Formative Assessment for Teaching & Learning


Bill Boyle & Marie Charles

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    About the Authors

    Professor Bill Boyle holds the Chair of Educational Assessment and is Director of the Centre for Formative Assessment Studies(CFAS) in the School of Education at the University of Manchester, UK. The CFAS is the oldest research centre (founded 1988) in the UK for supporting teachers, teacher trainers, schools and policy makers in using formative teaching, learning and assessment and is involved in supporting the development of formative assessment in the UK and in many countries around the globe. Professor Boyle and his co-author, Marie Charles, publish their research work in academic and practitioner journals, present at international conferences and workshops, and design and support developments in formative teaching, learning and assessment. Currently, they are working with colleagues in Russia, Armenia, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the USA on understanding, training and using formative strategies for more effective teaching and learning.

    Marie Charles is a teacher, formative assessment researcher and consultant and an author whose work demonstrates that she believes passionately in the learner (rather than measurement or grading) being at the centre of the education process – a belief that she carries into her classroom practice.


    We would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations who have kindly made case study and other material available for use in this book:

    Robin Alexander

    Jodie Hunter

    Taylor & Francis (

  • References

    AdamsS., AlexanderE., DrummondM.J., & MoylesJ. (2004) Inside the Foundation Stage: Recreating the Reception Year. Final Report. Commissioned and published by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers.
    AlexanderR.J., WillcocksJ., KinderK., & NelsonN. (1995) Versions of Primary Education. London & New York: Routledge.
    AlexanderR.J. (1997a) Policy and Practice in Primary Education: Local initiative, National agenda. London: Routledge.
    AlexanderR.J. (2001) Culture and Pedagogy: International Comparisons in Primary Education. Oxford: Blackwell.
    AlexanderR.J. (2004) Still no pedagogy? Principle, pragmatism and compliance in primary education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(1), pp. 733.
    AlexanderR.J. (2008a) Education for All: The Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity. April.
    AlexanderR.J. (2008b) Essays on pedagogy. London: Routledge.
    AlexanderR.J. (2010) Speaking but not listening? Accountable talk in an unaccountable context. Literacy, 44(3), pp. 10311.
    AllalL. (1988) Vers un elargissement de la pedagogie de maîtrise: processus de regulation interactive, retroactive et proactive. In HubermanM. (ed.) Assurer la réussite des apprentissages scolaires? Les propositions de la pédagogie de maîtrise. Neuchatel: Delachaux et Niestlé, pp. 86126.
    AllalL., & Saada-RobertM. (1992) La Métacognition: Cadre conceptual pour l'étude des régulations en situation scolaire. Archive de psychologie, 60, pp. 26596.
    AllalL. (1993) Regulations metacognitives. In AllalL., BainD., & PerrenoudP. (eds) L'evaluation formative et didactique du francais. Neuchatel: Delachaux et Niestlé, pp. 8198.
    AllalL., & DucreyG.P. (2000) Assessment of - or in - the zone of proximal development. Learning and Instruction, 10(2), pp. 13752.
    AllalL. (2001) Situated cognition and learning: from conceptual frameworks to classroom investigations. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Bildungs wissenschaften, 23(3) pp. 40722.
    AllalL., & LopezM. (2005) Formative Assessment of Learning: A Review of Publications in French. Paris: OECD.
    ApplebeeA. (1978) The Child's Concept of Story: Ages Two to Seventeen. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    Assessment Reform Group (ARG) (2003) Assessment for Learning: 10 Principles. London: Assessment Reform Group.
    Assessment Reform Group (ARG) (2006) The Role of Teachers in the Assessment of Learning. ARG - supported by the Nuffield Foundation. Newcastle Document Services.
    AshD., & LevittK. (2003) Working within the zone of proximal development: Formative assessment as a professional development. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14(1), pp. 2348.
    AstolfiJ.P. (1997) L'erreur, un outil pour enseigner. Paris: ESF Editeur.
    AudibertS. (1980) En d'autres mots … l'evaluation des apprentissages!, Mesure et evaluation en education, 3, pp. 5964.
    AyersW.C. (2008) Handbook of Social Justice in Education. New York: Routledge.
    BainD. (1988) L'evaluation formative faut fausse route, Mesure et evaluation en education, 10, pp. 2332.
    BakhtinM.N. (1986) Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    BallS.J. (1994) Education Reform: A Critical and Post-Structural Approach. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    BallD.L., ThamesM., & PhelpsG. (2008) Content knowledge for teaching: What makes it special? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), pp. 389407.
    BallD.L., & ForzaniF.M. (2011) Teaching skillful teaching. The Effective Educator, 68(4): pp. 4046.
    BarberM. (2001) The very big picture. School Effectiveness and Improvement, 12(2), pp. 21328.
    BarberM. (2002) From Good to Great: Large-scale Reform in England. Paper presented at Futures of Education Conference, 23 April, Zurich, Switzerland.
    BarkamJ., SharpeR., & MillerJ. (2008) The National Strategies: Support or Straitjacket? New Redland Papers.
    BeardR. (2000) Research and the national literacy strategy. Oxford Review of Education, 26(3&4), pp. 42136.
    BellB., & CowieB. (2001) The characteristics of formative assessment in science education. Science Education, 85, pp. 53653.
    BeckerH.S. (1963) Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. London: Free Press of Glencoe.
    BeckerH.J., & EpsteinJ.L. (1982) Parent involvement: A survey of teacher practices. Elementary School Journal, 83(2), pp. 85102.
    BennettR.E. (2011) Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in Education, 18(1), pp. 525.
