Evaluating ALL Teachers of English Learners and Students With Disabilities: Supporting Great Teaching

Books

Diane Staehr Fenner, Peter Kozik & Ayanna Cooper

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    Praise for
    Evaluating ALL Teachers of English Learners and Students With Disabilities

    “This book is a must read for today’s teachers and administrators. By viewing diverse students and their educators as assets, identifying research-based strategies, and offering practical examples, Staehr Fenner, Kozik, and Cooper provide a framework for rich instructional conversations that moves teacher evaluation from the blame game, that beats educators down, to a collaborative and informative process that empowers teaching effectiveness and student learning.”

    —Spencer Salend, Emeritus Professor of Educational Studies
    State University of New York at New Paltz

    “Teacher evaluation is perhaps the last vestige of segregated education; a situation that can only be remedied by thoughtful proposals for authentic change. In this ground-breaking text, Staehr Fenner, Kozik, and Cooper move the field forward by providing a theory and research based framework for preparing, evaluating and supporting teachers to effectively educate all students, including English language learners and students with disabilities. Rather than retrofitting typically used evaluation tools, the proposed framework embraces UDL by considering the principles and practices associated with effective inclusive schooling from the outset. Teachers, administrators, and teacher educators can easily use this framework to tailor their own processes for promoting professional development and teacher effectiveness.”

    —Leslie C. Soodak, Professor of Education
    Pace University

    “Educating the growing number of English Learners in PreK–12 educational settings can no longer be the sole responsibility of ESL and bilingual experts. All teachers and administrators must build new competencies in order to reach this diverse group of students and develop their full potential. In this context, what constitutes a fair and effective teacher evaluation system? In this book, the authors successfully outline an objective assessment framework that builds educators’ individual and collective capacity to improve their practice not only with ELs but with all their students. A must read for teachers and evaluators alike.”

    —Rosa Aronson, Executive Director
    TESOL International Association

    “When teacher evaluations became part of our school accountability system I wondered how effective teaching of students with disabilities would be addressed. This book provides the answer! I am particularly impressed with how reflective practice is embedded within the process described in this book. It’s a must-have for any teacher evaluator who wants to assess how teachers are teaching all students well within an inclusive classroom.”

    —Cheryl M. Jorgensen, Educational Consulting
    Inclusive Education Consultant

    “Drs. Staehr Fenner, Kozik, and Cooper have started an essential conversation. Schools serve increasingly diverse populations and in order to do that well, all aspects of the school culture must support inclusive practices. Teacher evaluation should include attention to the needs of ALL students and support evaluators to create an atmosphere of cohesiveness among general and special education teachers as they work together to improve learning outcomes for all students. I would recommend this text to anyone who evaluates teachers, the practical scenarios and look-fors will help evaluators think about how to best structure pre- and post-observations, as well as providing helpful guidelines for consideration during observations. There is great urgency to ensure that teacher evaluation doesn’t move forward without inclusive attention to the needs of ALL students and the practices their teachers employ.”

    —Jessica A. McCord, Educational Consultant
    Keystone Assessment

    “This book is an invaluable resource that addresses a critical, national issue facing teacher evaluation systems as teachers and their evaluators grapple with determining how the standards of teaching practice – what teachers should know and be able to do – apply to general education classrooms with English Language and student with disabilities. The authors’ four fundamental principles undergird a thoughtful, informative process supported by research, practitioner’s voices, and common sense strategies to assess and enhance teacher effectiveness. This book provides a real service to teachers and evaluators by making the complexities of teacher evaluation a meaningful experience with profound benefit, not only for educators, but all students and the schools in which they are enrolled. “

    —Lawrence T. White, Director of Educational Services
    NYSUT

    “This book is an essential tool for teachers, administrators, and parents who strive to level the playing field by providing every child with an equal opportunity to learn. The authors have addressed the important topics of what teachers need to know to create a positive learning environment for all students, including English learners and those with special needs. It includes evidence-based effective practices that evaluators should look for in inclusive classrooms and professional development ideas to develop a community of learners. Teacher evaluation with diverse populations in our 21st century classrooms is challenging. Diane Staehr Fenner, Peter Kozik, and Ayanna Cooper have created a compendium of resources that many will find helpful.”

    —Dolores Burton, Author
    The Burton Group

    “Staehr Fenner, Kozik, and Cooper have hit the mark! Educators, administrators, and evaluators now have a valuable resource to assist them as they navigate the world of teacher evaluation. Clearly, these authors have their fingers on the pulse of today’s schools, excellently articulating the issues and challenges associated with educating diverse learners. They describe the conditions necessary for English learners and students with disabilities to meet with success while also articulating the factors that lead to an educators’ success. Their chapters dedicated to the four principles of inclusive teacher evaluation provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the supporting research as well as practical strategies for implementation. The case examples, in addition to the tables, graphics, and sample documents are valuable in that readers can immediately replicate these strategies. Also, the quotations throughout the book illustrate the practicality of the material. I look forward to using this book in several of my teacher preparation courses as well with educators who are very much in need of guidance on this important issue.”

