful to Sam for asking me how my writing is going and then waiting a beat before telling me about his own latest project. I am particularly indebted to Nadine, whose constant support of my passion for education and writing is only rivaled by her patience for my book addiction (made more heroic when you know the size of our Brooklyn apartment). She is also responsible for the beautiful photographs and videos that ground this book in the very real world of classrooms and kids.

    And finally, I must thank you, the readers who made the first book in this series, Writers Read Better: Nonfiction, such a success and have trusted me enough to read this one. I know I am not the first author who finishes a book with worry in her heart. But the incredible outpouring of support and feedback I have received since the first book came out made finishing this one a joyful affair. My greatest wish is that this book will prove itself worthy of your trust.

  • Resources

    Children’s and Young Adult Personal and Nonfiction Narratives

    Life Doesn’t Frighten Me (2018) by Maya Angelou

    Fred Korematsu Speaks Up (2017) by Laura Atkins and Stan Yogi

    El Deafo (2014) by Cece Bell

    I Dissent: Ruth Bader Ginsburg Makes Her Mark (2016) by Debbie Levy

    Your Moon, My Moon (2011) by Patricia MacLachlan

    A Boy and a Jaguar (2014) by Alan Rabonowitz

    Knucklehead (2008) by Jon Scieszka

    Balloons Over Broadway: The True Story of the Puppeteer of the Macy’s Parade (2011) by Melissa Sweet

    This Is the Rope: A Story from the Great Migration (2013) by Jacqueline Woodson

    Genre-Specific Children’s and Young Adult Literature
    Realistic Fiction

    The Pain and the Great One (1984) by Judy Blume

    Fly Away Home (1993) by Eve Bunting

    How to Lose All Your Friends (1998) by Nancy Carlson

    Last Stop on Market Street (2015) by Matt de la Peña

    The Vanderbeekers of 141st Street (2017) by Karina Yan Glasser

    The Outsiders (1967) by S. E. Hinton

    13: Thirteen Stories that Capture the Agony and the Ecstasy of Being Thirteen (2006) edited by James Howe

    Ting & Ling: Not Exactly the Same! (2010) by Grace Lin

    In the Footsteps of Crazy Horse (2015) by Joseph Marshall

    When the Shadbush Blooms (2007) by Carla Messinger

    The Turtle of Oman (2016) by Naomi Shihab Nye

    Flying Lessons & Other Stories (2018) edited by Ellen Oh

    The First Rule of Punk (2017) by Celia Pérez

    Undocumented: A Worker’s Fight (2018) by Duncan Tonatiuh

    Each Kindness (2012) by Jacqueline Woodson

    Visiting Day (2002) by Jacqueline Woodson

    Historical Fiction

    Rebound (2018) by Kwame Alexander

    The Birchbark House (2002) by Louise Erdrich

    Rescue on the Outer Banks (2002) by Candice Ransom

    The Houdini Box (2008) by Brian Selznick

    Crossing Bok Chitto (2008) by Tim Tingle

    Coming on Home Soon (2004) by Jacqueline Woodson


    Children of Blood and Bone (2018) by Tomi Adeyemi

    The Wolves in the Walls (2005) by Neil Gaiman

    Fortunately, the Milk (2014) by Neil Gaiman

    Bunnicula (2006) by James Howe

    Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy Tales (2003) translated by R. P. Keigwin

    Where the Mountain Meets the Moon (2009) by Grace Lin

    Dog Man (comic book series) by Dav Pilkey

    The Dark (2013) by Lemony Snicket

    Foiled (2010) by Jane Yolen


    The Rooster Who Would Not Be Quiet (2017) by Carmen Agra Deedy

    If You Give a Pig a Pancake (1998) by Laura Numeroff

    Creepy Carrots (2013) by Aaron Reynolds

    After the Fall (2017) by Dan Santat

    Louis I: King of the Sheep (2015) by Oliver Tallec

    Digital Resources

    Author Jacqueline Woodson’s website where she discusses writing: Visiting Day: www.jacquelinewoodson.com/visiting-day

    Author Jon Scieszka’s website where he discusses the inspiration for the stories in Knucklehead: www.jsworldwide.com/yeah_he_wrote_em.html

    Author Grace Lin shares a video clip from an interview where she discusses not seeing much Chinese culture in books when she was growing up: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3nYTr9jKgI

    An interview with Jessie Sima, author of Not Quite Narwhal: www.allthewonders.com/books/book-cover-premiere-not-quite-narwhal

    Author Holly McGhee, author of Come with Me, discusses how she came to write the book: www.hollymcghee.com/story-behind-come

    Last Shot, a short film: www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYCFxvU-Lzg

    The trailer for the film Hugo: www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjSNBP4P9RU

    A video clip of a modular home being built: www.youtube.com/watch?v=KdTxg2upuGg

    A short video, Bodega Cats in Their Own Words: Sheeba and Victoria: www.wnyc.org/story/bodega-cats-their-own-words

    The short film The Red Balloon or Le Balon Rouge: https://archive.org/details/LeBallonRougetheRedBalloon

    Home with lots of books: http://creativehouses.tumblr.com/post/119780209212/living-room-book-shelves-by-tom-borowski