    BerningerV., AbbottR., & JonesJ. (2006) Early development of language by hand: Composing, reading, listening and speaking connections; three letter-writing modes and fast mapping in spelling. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29(1), pp. 6192.
    BernsteinB. (1962a) Linguistic codes, hesitation phenomena and intelligence. Journal of Language & Speech, 5(1), pp. 3146.
    BernsteinB. (1962b) Social Class, linguistic codes and grammatical elements. Language and Speech, 5(4), pp 22140.
    BernsteinB. (1973) Class, Codes and Control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    BernsteinB. (1996) Pedgogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique. London: Taylor & Francis.
    BirdwhistellR.L. (1970) Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
    BlatchfordP., BainesE., KutnickP., & MartinC. (2001) Classroom Contexts: Connections between class size and within class grouping. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, pp. 283302.
    BlatchfordP., BassettP., BrownP., MartinC., RussellA., & WebsterR. (2009) Deployment and Impact of Support Staff Project (DISS). Research Brief Department for Children, Schools & Families, August, RB 148.
    BlatchfordP., BassettP., BrownP., MartinC., RussellA., & WebsterR. (2010) The Characteristics of Support Staff and Preparedness. DISS project briefing note 2. Department for Education (SRF 11/2010).
    BlatchfordP. KutnickP., & BainesE. (2007) Pupil Grouping for Learning in Classrooms: Results from the UK SPRinG study. Paper presented at Symposium ‘International Perspectives on Effective Groupwork: Theory, Evidence & Implications’, AERA Annual Meeting, Chicago.
    BloomA. (2006) Children's progress to dictate lessons. Times Educational Supplement, 20 October, p. 8.
    BloomB.S. (1988) Helping all children learn in elementary school and beyond. Principal, 67(4), pp. 1217.
    BloteA.W. (1995) Students' self-concept in relation to perceived differential teacher treatment. Learning and Instruction, 5(3), pp. 22136.
    BoalerJ. (2005) The ‘psychological prison’ from which they never escaped: The role of ability grouping in reproducing social class inequities. Forum, 47(2&3), pp. 13544.
    BondL., SmithR., BakerW.K., & HattieJ.A. (2000) Certification System of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards: A Construct and Consequential Validity Study. Washington, DC: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.
    BourdieuP. (1966) Condition de classe et position de classe. Archives européennes de sociologie, VII(2), pp. 20123.
    BourdieuP., & PasseronJ.C. (1970a) Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. London: Sage Publications.
    BourdieuP., & PasseronJ.C. (1970b) La reproduction: éléments pour un théorie du système d'ensiegnement. Paris: Minuit.
    BourkeL., & AdamsA.M. (2010) Cognitive constraints and the early learning goals in writing. Journal of Research in Reading, 33(1), pp. 94110.
    BoyleB. (2008) Testing to the limits - a very ‘accountable’ 20-year period in primary education in England. Primary Leadership Today, 2(13), pp. 2023.
    BoyleB., & BraggJ. (2006), A curriculum without foundation. British Educational Research Journal, 32(4), pp. 56982.
    BoyleB., & CharlesM. (2007) Taking bricks from the wall: how the revised framework is influencing planning across the globe. Primary Leadership Today, 2(9) pp. 268.
    BoyleB., and CharlesM. (2008) Are we doing it right? A review of the Assessment for Learning Strategy. Primary Leadership Today, 2(14), pp. 204.
    BoyleB., & CharlesM. (2009) Formative assessment of teaching and learning in primary classrooms. International Journal of Learner Diversity, 1(1), pp. 1734.
    BoyleB., & CharlesM. (2010) Leading learning through assessment for learning. School Leadership & Management, 30(3), pp. 285300.
    BoyleB., & CharlesM. (2011) Re-defining assessment: The struggle to ensure a balance between accountability and comparability based on a ‘testocracy’ and the development of humanistic individuals through assessment. Special issue of CADMO: An International Journal of Educational Research, 19(1), pp. 5565.
    BoyleB., & CharlesM. (2012) David, Mr Bear and Bernstein: Searching for an equitable pedagogy through guided group work. The Curriculum Journal, 23(1), pp. 11733.
    BoyleB., LamprianouI., & BoyleT. (2005) A longitudinal study of teacher change: What makes professional development effective? Report of the second year of the study. Journal of School Improvement and School Effectiveness, 16(1), pp. 127.
    BradburyA. (2011) Rethinking assessment and inequality: The production of disparities in attainment in early years education. Journal of Education Policy, 26(5), pp. 65575.
    BreakwellG.M. (1983) Formulation and searches. In BreakwellG.M. (ed.) Threatened Identities. Chichester, UK: Wiley, pp. 326.
    BrehonyK.J. (2005) Primary schooling under New Labour. Oxford Review of Education, 31(1), pp. 2946.
    BrocknerJ. (1979) The effects of self-esteem, success-failure, and self-consciousness on task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(10), pp. 173241.
    BrownM., AskewM., BakerD., DenvirH., & MilletA. (1998) Is the National Numeracy Strategy Research-based. British Journal of Educational Studies, 46(4), pp. 36285.
    BurkardT. (2004) After the Literacy Hour. May the Best Plan Win! Centre for Policy Studies, March.
    ButlerD.L., & WinneP.H. (1995) Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), pp. 24581.
    ButlerR. (1988) Enhancing and undermining intrinsic motivation. The effects of task-involving and ego involving evaluation on interest and performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, pp. 114.
    CardinetJ. (1986) Evaluation scolaire et pratique. Bruxelles: De Boeck.