    —Kathleen M. Feeley
    Long Island University

    Foreword

    When the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) began union-led work in 2010 on teacher development and evaluation systems, in partnership with two state federations, the New York State United Teachers (NYSUT) and the Rhode Island Federation of Teachers and Health Professionals (RIFTHP), we encountered little to no information on how these systems address the needs of English learners (ELs) and students with disabilities enrolled in general education classrooms. This initiative, the Educator Evaluation for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (E3TL) Consortium project, which involves the AFT, NYSUT, the RIFTHP, and labor-management teams from ten school districts across New York and Rhode Island, is primarily funded by an Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund grant from the U.S. Department of Education and by an AFT Innovation Fund grant.

    The E3TL project’s overarching goal is to establish state-of-the-art teacher development and evaluation systems. A unique characteristic of this project is that the particular learning needs of special populations (English learners and students with disabilities) are taken into account by identifying what teachers and evaluators need to know and be aware of when it comes to instructing ELs and students with disabilities in general education classrooms. From what we have observed, it is the only project of its kind in the nation.

    Given that increasing numbers of ELs and students with disabilities spend the majority of their school day in general education classrooms, the members of the E3TL project realized that there is an urgent need for general education teachers to be evaluated appropriately and fairly. When we learned that our colleagues Diane Staehr Fenner, Peter Kozik, and Ayanna Cooper, were going to write this book, we were thrilled, and we cheered them on because the topic is virtually unexplored in the field.

    The abilities and needs of these special student populations are not fully addressed by most teaching practice rubrics, yet these rubrics are becoming the norm nationwide for teacher evaluation systems (e.g., Danielson, Marzano, and others). This poses a challenge. Teachers in inclusive settings serving ELs and students with disabilities require much more preparation, support, resources, and information than currently available using any rubric.

    For example, ELs with very basic levels of English proficiency and students with disabilities with significant cognitive or speech and language impairments may need special considerations and accommodations in order to successfully participate in classroom instruction. Without the right supports to help teachers engage these students in grade-appropriate content through a variety of alternative methods, teacher evaluation in these classrooms runs the risk of just becoming a better “gotcha tool,” in the commonsense words of teacher evaluation expert Angela Minnici (2014), who was the i3 project director when the grant was awarded for this work.

    Consistent with the E3TL’s goals, this book communicates a clear vision of effective teaching, accurately identifies and supports teachers on a continuum of performance, and provides accurate and rich data that can be used to guide and deploy resources to help all teachers develop and improve. Research indicates that fidelity of implementation is critical to the success of comprehensive teacher evaluation systems in improving teaching quality and increasing student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2014). This book identifies quality implementation components of performance-based teacher evaluation systems to assist in scaling up and sustaining such systems across the country.

    To address the needs of ELs and students with disabilities in general education classrooms, this book addresses three components that were developed through the work of the E3TL project:

    • It provides considerations for effective practice in the teaching of ELs and students with disabilities (these were incorporated as an addendum in the teaching standards rubrics used by NYSUT and the RIFTHP). The considerations highlight what’s needed to help provide a positive learning environment that capitalizes on the diverse linguistic, social, cultural, and intellectual needs of the student body in all aspects of language and content acquisition. Additionally, the considerations within the rubrics outline the conditions necessary for ELs and students with disabilities to be successful learners in general education classrooms and the supports general education teachers must have access to in order to be successful. These considerations are particularly important in assisting both teachers and evaluators in understanding what it means and what it takes to be an effective teacher of ELs and students with disabilities.
    • It provides a set of shared values for effective instruction of ELs and students with disabilities (originally presented in an issue brief written by this book’s authors, commissioned by the E3TL). The values state that schools and classrooms can better promote the success of all students by working to provide equal access for all learners, supporting student individuality and diversity, using responsive teaching strategies, and forming a culture of collaboration.
    • It discusses the professional development needed for evaluators and teachers working with ELs and students with disabilities. It focuses on evidence-based practices, what evaluators should look for in inclusive classrooms, essential supports that general education teachers need, and the issues evaluators and teachers should be aware of when educating ELs and students with disabilities.

    The AFT, NYSUT, and the RIFTHP did not embark on this E3TL project in isolation. We convened a committee composed of national experts and practitioners (teachers and administrators) from participating districts to examine their teaching standards rubrics and provide guidance on effective teaching practices for general education teachers with ELs and students with disabilities enrolled in their classrooms. Three of those experts who worked diligently with us are the authors of this much-needed book.

    One of the lessons learned is that any multifaceted teacher evaluation and development system cannot be implemented with fidelity without a well-thought-out process and the requisite amount of investment, expertise, collaboration, and consistent tweaking.

