Packed with examples from various subjects and grades, this guide walks readers through every step of the formative assessment process, from articulating learning goals to providing quality feedback.

Formative Feedback for Learning

Formative feedback for learning

When effectively provided, feedback is an immensely powerful engine for improving learning. In their recent review of 196 studies reporting 6,972 effect sizes, Hattie and Timperley (2007) report that feedback had an average effect size of 0.79 standard deviations—an effect greater than student prior cognitive ability, socioeconomic background, and reduced class size (p. 83).

In the previous chapter, we focused on formative feedback for teaching—feedback teachers get from assessment evidence, which they use to make adjustments to teaching to keep learning moving forward. In this chapter, we will look at feedback that is provided directly to the learner. Figure 6.1 shows that feedback feeds forward into planning modifications in learning as well as in teaching.

Two definitions of feedback provide ...

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