    CarlisleO., and JordanA. (2008) It works practice but will it work in theory. The theoretical underplanning of pedagogy. Web:
    CarrM. (2001) Assessment in Early Childhood Settings: Learning Stories. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
    ChevallardY. (1986) Vers une analyse didactique des faits d'evaluation. In de KetelJ-M (ed.) Evaluation: approche descriptif ou perscriptif? Bruxels: De Boeck, pp. 3159.
    Children and their Primary Schools. A report of the Central Advisory Council for Education (England - The Plowden Report) Volume 1, HMSO (1967).
    ChristieT., & BoyleB. (1991) A Guide to Teacher Assessment Packs A, B & C. London: Heinemann.
    ClarianaR.B., WagnerD., & Roher MurphyL.C. (2000) Applying a connectionist description of feedback timing. Educational Technology Research & Development, 48, pp. 511.
    CoffeyJ., HammerD., LevinD.M., & GrantT. (2011) The missing disciplinary substance of formative assessment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(10), pp. 110936.
    CornoL. (1993) The best laid plans. Educational Researcher, 22(2) pp. 1422.
    CovingtonM.V. (2000) Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: An integrative review. Annual Review Psychology, 51, pp. 171200.
    CowieB. (2005) Pupil commentary on assessment for learning. The Curriculum Journal, 16(2), pp. 13751.
    CowieJ., & RuddockH. (1988) Co-operative Group Work: An Overview. Volume 1. BP Educational Service: UK.
    CreswellJ.W. (2003) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    CrooksT. (1988) The impact of classroom evaluation practice on students. Review of Educational Research, 48, pp. 43881.
    CurtisA., & BaileyK.M. (2001) Picture your students talking: Using pictures in the language classroom. ESL Magazine, 4(4), pp. 1011.
    DaddsM. (2001) The politics of pedagogy. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 7(1), pp. 4358.
    DanzigA. (1995) Applications and distortions of Basil Bernstein's code. In SadovnikA.R. (ed.) Knowledge and Pedagogy: The Sociology of Basil Bernstein. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing, pp. 14570.
    DearingR. (1994) The National Curriculum and its Assessment. School Curriculum & Assessment Association.
    DeciE.L., KoestnerR., & RyanR.M. (1999) A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, pp. 62768.
    De WaalA. (2006). Times Educational Supplement.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2007) Improving Writing with a Focus on Guided Writing. London: DCSF.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (2008) The Early Years Foundation Stage. Setting the Standard for Learning, Development and Care for Children from Birth to Five. London: DCSF.
    Department for Education and Employment (1998a) The Implementation of the National Literacy Strategy: The Final Report of the Literacy Task Force. London: DfEE.
    Department for Education and Employment (1998b) The Implementation of the National Numeracy Strategy: The Final Report of the Numeracy Task Force. London: DfEE.
    Department for Education and Employment (1998c) The National Literacy Strategy: Framework for Teaching. London: DfEE.
    Department for Education and Employment (1999) The National Numeracy Strategy: Framework for Teaching Mathematics from Reception to Year 6. London: DfEE.
    Department for Education and Science (DES) (1975) A Language for Life. (The Bullock Report.) London: HMSO.
    Department for Education and Science (DES) Task Group on Assessment and Testing (1988) National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Testing: Three Supplementary Reports. London: DES.
    Department for Education and Science (1988b) Education Reform Act. London: HMSO.
    Department for Education and Skills (2003) Excellence and Enjoyment: A Strategy for Primary Schools. London: DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (2005) KEEP: Key Elements of Effective Practice. London: DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (2006) Revised Primary Framework. London: DfES.
    Deployment and Impact of Support Staff (DISS) (2003-2008) The Characteristics of Support Staff and Preparedness. DISS briefing note 2. BlatchfordP., BassettP., BrownP., MartinC., RussellA., & WebsterR. (2009) DCSF - RB 148.
    DepreeH., & IversenS. (1994) Early Literacy in the Classroom. Desoto, TX: Wright Group Publishing.
    DeweyJ. (1933) How we Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process. Boston: D.C. Health.
    DouglasM. (1992) Risk and Blame: Essays in Cultural Theory. Abingdon: Routledge.
    DukeN.K., & KaysJ. (1998) ‘Can I say once upon a time’? Kindergarten children developing knowledge of information book language. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13(2), pp. 295318.
    DunnK.E., & MulvenonS.W. (2009) A Critical Review of Research on FA: The Limited scientific Evidence of the impact of FA in Education. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 14(7), pp. 111.
    DunphyL. (2008) Developing pedagogy in infant classes in primary schools in Ireland. Learning from Research, 27(1), pp. 5570.
    DweckC.S., DavidsonW., NelsonS., & EnnaB. (1978) Sex differences in learned helplessness. II. The contingencies of evaluative feedback in the classroom and III. An experimental analysis. Developmental Psychology, 14(3), pp. 26876.
    EdwardsA. (2001) Researching Pedagogy: A sociocultural agenda. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 9, pp. 16186.
    EisnerE.W. (1985) Educational Imagination: On the Design and Evaluation of School Programs. New York: Macmillan.
    EkeR., & LeeJ. (2004) Pace and differentiation in the literacy hour: Some outcomes of an analysis of transcripts. The Curriculum Journal, 15(3), pp. 21931.
    EnglertC.S., BerryR., & DunsmoreK.L. (2001) A case study of the apprenticeship process: Another perspective on the apprentice and the scaffolding metaphor. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(2), pp. 15271.
    EnglertC.S., MariageT.B., & DunsmoreK. (2006) Tenets of Sociological Theory in Writing Instruction Research, pp. 20821.