    As teacher evaluation systems evolve, we expect to see more guidance for school districts and state departments of education on what teachers and evaluators should consider when it comes to effective teaching involving special populations. In the meantime, we predict that trailblazing efforts such as our E3TL project and this book will inspire schools and union leaders to make their teacher evaluation process as inclusive as possible and to provide teachers and other educators with the guidance, resources, and preparation they need to help all students succeed.

    —Melanie Hobbs and Giselle Lundy-Ponce, American Federation of Teachers

    Acknowledgments

    Diane Staehr Fenner: This book exemplifies what can happen when individuals who represent different perspectives collaborate effectively and focus on student learning. I would first like to thank my coauthors Peter Kozik and Ayanna Cooper for agreeing to write this book with me that grew out of our initial project with the American Federation of Teachers. I would also like to recognize Giselle Lundy-Ponce, Melanie Hobbs, Diane August, Spencer Salend, and Catharine Whittaker for helping to shape my thinking on teacher evaluation that is inclusive of all learners. A heartfelt thanks to Ellen Street for helping out with some references and also to Sydney Snyder for providing input on the organization of the book.

    I am especially thankful for Corwin’s senior acquisitions editor Dan Alpert for immediately affirming that teacher evaluation inclusive of ELs and students with disabilities was a much-needed topic in the field when I proposed the idea him. Dan has offered many insights into the direction of this book, and I would like to thank him for his many layers of support. In addition, I would like to say thank you to the Corwin team, including Kimberly Greenberg, Stephanie Trkay, and Cesar Reyes for supporting our work through all aspects of the publication process and to Linda Gray and Amy Schroller for their attention to detail and patience while editing the book.

    Peter Kozik: There are many mentors and thoughtful educators I would like to acknowledge as having contributed to my thinking for this book: Gerald Mager, Matt Giugno, Wilma Jozwiak, and the many educators on the Task Force for Quality Inclusive Schooling, as well as my colleagues Iris Maxon and Steven Wirt, who implemented the task force, a 15-year attempt to provide educational equity for students with disabilities in New York State. In addition, I want to honor the advocacy of Lisa Prosser, Ben’s mom, and John Shamlian, Haley’s dad, and the many parents and students whom I’ve tried to serve within the system. Also, I want to acknowledge the “white hairs” who represent for me public education working hard in the interest of all students: David Dineen, Marilyn Dominick, and Clifford Crooks as well as Rick Cowles, the best assistant principal with whom I’ve served. I also want to thank Robin Hecht for her continued support of good teaching and the contributions she made to developing the scenarios in this book. Thank you, finally, to Diane, Ayanna, Spencer Salend, and Melanie Hobbs who have helped guide my thinking over the last five years.

    Ayanna Cooper: To my coauthors Diane and Peter, I could not have imagined we would continue this adventurous journey together, advocating for ELs and students with disabilities, since we first worked together a few years ago. Mahalo! I am also grateful for the opportunity to share the voices of dedicated educators as part of this book. A special thank-you goes to Craig Martin, Cherrilynn Woods-Washington, Lynette Jackson, Julie Carroll, Brenda Colonna, Celeste Hentz, Elizabeth McNally, and Margo Williams. I appreciate you sharing your personal perspectives and experiences working with diverse student populations.

    About The Authors

    Diane Staehr Fenner is the president of DSF Consulting, LLC, a woman-owned small business dedicated to the achievement of English learners (ELs) through professional development, curriculum design, research, and technical assistance. Clients include the American Federation of Teachers, the Center for Applied Linguistics, the National Education Association, the Peace Corps, state departments of education, school districts, and the U.S. Department of Education. Dr. Staehr Fenner frequently partners with the American Institutes for Research on projects that support ELs. She serves as the council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) program coordinator for TESOL International Association. Prior to forming DSF Consulting, Dr. Staehr Fenner gained research and EL policy experience at George Washington University’s Center for Excellence and Equity in Education. Her instructional background includes a decade as an ESOL teacher, dual-language assessment teacher, and ESOL assessment specialist in Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia. She writes a blog that provides practical information and strategies for teachers of ELs for the Colorín Colorado website. Her first book published by Corwin Press was Advocating for English Learners: A Guide for Educators (2014). She also coauthored Preparing Effective Teachers of English Language Learners with Natalie Kuhlman (TESOL International Association, 2012). Dr. Staehr Fenner is a frequent speaker about EL education at conferences across the nation. However, her most important role is that of Mommy to Zoe, age 10; Maya, age eight; and Carson, age five.