    Home with lots of art: www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/property/buying-selling-moving/9870273/Homes-with-amazing-art-studios.html?frame=2481076

    Home with lots of bikes: http://brittanickel.tumblr.com/post/39318882574

    Home with lots of dolls: http://hookedonhouses.net/2010/06/29/putting-your-house-on-the-market-put-your-dolls-away

    The short film Dust Buddies: www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZ6eeAjgSZI

    The short film The Last Knit: https://vimeo.com/75471854

    The short film Red Kite: www.youtube.com/watch?v=NYHyN9cAnc0

    References and Further Reading

    Allington, R. (2012). What really matters for struggling readers: Designing research-based programs (
    ed.). New York: Pearson.
    Atwell, N. (2014). In the middle: A lifetime of learning about writing, reading, and adolescents (
    ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Bomer, K. (2010). Hidden gems: Naming and teaching from the brilliance of every student’s writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Bonyadi, A. (2014, May). Perceptions of students towards self-selected and teacher-assigned topics in EFL writing. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 385391.
    Bonzo, J. (2008, December). To assign a topic or not: Observing fluency and complexity in intermediate foreign language writing. Foreign Language Annals, 722735.
    Burns, P. C., Roe, B. D., & Ross, E. P. (1992). Teaching reading in today’s elementary schools (
    ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Burroway, J. (2014). Writing fiction: A guide to narrative craft. New York: Pearson.
    Calkins, L. M. (1983). Lessons from a child: On the teaching and learning of writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Calkins, L. M. (1994). The art of teaching writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Calkins, L. M. (2000). The art of teaching reading. New York: Pearson
    Calkins, L. (2013). Units of study for teaching writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Calkins, L. M. (2015). Units of study for teaching reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Chew, C. (1985). Instruction can link reading and writing. In J. Hansen, T. Newkirk, & D. Graves (Eds.), Breaking ground: Teachers relate reading and writing in the elementary classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Clark, R. (2008). Writing tools: 50 essential strategies for every writer. New York: Little, Brown.
    Clay, M. (1991). Becoming literate: The construction of inner control. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Clay, M. (2010). Concepts about print. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Eickholdt, L. (2015). Learning from classmates: Using students’ writing as mentor texts. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Fletcher, R., & Portalupi, J. (2007). Craft lessons. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    Fountas, I., & Pinnell, G. (2001). Guiding readers and writers: Teaching comprehension, genre, and content literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Gardner, J. (1991). The art of fiction: Notes on craft for young writers. New York: Random House.
    Gentry, J. R., & Peha, S. (2013). 5 ways to motivate young writers and readers. Psychology Today. Retrieved from www.psychologytoday.com/blog/raising-readers-writers-and-spellers/201310/5-ways-motivate-young-writers-and-readers.
    Graham, S., & Hebert, M. A. (2010). Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can improve reading. A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved from www.carnegie.org/media/filer_public/9d/e2/9de20604-a055-42da-bc00-77da949b29d7/ccny_report_2010_writing.pdf.
    Graves, D. (1983). Writing: Teachers & children at work. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Graves, D. (1994). A fresh look at writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Harvey, S. (1998). Nonfiction matters: Reading, writing, and research in grades 3–8. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2017). Strategies that work (
    ed.). Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    Hicks, T. (2013) Crafting digital writing: Composing texts across media and genres. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Hornsby, D., Sukarna, D., & Parry, J. (1988). Read on: A conference approach to reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    King, S. (2010). On writing: A memoir of the craft. New York: Scribner.
    Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Laminack, L., & Wadsworth, R. (2015). Writers ARE readers: Flipping reading instruction into writing opportunities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Le Guin, U. (1998). Steering the craft: A twenty-first century guide to sailing the sea of story. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
    Lerner, B. (2010). The forest for the tree. New York: Penguin Putnam.
    Lukeman, N. (2002). The plot thickens: 8 ways to bring fiction to life. New York: St. Martin’s.
    Marchetti, A., & O’Dell, R. (2015). Writing with mentors. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Miller, B., & Paola, S. (2012). Tell it slant: Creating, refining and publishing creative nonfiction. New York: McGraw Hill.
    Muhtaris, K., & Ziemke, K. (2015). Amplify: Digital teaching and learning in the K–6 classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Murray, D. (2003). A writer teaches writing. Boston: Heinle.
    Murray, D. (2013). The craft of revision (
    ed.). Boston: Wadsworth.
    Nichols, M. (2006). Comprehension through conversation: The power of purposeful talk in the reading workshop classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Portalupi, J., & Fletcher, R. (2001). Nonfiction craft lessons. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    Ray, K. W. (1999). Wondrous words: Writers and writing in the elementary classroom. Urbana, IL: NCTE.
    Serravallo, J. (2015). The reading strategies book: Your everything guide to developing skilled readers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Serravallo, J. (2017). The writing strategies book: Your everything guide to developing skilled writers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Shubitz, S. (2016). Craft moves. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    Wilde, S. (2007). Spelling strategies and patterns. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Wilde, S. (2012). Funner grammar: Fresh ways to teach usage, language, & writing conventions. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Wolf, M. (2018). Reader, come home: The reading brain in a digital world. New York: HarperCollins.

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