    ErautM. (1994) Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence. London: Falmer Press.
    EricksonF. (1986) Qualitative methods on research on teaching. In WittrockM.C. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teaching. New York: Macmillan, pp. 11961.
    FisherR., & WilliamsM. (2000) Unlocking Literacy: A Guide for Teachers. London: David Fulton.
    FlowerL., HayesJ.R., CareyL., ShriverK., & StratmanJ. (1986) Detection diagnosis and the strategies of revision. College Composition & Communication, 37(1), pp. 1653.
    FookJ., WhiteS., & GardnerF. (2006) Critical Reflection in Health & Social Care. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    FoucaultM. (1975) Surveillir et punir: naissance de la prison. Paris: Gallimard.
    FreireP. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.
    GaltonM., & HargreavesL. (2009) Group Work: still a neglected art? Cambridge Journal of Education (39), pp. 16.
    GaltonM., HargreavesL., ComberC., WallD., & PellT. (1999) Changes in patterns of teacher interaction in primary classrooms: 1976-1996. British Educational Research Journal, 25(1), pp. 2337.
    GaltonM., SimonB., & CrollP. (1980) Inside the Primary Classroom. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    GammageP. (1986) Primary Education: Structure and Context. London: Harper and Row.
    GersonH., & BatemanE. (2010) Authority in an agency-centred, inquiry-based university calculus classroom. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 29(4), pp 195206.
    GiddensA. (1987) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    GippsC. (1994) Beyond Testing: Towards a Theory of Educational Assessment. London: Falmer Press.
    GippsC., BrownM., McCallunB., & McAllisterS. (1995) Intuition or Evidence. Buckinghamshire: Open University Press.
    GoodR. (2011) Formative use of assessment: it's a process, so let's say what we mean. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 16(3).
    GoouchK. (2008) Understanding playful pedagogies, play narratives and play spaces. Journal of Early Years Education, 28(1), pp. 93102.
    GorardS. (2010) Semius doubts about school effectiveness. British Educational Research Journal, 36(5), pp. 74566.
    GouldJ.S. (1981) Mismeasure of Man. New York: W.W. Norton.
    GrahamS., & HarrisK.R. (1989) Improving learning disabled students' skills at composing essays: Self-instructional strategy training. Exceptional Children, 56, pp. 20131.
    GrahamS., HarrisK.R., & MasonL. (2005). Improving the writing performance, knowledge, and self-efficacy of struggling young writers: The effects of self-regulated strategy development. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, pp. 20741.
    GrazianoK.G. (2008) Walk the Talk: Connecting critical pedagogy and practice in teacher education. Teaching Education, 19(2), pp. 15363.
    GreenS., & OatesT. (2007) How to Promote Educational Quality Through National Assessment Systems. Paper presented at the International Association for Educational Assessment, Annual Conference, Baku, Azerbaijan, September. University of Cambridge.
    GreenoJ., & GoldmanS. (eds) (1998) Thinking Practices in Mathematics and Science Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
    GuinierL. (2003) The Supreme Court, 2002 Term: Comment: Admissions Rituals as Political Acts: Guardians at the Gates of Our Democratic Ideals. Harvard Law Review, November 2003.
    GuinierL., & TorresG. (2003) The Miner's Canary: Enlisting Race, Resisting Power, Transforming Democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    GuthrieJ.T., & WigfieldA. (2000) Engagement and Motivation in Reading. In KamilM.L., MosenthalP.B., PearsonP.D., & BarrR. (eds) Handbook of Reading Research, Vol 3, pp. 40322.
    HabermanM. (1991) The pedagogy of poverty versus good teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(4), pp. 290294.
    HagerP., & HodgkinsonP. (2009) Moving beyond the metaphor of transfer of learning. BERJ, 35(4), pp. 61938.
    HallK., CollinsJ., BenjaminS., NindM., & SheehyK. (2004) Saturated models of pupildom: Assessment and inclusion/exclusion. British Educational Research Journal, 30(6), pp. 80117.
    HallK., & HardingA. (2002) Level descriptions and teacher assessment in England: Towards a community of practice. Educational Research, 44(1), pp. 115.
    HallamS., & IresonJ. (2003) Secondary school teachers' attitudes to and beliefs about ability grouping. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, pp. 34356.
    HallamS., IresonJ., & DaviesJ. (2004) Primary pupils' experiences of different types of grouping in school. British Journal of Educational Research, 30, pp. 51533.
    HammJ.V., & PerryM. (2002) Learning mathematics in first-grade classrooms: on whose authority? Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), pp. 12637.
    HarrisE.L. (1995) Toward a grid and group interpretation of school culture. Journal of School Leadership, 56(6), pp. 61746.
    HartleyD. (1993) Understanding the Nursery School. London: Cassell.
    HartleyD. (2002) Global influences on teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 28(3), pp. 78105.
    HartleyD. (2003) New economy, new pedagogy? Oxford Review of Education, 29(1), pp. 8194.
    HattieJ.A. (1992) Self-concept. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    HattieJ.A., BiggsJ., & PurdieN. (1996) Effects of learning skills intervention on student learning. A meta-analysis. Review of Research in Education, 66, pp. 99136.
    HattieJ., & TimperleyH. (2007) The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), pp. 81112.
    HayesJ., & FlowerL. (1986) Writing research and the writer. American Psychologist, 41, pp. 110613.
    HayesN. (2008) Teaching matters in early educational practice: The case for a nurturing pedagogy. Early Education and Development, 19(3), pp. 43040.