    Peter Kozik is a former social studies and English language arts teacher, adult GED instructor, community college teacher, teacher center director, chairperson of special education, director of special education, and RK–12 public school principal with over 30 years of experience in the field of education. From 2002 to 2011, he served as the research coordinator and then the project coordinator for the New York State Higher Education Support Center, located at Syracuse University, and as the chairperson for the New York Task Force on Quality Inclusive Schooling, a consortium of 75 colleges and universities in New York State with teacher preparation programs focused on the inclusion of students with disabilities in the K–12 general education curriculum. He is currently an assistant professor of education at Keuka College in the Finger Lakes region of New York State where he teaches undergraduate courses in Adolescent Integrated Methods, Youth-at-Risk in American Schools, and Assessment in Inclusive Schools, as well as graduate courses in literacy leadership and in teaching writing PreK–12. He and his life partner, Carolanne, a professor of nursing at Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, New York, codirect the Knapsack Consulting Group, which provides organizational and professional development for religious, not-for-profit, educational, and health care entities. They have raised five children, ten dogs, nine cats, and four chickens in South Onondaga, New York.

    Ayanna Cooper is an independent consultant who specializes in building the capacity of all educators who serve English learners. By working closely with districts and state departments of education, she is able to aid in improving outcomes for English learners, their families, and their teachers. Her professional experiences include teaching English as a second language (ESL), instructional coaching, supervising urban ESL teacher candidates, and serving as the K–12 director for an English learner public school program. Ayanna has also worked on various projects and has been an invited speaker for the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA). She has an extensive background in teaching courses for both preservice and inservice educators of English learners. Most recently, she has served as the associate program chair for the TESOL International Association 2015 International Convention & English Language Expo in Toronto, Ontario. Ayanna has designed and facilitated professional development nationwide for educators on a number of topics, including use of the World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA) ELD Standards and Assessments, differentiated instruction, and interpreting English language proficiency data. She has written articles and blog posts and has served on a number of committees dedicated to teaching and advocating for culturally and linguistically diverse learners. This is her first publication with Corwin.

    Acknowledgements

    I dedicate this book to my husband David and children Zoe, Maya, and Carson. I also dedicate this book to teachers who are striving for equitable instruction of all learners.

    —Diane Staehr Fenner

    My work on this book is dedicated to my family and the love we share and to my friend, Francis Burke.

    —Peter Kozik

    I dedicate this book to my husband Ronnie, children Ronnie and Breanna Cooper, and to my mother Deborah Wornum. Thank you for your continued support, words of encouragement, and especially your patience. I would also like to dedicate this book in memory of my grandmother Edith E. McClannahan.

