Packed with examples from various subjects and grades, this guide walks readers through every step of the formative assessment process, from articulating learning goals to providing quality feedback.

It All Depends on What the Data Tell You

It all depends on what the data tell you

“Cheshire …,” Alice began rather timidly, “would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here?” “That all depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cat.

—Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Perhaps the Cheshire Cat's answer to Alice's question should have been, “That all depends a good deal on what the data tell you.” According to Merriam-Webster's Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary (2007), the word data is defined as “factual information (as measurement or statistics) used as a basis for reasoning, discussion or calculation” (p. 316). Teachers use different sources of assessment data to “reason” about student learning, to “discuss” what learning ...

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