    HeritageM. (2011) Knowing what to do next: The hard part of formative assessment? Special issue of CADMO: An International Journal of Education Research, 19(1), pp. 6784.
    HodgesH. (2001) Overcoming a pedagogy of poverty. In ColeR.W. (ed) More Strategies for Educating Everybody's Children, pp. 19. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    HopkinsD. (1993) A Teacher's Guide to Classroom Research. Buckingham: Open University.
    HowardS.K. (2007) Teacher change: A preliminary exploration of teachers' risk-taking in the context of ICT integration. Journal of Australian Association for Research in Education, pp. 113.
    HowieE., SyS., FordL., & VincenteK.J. (2000) Human-computer interface design can reduce misperceptions of feedback. System Dynamics Review, 16(3), pp. 15171.
    HudsonJ.A., & ShapiroL.R. (1991) From knowing to telling … In McCabeA., & PetersonC. (eds) Developing Narrative Structure (Chapter 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
    HuittW.G., & CainS.C. (2005) An overview of the conative domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Available at:
    HunterJ. (2009) Developing a Productive Discourse Community in the Mathematics Classroom. In HunterR., BicknellB., & BurgessT. (eds) Crossing divides: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research group of Australasia (Vol 1) Palmerston, North NZ: MEDGA.
    JiaoqianB.M. (2004) Application of the skills of non-verbal communication in classroom teaching.
    JolliffeW. (2004) The National Literacy Strategy: Not Prescriptive Enough? Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Manchester, 16-18 September.
    KazemiE., FrankeM., & LampertM. (2009) Developing pedagogies in teacher education to support novice teachers' ability to enact ambitious instruction. In HunterR., BicknellB., & BurgessT. (eds) Crossing Divides: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Vol. 1. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, pp. 1129.
    KirbyP. (1996) Teacher questions during story-book reading: Who's building whose building. Literacy, 30(1), pp. 815.
    KlugerA.N., & DeNisiA. (1996) The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), pp. 25484.
    KulhaveyR.W., & WagnerW. (1993) Feedback in programmed instruction: Historical context and implication for practice. In DempseyJ.V., & SalesG.C. (eds), Interactive Instruction and Feedback. Englewood Cliffs: Education Technology.
    KulvaneyR.W., WhiteM.T., ToppB.W., ChanA.L., & AdamsJ. (1985) Feedback complexity and corrective efficiency. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 10, pp. 28591.
    KutnickP., BlatchfordP., & BainesE. (2002) Pupil grouping in primary school classrooms: Sites for learning and social pedagogy? British Educational Research Journal, 28(2), pp. 189208.
    LaveJ. (1991) Situating learning in communities of practice. In ResnickL.B., LevineJ.M., & TeasleyS.D. (eds) Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 6382.
    LemkeJ. (1990) Talking Science: Language Learning and Values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
    LopezG.M., & AllalL. (2007) Regulation des apprentissages en situation scolaire et en formation. Bruxelles: De Boeck.
    LuptonD. (1999) Introduction: Risk and sociocultural theory. In LuptonD. (ed.) Risk and sociocultural Theory: New Directions and Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 111.
    MacleodF., & GolbyM. (2003) Theories of learning and pedagogy: Issues for teacher development. Teacher Development, 7(3), pp. 34561.
    McAdamisS. (2001) Teachers tailor their instruction to meet a variety of student needs. Journal of Staff Development, 22(2) pp. 15.
    McCombsB.L., & MarzanoR.J. (1990) Putting the self in self-regulated learning: The self as agent in integrating skill and will. Educational Psychologist, 25(6), pp. 5169.
    McGeeL.M., & SchickendanzJ.A. (2007) Repeated read-alouds in preschool and kindergarten. The Reading Teacher, 60(8), pp. 74251.
    MahoneyJ.L., HextallI., & MenterI. (2004) Threshold assessment and performance management: Modernizing or masculinising teaching in England. Gender and Education, 16(2), pp. 13144.
    MakinL., & WhitemanP. (2006) Young children as active participants in the investigation of teaching and learning. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 14(1), pp. 3341.
    MarshJ., & MillardE. (2001) Words with pictures: The role of visual literacy in writing and its implications for schooling. Reading Literacy and Language, 35(92), pp. 5561.
    MartinL.E., SegravesS., ThackerM., and YoungL. (2005) The writing process: Three first grade teachers and their students refresh on what was learned. Reading Psychology, 26, pp. 23549.
    MasonR.A., & JustM.A. (2011) Differential Cortical Networks for Inferences Concerning People's Intentions Versus Physical Causality. Department of Psychology, Paper 416. Dietrich College of Humanities, USA.
    Matthews (1999) The Art of Childhood and Adolescence: The Construction of Meaning. London: The Falmer Press.
    MehanH.B. (1971) Accomplished understanding in educational settings. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, USA.
    MercerN. (2008) Talk and the development of reasoning and understanding. Human Development, 51(1), pp. 90100.
    MercerN., & DawesL. (2008) The value of exploratory talk. In MercerN., & HodgkinsonS. (eds) Exploring Talk in School. London: Sage.
    MeyerD.K., & TurnerJ.C. (2002) Discovering emotion in classroom motivation research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), pp. 10714.
    MeyerL., WardropJ., StahlS., & LinnR. (1994) Effects of reading storybooks aloud to children. Journal of Educational Research, 88, pp. 6985.
    Ministry of Education (1996) Te Whãriki Matauranga mo nga O Aotearoa. Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Ltd.
    MinstrellJ., & Van ZeeE.H. (2003) Using questioning to assess and foster student thinking. In AtkinJ.M., & CoffeyJ.E. (eds) Everyday Assessment in the Science Classroom. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association Press.