    —Ayanna Cooper
  • References

    Abedi, J. (2002). Standardized achievement tests and English language learners: Psychometrics issues. Educational Assessment, 83(3), 231257.
    Abedi, J. (2006). Psychometric issues in the ELL assessment and special education eligibility. Teachers College Record, 108(11), 22822303.
    Abedi, J., & Dietel, R. (2004, Winter). Challenges in the No Child Left Behind Act for English Language Learners (CRESST Policy Brief 7). Retrieved from https://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/policy/cresst_policy7.pdf
    Adamson, F., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Funding disparities and the inequitable distribution of teachers: Evaluating sources and solutions. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20(37).
    Alford, B. J., & Niño, M. C. (2011). Leading academic achievement for English language learners: A guide for principals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Allington, R. L., & Gabriel, R. E. (2012). Every child, every day. Educational Leadership, 69(6), 10-15.
    Allor, J. H., Mathes, P. G., Jones, F. G., Champlin, T. M., & Cheatham, J. P. (2010). Individualized research-based reading instruction for students with intellectual disabilities: Success stories. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 42(3), 612.
    Alquraini, T., & Gut, D. (2012). Critical components of successful inclusion of students with severe disabilities: Literature review. International Journal of Special Education, 27(1), 4259.
    American Institutes of Research. (2012). Reauthorizing ESEA: Making research relevant: Students with disabilities, a pocket guide. Retrieved from http://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/1278_PG_SpEd_d6_FINAL_508_compliant_0.pdf
    American Youth Policy Forum. (2009). Moving English language learners to college-and career-readiness (ELL issue brief). Washington, DC: Author.
    Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C.A. §12101 et seq. (West 1993).
    Archer, A., & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Arias, B., & Morillo-Campbell, M. (2008). Promoting ELL parental involvement: Challenges in contested times. Tempe: Arizona State University, Educational Policy Research Unit.
    Armstrong, T. (2012). First, discover their strengths. Educational Leadership, 70(2), 1016.
    August, A., Branum-Martin, L., Cardenas-Hagan, E., & Francis, D. J. (2009). The impact of an instructional intervention on the science and language learning of middle grade English language learners. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(4), 345376. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19345740903217623
    August, D., Estrada, J., & Boyle, A. (2012). Supporting English language learners: A pocket guide for state and district leaders. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.
    August, D., Salend, S., Staehr Fenner, D., & Kozik, P. (2012). The evaluation of educators in effective schools and classrooms for all learners. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers.
    August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    August, D., Staehr Fenner, D., & Snyder, S. (2014). Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A resource guide for English language arts. Washington, DC: Center for English Language Learners at American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from https://www.engageny.org/resource/scaffolding-instruction-english-language-learners-resource-guides-english-language-arts-and
    Bacon, J., & Ferri, B. (2013). The impact of standards based reform: Applying Brantlinger’s critique of “hierarchical ideologies.” International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(12), 13121325.
    Bailey, A. L. (2010). Implications for assessment and instruction. In M. Schatz & L. C. Wilkinson (Eds.), The education of English language learners: Research to practice (pp. 222247). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Bailey, A., Butler, F., & Sato, E. (2007). Standards-to-standards linkage under Title III: Exploring common language demands in ELD and science standards. Applied Measurement in Education, 20(1), 5378.
    Bailey, A., Butler, F., Stevens, R., & Lord, C. (2007). Further specifying the language demands of school. In A. Bailey (Ed.), The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test (pp. 103156). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Baker, S., Lesaux, N., Jayanthi, M., Dimino, J., Proctor, C. P., Morris, J., . . . Newman-Gonchar, R. (2014). Teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in elementary and middle school (NCEE 2014-4012). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications_reviews.aspx
    Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Educating English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition.
    Batalova, J., Gelatt, J., & Lowell, B. L. (2006). Immigrants and labor force trends: The future, past and present. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/ITFIAF/TF17_Lowell.pdf
    Bauwens, J., & Hourcade, J. J. (1997). Cooperative teaching: Pictures of possibilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33(2), 8185, 89.
    Bell, C. A., Gitomer, D. H., McCaffrey, D. F., Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C., &Qi Y., (2012). An argument approach to observation protocol validity. Educational Assessment, 17(2-3), 6287.
    Berg, J. L., & Wehby, J. (2013). Preteaching strategies to improve student learning in content area classes. Intervention in School and Clinic, 49(1), 1420.
    Berliner, D. (2006). Our impoverished view of educational reform. Teacher’s College Record, 108, 949995. Retrieved from http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=12106
    Berman, M. S. (2000). Self-concept and academic differences between students with learning disabilities in inclusive and non-inclusive classrooms (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
    Berry, R. A. W. (2011). Voices of experience: General education teachers on teaching students with disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(6), 627648.
    Bilias-Lolis, E., Chafouleas, S. M., Kehle, T. J., & Bray, M. A. (2012). Exploring the utility of self-modeling in reducing disruptive classroom behavior in students with intellectual disability. Psychology in the Schools, 49(1), 8292.
    Blanton, L. P., Sindelar, P. T., & Correa, V. I. (2006). Models and measures of beginning teacher quality. Journal of Special Education, 40(2), 115117.
    Blecker, N. S., & Boakes, N. S. (2010). Creating a learning environment for all children: Are teachers able and willing? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14(5), 435447. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603110802504937
    Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176, 200 (1982).
    Bon, S. C., & Bigbee, A. (2011). Special education leadership: Integrating professional and personal codes of ethics to serve the best interest of the child. Journal of School Leadership, 21(3), 324359.
    Bowman-Perrott, L. J., Herrera, S., & Murry, K. (2010). Reading difficulties and grade retention: What’s the connection for English language learners? Reading & Writing Quarterly, 26(1), 91107.