    MonteilJ.M., & HuguetP. (1999) Social Context and Cognitive Performance: Towards a Social Psychology of Cognition. Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.
    MonteilJ.M., & HuguetP. (2001) The social regulation of classroom performances: A theoretical outline. Social Psychology of Education, 4, pp. 35972.
    MorrissetteJ. (2011) Formative assessment: Revisiting the territory from the point of view of teachers. McGill Journal of Education, 46(2), pp. 24764.
    MossG. (2007) Lessons from the National Literacy Strategy. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the British Educational Research Association, September.
    Mottier LopezL., & AllalL. (2007) sociomathematical norms and the regulation of problem solving in the classroom. International Journal of Educational Research, 46, pp. 25265.
    MoylesJ. AdamsS., & MusgroveA. (2002) SPEEL: Study of Pedagogical Effectiveness in Early Years Learning. Department for Education & Skills. Research Report RR363.
    MurphyJ. (1980) Peace At Last. London: Walker Books.
    MyhillD. (2006) Talk, talk, talk: Teaching and learning in whole class discourse. Research Papers in Education, 21(1), pp. 1941.
    NewmanD., GriffinP., & ColeM. (1989) The Construction Zone: Working for cognitive change in school. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    NobesG., MooreD., MartinA., CliffordB., ButterworthG., PanayiotakiG., & SiegalM. (2003) Children's understanding of the earth in a multicultural community: Mental modes or fragments of knowledge? Developmental Science, 6(1), pp. 7285.
    NystrandM. (1997) Dialogic instruction: When recitation becomes conversation. In NystrandM., GamoranA., KachurR. & PrendergastC. (1997) Opening Dialogue: Understanding the Dynamics of Language and Learning in the English Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press, pp. 129.
    NystrandM., GamoranA., KachurR., & PrendergastC. (1997) Opening Dialogue: Understanding the Dynamics of Language and Learning in the English Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Office for Standards in Education (2004) Annual Report of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools. Ofsted: London.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2004) Lifelong Learning. Policy Brief, February. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2005) Formative assessment: Improving learning in secondary classrooms. Policy Brief, November. Paris: OECD.
    OsbornM., McNessE. & BroadfootP., with PollardA., & TriggsP. (2000) What Teachers Do: Changing Policy and Practice in Primary Education, Findings from the PACE Project. London: Continuum.
    ParisS.G., WixsonK.K., & PalincsarA.M. (1986) Instructional approaches to reading comprehension. In RothkoptE. (ed). Review of Research in Education. Wahington, DC: American Educational Research Association, pp. 91128.
    ParisS.G., & CunninghamA. (1996) Children become students. In BerlinerD., & CalfeeR. (eds) Handbook of Educational Psychology. New York: Macmillan, pp. 11747.
    ParisS.G., & WinogradP. (1999) The Role of Self-regulated Learning in Contextual Teaching: Principles and Practices for Teacher Preparation. Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Teachers to Enhance Student Success in the Workplace and Beyond. (Information Series no 376), Columbus, OH.
    ParisS.G., & ParisA.H. (2001) Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), pp. 89101.
    PatrickF., FordeC., & McPheeA. (2003) Challenging the ‘New Professionalism’: From managerialism to pedagogy? Journal of inservice Education, 29(2), pp. 23753.
    PerrenoudP. (1991) Towards a pragmatic approach to formative evaluation. In WestonP. (ed.) Assessment of Pupils' Achievement: Motivation and school success. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 79101.
    PerrenoudP. (1996) The teaching profession between proletarianism and professionalization: two models of change. Outlook XXVI, pp. 54362.
    PerrenoudP. (1997) Pedagogie differenciee: Des intentions a l'action. Issy-les-Moulineaux: EFS Editeur.
    PerrenoudP. (1998) From a formative evaluation to a controlled regulation of learning processes towards a wider conceptual field. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 5(1), pp. 85102.
    PerrenoudP. (2004) Métier d'éléve et sens du travail scolaire. Paris: Editions Sociales Françaises.
    PerryN.E., HutchinsonL., & ThaubergerC. (2007) Mentoring student teachers to design and implement literacy tasks that support self-regulated reading and writing. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 23, pp. 2750.
    PiazzaC.L. (2003) Journeys: The Teaching of Writing in Elementary Classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    PollardA., with AndersonJ., MaddockM., SwaffieldS., WarinJ., & WarwickP. (2008) Reflective Teaching: Evidence-informed Professional Practice, 3rd edn. London: Continuum.
    PollardA., & TannS. (1995) Reflective Teaching in the Primary School: A Handbook for the Classroom. London: Cassell.
    PophamW.J. (2006) Phony formative assessments: Buyer beware! Educational Leadership. 64(3) pp. 8687.
    PophamW.J. (2008) Transformative Assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision & Curriculum Development.
    PowellA. (2001) Notes on the origins of meritocracy in American schooling. History of Education Quarterly, 41(1) pp. 7380.
    PradlG. (1979) Expectation and Cohesion. Bay Area Writing Project, University of California, USA.
    PressleyM., HarrisK.R., & MarksM.B. (1992) But good strategy instructors are constructivists! Educational Psychology Review, 4, pp. 331.
    Primary Framework for literacy and mathematics. A Summary of the DFES Framework - Ref. 0211-2206 BOK-EN, October 2006.
    ProtheroeN. (2010) Principal's Playbook: Tackling School Improvement. Alexandria, VA: Educational Research Service.