    Brady, C. (2007). Coaches’ voices bring 6 lessons to light. Journal of Staff Developments, 28(1), 4651.
    Breiseth, L. (2011). A guide for engaging ELL families: Twenty strategies for school leaders. Washington, DC: Colorín Colorado. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/principals/family/
    Brock, L. L., Nishida, T. K., Chiong, C., Grimm, K. J., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2008). Children’s perceptions of the classroom environment and social and academic performance: A longitudinal analysis of the contribution of the “responsive classroom.” approach. Journal of School Psychology, 46(2), 129149.
    Brown, M. R., Higgins, K., Pierce, T., Hong, E., & Thoma, C. (2003). Secondary students’ perception of school life with regard to alienation: The effects of disability, gender, and race. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26(4), 227238.
    Brownell, M. T., Smith, S. J., Crocket, J. B., & Griffin, C. C. (2012). Inclusive instruction: Evidence-based practices for teaching students with disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford.
    Bulgren, J. (2002). The educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities: The perception of parents of students with disabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Institute for Academic Access.
    Bulgren, J. A., Sampson Graner, P., & Deshler, D. D. (2013). Literacy challenges and opportunities for students with learning disabilities in social studies and history. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 28, 1727. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ldrp.12003
    Burden, R., Tinnerman, L., Lunce, L., & Runshe, D. (2010). Video case studies: Preparing teachers for inclusion. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 6(4), 3.
    Burns, E. (2006). IEP-2005: Writing and implementing individualized education plans. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Callahan, R. (2005). Tracking and high school English learners: Limiting opportunity to learn. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 305328.
    Capizzi, A. M. (2008). From assessment to annual goals: Engaging a decision-making process in writing measurable IEPs. Journal of Special Education, 33(3), 166176.
    Capizzi, A. M., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Effects of curriculum-based measurement with and without diagnostic feedback on teacher planning. Remedial and Special Education, 26(3), 159174.
    Carlberg, C., & Kavale, K. (1980). The efficacy of special versus regular class placement for exceptional children: A meta-analysis. Journal of Special Education, 14, 295309.
    Carlo, M., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C., Dressler, C., Lippman, D., . . . White, C. (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(2), 188206.
    Carnahan, C. R., Williamson, P., Clarke, L., & Sorensen, R. (2009). A systematic approach for supporting paraeducators in educational settings: A guide for teachers. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(5), 3445.
    Carter, E., O’Rourke, L. O., Sisco, L. G., & Pelsue, D. (2009). Knowledge, responsibilities, and training needs of paraprofessionals in elementary and secondary schools. Remedial and Special Education, 30(6), 344359.
    Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., Clark, N. M., & Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Effects of peer support interventions on students’ access to the general curriculum and social interactions. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30(1), 1525.
    Carter, N., Prater, M., Jackson, A., & Marchant, M. (2009). Educators’ perceptions of collaborative planning processes for students with disabilities. Preventing School Failure, 54(1), 6070.
    Causton, J. (2011). Effective inclusive practice. Albany: College of St. Rose and New York State Task Force on Quality Inclusive Schooling, East Region.
    Causton-Theoharis, J. H. (2009). The paraprofessional’s handbook for effective support in inclusive classrooms. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
    Causton-Theoharis, J., Theoharis, G., Orsati, F. M., & Cosier, M. (2011). Does self-contained special education deliver on its promises: A critical inquiry into research and practices. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 24(2), 61-80.
    Cho, H., Wehmeyer, M., & Kingston, N. (2011). Elementary teachers’ knowledge and use of interventions and barriers to promoting student self-determination. Journal of Special Education, 45(3), 149156.
    Correa, V., & Wagner, J. (2011). Principals’ roles in supporting the induction of special education teachers. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 24, 1725.
    Costa, A., & Garmston, R. (2002). Cognitive coaching: A foundation for renaissance schools. Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon.
    Cote Sparks, S., & Cote, D. L. (2012). Teaching choice making to elementary students with mild to moderate disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(5), 290296.
    Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. (2013). CAEP accreditation standards. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://caepnet.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/final_board_approved1.pdf
    Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. (n.d.). Glossary. Retrieved from http://caepnet.org/resources/glossary/
    Council for Exceptional Children’s position on special education teacher evaluation. (2013). TEACHING Exceptional Children, 45(3), 7376.
    Covey, S. (2007). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Culver, C. E., & Hayes, K. T. (2014). Beyond teacher evaluation: Prioritizing teacher instructional effectiveness with meaningful professional development. School Improvement Network. Retrieved from http://www.schoolim provement.com/whitepapers/beyond-teacher-evaluation-prioriti zing-teacher-instructional-effectiveness-with-meaningful-professional-development/
    Cunningham, L., & McNally, K. (2003, November/December). Improving organizational and individual performance through coaching: A case study. Nurse Leader, 4649.
    Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching (
    2nd
    ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    Danielson, C. (2011). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument. Retrieved from http://danielsongroup.org/download/?download=449
    Darling-Hammond, L. (2014, Spring). One piece of the whole: Teacher evaluation as part of a comprehensive system for teaching and learning. American Educator, 113.
    De Bortoli, T., Foreman, P., Arthur-Kelly, M., Balandin, S., & Mathisen, B. (2012). Mainstream teachers’ experiences of communicating with students with multiple and severe disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 47(2), 236252.
    de Jong, E., & Harper, C. (2008). ESL is good teaching “plus”: Preparing standard curriculum teachers for all learners. In M. E. Brisk (Ed.), Language, culture, and community in teacher education (pp. 127148). New York, NY: Erlbaum.
    Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (2009). Shaping school culture (
    2nd
    ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    DeCapua, A., & Marshall, H. W. (2011). Breaking new ground: Teaching students with limited or interrupted formal education in U.S. secondary schools. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Demchuk, L. (2000). Children’s perceptions and attitudes about special education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Department of Education ofHawaii v. Katherine D., 727 F. 2d 809 (HI 1984).
    Diliberto, J. A., & Brewer, D. (2012). Six tips for successful IEP meetings. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(4), 3037.
    Downing, J., & Peckham-Hardin, K. (2007). Inclusive education: What makes it a good education for students with moderate to severe disabilities? Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 32, 1630.
    Doyle, L. H. (2004). Inclusion: The unifying thread for fragmented metaphors. Journal of School Leadership, 14, 352377.
    Dressler, C., & Kamil, M. L. (2006). First-and second-language literacy. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 197238). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (1975). P.L. 94-142.
    Edwards, C., & Da Fonte, A. (2012). The 5-point plan: Fostering successful partnerships with families of students with disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(3), 613.
    Edyburn, D. L. (2010). Would you recognize universal design for learning if you saw it? Ten propositions for new directions for the second decade of UDL. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, 33-41.
    Elbaum, B. (2002). The self-concept of students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of comparisons across different placements. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17(4), 216226.
    Epstein, M., Munk, D., Bursuck, W., Polloway, E., & Jayanthi, M. (1999). Strategies for improving home-school communication about homework for students with disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 33, 166176.
    Esposito, A. (Director). (2004). We can shine: From institutions to independence [Documentary]. USA: Espocinema.
    Etscheidt, S. (2005). Paraprofessional services for students with disabilities: A legal analysis. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 30(2), 6080.
    Etscheidt, S. (2007). The excusal provision of the IDEA 2004: Streamlining procedural compliance or prejudicing rights of students with disabilities? Preventing School Failure, 51(4), 1318.
    Fenlon, A. (2011). Road map for a dream. Educational Leadership, 68(7), 2326.
    Ferguson, C. (2008). The school–family connection: Looking at the larger picture. Austin, TX: National Center for Community and Family Connections with Schools.
    Flores, M. M., & Kaylor, M. (2007). The effects of a direct instruction program on the fraction performance of middle school students at-risk for failure in mathematics. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34(2), 8494.
    Forte, E., & Faulkner-Bond, M. (2010). The administrator’s guide to federal programs for English learners. Washington, DC: Thompson.
    Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. Retrieved from http://centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1-Interventions.pdf
    French, N. K. (2001). Supervising paraprofessionals: A survey of teacher practices. Journal of Special Education, 35, 4153.
    French, N. K. (2002). 20 ways to maximize paraprofessional services for students with learning disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38(1), 5055.
    Fry, R. (2008, June). The role of schools in the English language learner achievement gap. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/reports/89.pdf
    Fry, R., & Taylor, P. (2013). Hispanic high school graduates pass whites in rate of college enrollment. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2013/05/PHC_college_enrollment_2013-05.pdf
    Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P., & Young, C. (2003). Responsiveness- to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 157171.
    Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities: Research and Practice, 18(3), 172186.
    Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2004). Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and clinic and comparison samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 379393.
    Gándara, R., Rumberger, R., Maxwell-Jolly, J., & Callahan, R. (2003). English learners in California schools: Unequal resources, unequal outcomes. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(36), 154.
    Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2006). Educating English language learners. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    Giangreco, M. F., Doyle, M. B., & Suter, J. C. (2012). Constructively responding to requests for paraprofessionals: We keep asking the wrong questions. Remedial and Special Education, 33(6), 362373.
    Goldenberg, C. (2008, Summer). Teaching English language learners: What the research does—and does not—say. American Educator, 844.
    Gottlieb, M., & Ernst-Slavit, G. (2014). Academic language in diverse classrooms: Definitions and contexts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Gottlieb, M., Katz, A., & Ernst-Slavit, G. (2009). Paper to practice: Using the English language proficiency standards in preK-12 classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
    Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2013). Common core state standards, writing, and students with LD: Recommendations. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 28(1), 2837. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ldrp.12004
    Gronlund, N. E., & Waugh, C. K. (2009). Assessment of student achievement (
    9th
    ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    Haager, D., & Vaughn, S. (2013). The Common Core State Standards and students with learning disabilities: Introduction to the special issue. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 28, 14.
    Hall, T. E., Wolfe, P. S., & Bollig, A. A. (2003). The home-to-school notebook: An effective communication strategy for students with severe disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 36(2), 6873.
    Hamayan, E. (2006). What is the role of culture in language learning? In E. Hamayan & R. Freeman (Eds.), English language learners at school: A guide for administrators (pp. 6264). Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
    Hammond, S. A. (2013). The Thin Book of appreciative inquiry. Bend, OR: Thin Book.
    Harlow, C. W. (2003). Education and correctional populations (Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report). Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
    Haydon, T., Maheady, L., & Hunter, W. (2010). Effects of numbered heads together on the daily quiz scores and on-task behavior of students with disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19, 222238.
    Hendrickson, J. M., Shokoohi-Yekta, M., Hamre-Nietupski, S., & Gable, R. A. (1996). Middle and high school students’ perceptions on being friends with peers with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63, 1928.