    PryorJ., & CrossouardB. (2008) A sociocultural Theorisation of FA. Oxford Review of Education 34(10), pp. 120.
    Purcell-GatesV., McIntyreE., & FrepponP. (1995) Learning written storybook language in school: A comparison of low SES children in skills-based and whole language classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 32, pp. 65985.
    RadfordJ., BlatchfordP., & WebsterR. (2011) Opening up and closing down: How teachers and TAs manage turn-taking, topic and repair in mathematics lessons. Learning and Instruction, 21(5), pp. 62535.
    RamaprasadA. (1983) On the definition of feedback. Behavioural Science, 28(1) pp. 413.
    RandiJ., & CornoL. (1997) Teachers as innovators. International Handbook of Teachers & Teaching. Vol 1. pp. 11631221. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
    RandiJ., & CornoL. (2000) Teacher innovations in self-regulated learning. In BockaertsM., PintrichP.R., & ZeidnerM. (eds) Handbook of Self-regulation, pp. 65185. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    RaveaudM. (2005) Hares, tortoises and the social construction of the pupil: Differentiated learning in French and English primary schools. British Educational Research Journal, 31(4), pp. 45979.
    ReevesD., BoyleB., & ChristieT. (2001) The relationship between teacher assessments and pupil attainments in standard tests/tasks at key stage 2, 1996-98. British Educational Research Journal, 27(2), pp. 14160.
    RijlaarsdamG., BraaksmaM., CouzijnM., JanssenT., RaedtsM., SteendamE.V., ToorenaarA., & Van Den BerghH. (2008) Observation of peers in learning to write: Practise and research. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), pp. 5363.
    RistR.C. (1977) On understanding the process of schooling: The contributions of labelling theory. In KarabelJ., & HalseyA.H. (eds) Power and Ideology in Education. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 292305.
    RobbinsC., & EhriL.C. (1994) Reading storybooks to kindergarteners help them to learn new vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), pp. 5464.
    RogoffB. (1990) Apprerticeship in Thinking. New York: OUP.
    RogoffB., Baker-SennettJ., LacasaP., & GoldsmithD. (1995) Development through participation in sociocultural activity. In GoodnowJ.J., MillerP.J., & KesselF. (eds) Cultural Practices as Contexts for Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 4565.
    RohrmannB., & RennO. (2000) Risk perception research - an introduction. In RennO., and RohrmannB. (eds) Cross-cultural Risk Preceptions: A Survey of Empirical Studies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Vol. 13, pp. 1154.
    RosenthalR., & JacobsonL. (1968) Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectations and Student Intellectual Development. New York: Holt.
    RowsellJ., KosnikC., & BeckC. (2008) Fostering multiliteracies pedagogy through preservice teacher education. Teaching Education, 19(2), pp. 10922.
    RuthvenK., HofmannR., & MercerN. (2011) A dialogic approach to plenary problem synthesis. Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 4, pp. 818.
    RuttleK. (2004) What goes on inside my head when I'm writing? A case study of 8-9 year old boys. Literacy, July, pp. 717.
    SadlerD.R. (1989) Formative Assessment and the Design of Instructional Systems. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Press.
    SalvettiE.P. (2001) Project story boost: Read-alouds for student at risk. The Reading Teacher, 55(1), pp. 7683.
    ScardamaliaM., & BereiterC. (1992) Text-based and knowledge-based questioning by children. Cognition and Instruction, 9(3), pp. 17799.
    SchönD.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
    SchunkD.H., & ZimmermanB.J. (1997) Social origins of self-regulatory competence. Educationalist Psychologist, 32(4), pp. 195208.
    SchunkD.H., & ZimmermanB.J. (2007) Influencing children's self-efficacy and self-regulation of reading and writing through modelling. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 23, pp. 725.
    ScottP., AmetllerJ., DawesL., MercerN., & Kleine-StaarmanJ. (2007) An Investigation of Dialogic Teaching in Science Classrooms. Paper presented at NARST, New Orleans, April.
    SenechalM., & YoungL. (2008) The effect of family literacy intervention on children's acquisition of reading from kindergarten to Grade 3: A meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research, 78, pp. 880907.
    ShepardL.A. (2000) The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), pp. 414.
    ShepardL.A. (2005) Linking formative assessment to scaffolding. Educational Leadership, 63(3), pp. 6670.
    ShorI., & FreireP. (1987) A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey Publishers.
    SilvermanD. (2000) Doing Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
    SimonB. (1985) Why no pedagogy in England? In SimonB., & TayorW. (eds) Education in the Eighties: The Central Issues. London: Batsford, pp. 12445.
    SimmonsV., & GebhardtA. (2009) Concept of story. (Summer 2008.) Available at:
    Siraj-BlatchfordI., SylvaK., MuttockS., GildenR., & BellD. (2002) Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years. DfES Research Report 365.
    Siraj-BlatchfordI., & ManniL. (2008) Would you like to tidy up now? An analysis of adult questioning in the English Foundation Stage. Early Years Journal, 28(1), pp. 522.
    SjobergL., KoaroaD., RucaiA., & BernstormM. (2000) Risk perception in Bulgaria and Romania. In RennO., & RohrmannB. (eds) Cross-cultural Risk Perception: A Survey of Empirical Studies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Vol. 13, pp. 14584.
    SmithA.B. (1996) The early Child Curriculum from a Sociological Perspective. Journal of Early Child Development & Care. 115(1) pp. 5164.
    SmithF., HardmanF., WallK., & MrozM. (2004) Interactive whole class teaching in the national literacy and numeracy strategies. British Educational Research Journal, 30(3), pp. 295411.
    SolerJ., & MillerL. (2003) The struggle for early childhood curricula: A comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, ‘Te Whariki’ and Reggio Emilia. International Journal of Early Years Education, 11(1), pp. 5767.
    SolityJ.E. (2003) Teaching phonics in context: A Critique of the National Literacy Strategy. Playing with Sounds. London: DfES.
    SpitzerD.R. (1975) Effect of discussion on teachers' attitudes toward risk taking in educational situations. Journal of Educational Research, 68(10), pp. 3714.
    StrathernM. (2002) Abstraction and decontextualisation - an anthropological comment. In WoolgarS. (ed.) Virtual Society? Get Real! The Sociological Science of Electronic Technologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    StrikeK.A., & PosnerG.J. (1992) A revisionist theory of conceptual change. In DuschlR., & HamiltonR. (eds) Philosophy of Science, Cognitive Psychology, and Educational Theory and Practice. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, pp. 14776.
    SylvaK., MelhuishE., SammonsP., & Siraj-BlatchfordI. (2004) The Effective provision of the PreSchool education (EPPE) project: Findings from PreSchool to end of key stage 1.
    TaberK.S. (2000) Exploring conceptual integration in student thinking: Evidence from a case study. International Journal of Science Education, 30(14), pp. 191543.
    Task Group on Assessment and Testing (TGAT) (1998) National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and Testing: Three Supplementary Reports. London: Department for Education and Science.
    TharpR.G., & GallimoreR. (1991) Rousing Minds to Life: Teaching, Learning and Schooling in a Social Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    TizardB., HughesM., CarmichaelH., & PinkertonG. (1983) Language and social class: Is verbal deprivation a myth? Journal of Child Psychology, 24(4), pp. 53342.
    TochonF.W. (1986) Rappel stimuli, objectivation Clinique, reflexion Partagee. Fondements methodologiques et applications pratiques de la retroaction video en recherché et en formation. Revue des Science de l'education, 22(3), pp. 467502.
    TochonF. (2008) A brief history of video feedback and its role in foreign language education. CALICO Journal, 25(3), pp. 42035.
    TomlinsonC.A. (2001) How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-ability Classrooms. 2nd edn. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    ToppingK. (2001) Thinking, Reading, Writing: A practical Guide to Paired Learning with Peers, Parents & Volunteers. London and New York: Continuum.
    TorranceH., & PryorJ. (1998) Investigating FA: teaching, learning & assessment in the classroom. Buckingham: Open University Press
    TorranceH., & PryorJ. (2007) Developing FA in the classroom: using action-research to explore and modify theory. BERJ, 26(5), 61531.
    TromanG., JeffreyB., & RagglA. (2007) Performative Policies and Primary Teacher Commitment and Identity: Continuity and Change. ESRC End of Award Report: RES-000-23-0748. Swindon: ESRC.
    TwingJ., BoyleB., & CharlesM. (2010) Integrated Assessment Systems for Improved Learning. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Conference of the International Association of Educational Assessment (IAEA), Bangkok, Thailand, 22-27 August.
    VanderburgR.M. (2006) Reviewing research on teaching writing based on Vygotsky's theories: What we can learn. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 22, pp. 37593.
    VygotskyL. (1962) Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    VygotskyL. (1978) Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
    VygotskyL. (1986) Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    WebbR., & VulliamyG. (2006) Coming Full Circle: The Impact of New Labour's Education Policies on Primary School Teachers' Work. London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers.
    WebbR., & VulliamyG. (2007) Changing classroom practice at Key Stage 2: The impact of New Labour's national strategies. Oxford Review of Education, 33(5), pp. 56180.
    WellsG. (1995) Language and the inquiry-oriented curriculum. Curriculum and Inquiry, 25(3), pp. 233269.
    WellsG. (1999) Dialogic Enquiry: Towards a sociocultural Practice & Theory of Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    WellsG. (2001) Action, talk, and text: The case for dialogic inquiry. In Learning and Teaching Through Inquiry. Williston, VT: Teachers College Press.
    WhitehurstG.J., & LoniganC.J. (1998) Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69(3), pp. 84872.
    WilliamsP. (2008) Independent Review of Mathematics Teaching in Early Years Settings and Primary Schools. Final Report. London: Department for Children, Schools and Families.
    WigginsA., & TymmsP. (2002) Dysfunctional effects of league tables: A comparison between English and Scottish primary schools. Public Money and Management, January-March, pp. 438.
    WinterbottomM., BrindleyS., TaberK., FisherL.G., FinneyJ., & RigaF. (2008) Concepts of assessment: trainee teachers practice and values. The Curriculum Journal 19(3), pp. 193213.
    WoodsP. (2006) Qualitative Research. Education Research in Action E835, section 6 study guide. Open University.
    WyseD., McCreeryE., & TorranceH. (2007) The Trajectory and Impact of National Reform: Curriculum and Assessment in English Primary Schools. Primary Review Interim Report. Cambridge University.
    YackelE., & CobbP. (1996) sociomathematical norms, argumentation and autonomy in mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematical Education 27(4), pp. 45877.
    YarrowF., & ToppingK.J. (2001) Collaborative writing: The effect of meta-cognitive prompting and structured peer interaction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(2), pp. 26182.
    ZakhartchoukJ.M. (2001) Pedagogie différenciée: Une indispensable clarification. Les langues modernes, 95(4), pp. 327.
    ZimmermanB.J. (2000) Attaining self-regulation: A social-cognitive perspective. In BoekartsM., PintichP.R., & ZeidnerM. (eds) Handbook of self-regulation. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 1339.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website