    Hetherington, S. A., Durant-Jones, L., Johnson, K., Nolan, K. W., Smith, E., Tuttle J., & Taylor-Brown S. (2010). The lived experiences of adolescents with disabilities and their parents in transition planning. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25(3), 163172.
    Heward, W. L. (2003). Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education. Journal of Special Education, 36, 186205.
    Heyward, S. (2009, April). The ADA amendments: Do we really have to change the way we do business? Paper presented at the eighth annual Disabilities Symposium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    Heyward, W. L. (2009). Exceptional children: An introduction to special education. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
    Hollenbeck, A. F. (2007). From IDEA to implementation: A discussion of foundational and future responsiveness-to-intervention research. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22, 137146.
    Honigsfeld, A., & Dove, M. (2010). Collaboration and co-teaching: Strategies for English learners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Honigsfeld, A., & Dove, M. (2013, Winter). C3 = Common Core collaborations. The Ri-Teller, pp. 1, 4. Retrieved from http://ritell.org/Resources/Documents/RITELLER/RITELLER%202012-2013/3.1Riteller%20winter%2013.pdf
    Houseman, N. G., & Martinez, M. R. (2002). Preventing school dropout and ensuring success for English language learners and Native American students (Report No. ED-99-CO-0137). Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
    Hudson, M. E., Browder, D., & Wakeman, S. (2013). Helping students with moderate and severe intellectual disability access grade-level text. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 45(3), 1423.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004, P.L. 108-446.
    Individuals with Disability Education Act Amendments of 1997. (1997). Retrieved from http://thomas.loc.gov/home/thomas.php
    Jones, N., Buzick, H., & Turkan, S. (2013). Students with disabilities and English learners in measures of educator effectiveness. Educational Researcher, 42, 234241. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X12468211
    Joo, B. (2005). Executive coaching: A conceptual framework from an integrative review of practice and research. Human Resource Development Review, 4, 462490.
    Kane, T. J. (2012). Capturing the dimensions of effective teaching. Education Next, 12(4), 3441.
    Kane, T. J., & Cantrell, S. (2012). Learning about teaching: Initial findings from the measures of effective teaching project. Seattle, WA: Bill use & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2011). Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data. Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 587–-613.
    Kao, G., & Thompson, J. S. (2003). Racial and ethnic stratification in education achievement and attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 29(1), 417442. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100019
    Keel, M. C., Dangel, H. L., & Owens, S. H. (1999). Selecting instructional interventions for students with mild disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(8), 115.
    Kennedy, T., & Menten, T. (2010). Reading, writing, and thinking about disability: Five activities for the classroom. English Journal, 100(2), 6167.
    Kenyatta, C. P. (2012). From perception to practice: How teacher-student interactions affect African American male achievement. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 8, 3644.
    Kozik, P. (2012). The AI-IEP protocol. In T. Armstrong (Ed.), Neurodiversity in the classroom: Strength-based strategies to help students with special needs succeed in school and life (pp. 000-000). Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Kozik, P., Osroff, P., Lee, S., & Marr, W. (2010). Listening first: Designing and implementing middle school inclusion. In M. Cianca & C. Freytag (Eds.), Duets and dialogue: Voices on inclusive practices in our schools [Monograph] (pp. 5058). Albany, NY: New York State Education Department, Higher Education Support Center for Quality Inclusive Schooling. Available at http://www.inclusion-ny.org/files/Duets-and-Dialogue.pdf
    Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
    Kurth, J., Gross, M., Lovinger, S., & Catalano, T. (2012). Grading students with significant disabilities in inclusive settings: Teacher perspectives. Journal of the International Association of Special Education, 13(1), 4157.
    Lai, S. A., & Berkeley, S. (2012). High stakes test accommodations: Research & practice. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 158169.
    Lane, K. L., Carter, E. W., & Sisco, L. (2012). Paraprofessional involvement in self-determination instruction for students with high-incidence disabilities. Exceptional Children, 78(2), 237251.
    Lecavalier, L. (2006). Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: Relative prevalence, effects of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 11011114.
    Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2008). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership. School Leadership and Management, 28(1), 2742.
    Leithwood, K., & Mascall, B. (2008). Collective leadership effects on student achievement. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44, 529561.
    Lewis-Moreno, B. (2007). Shared responsibility: Achieving success with English-language learners. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(10), 772775.
    Liang, L. A., Peterson, C. A., & Graves, M. F. (2005). Investigating two approaches to fostering children’s comprehension of literature. Reading Psychology, 26, 387400.
    Linquanti, R. (2011). Strengthening assessment for English learner success: How can the promise of the Common Core Standards and innovative assessment systems be realized? In Policy Analysis for California Education and Rennie Center for Education Research & Policy (Eds.), The road ahead for state assessments (pp. 1325). Cambridge, MA: Rennie Center for Education Research & Policy. Retrieved from http://www.edpolicyinca.org/sites/default/files/2011_PACE_RENNIE_ASSESSMENT_REPORT.pdf
    Liston, A. G., Nevin, A., & Malian, I. (2009). What do paraeducators in inclusive classrooms say about their work? Analysis of national survey data and follow-up interviews in California. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 5(5), 217.
    Lytle, R. K., & Bordin, J. (2001). Enhancing the IEP team: Strategies for parents and professionals. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 33(5), 4044.
    Madrid, E. M. (2011). The Latino achievement gap. Multicultural Education, 19(3), 712.
    Magiera, K., & Zigmond, N. (2005). Co-teaching in middle school classrooms under routine conditions: Does the instructional experience differ for students with disabilities in co-taught and solo-taught classes? Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 20(2), 7985.
    Maheady, L., Harper, G. F., & Mallette, B. (2001). Peer-mediated instruction and interventions and students with mild disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 414.
    Malmgren, K. W. (1998). CL as an academic intervention for students with mild disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31, 18.
    Malmgren, K. W., McLaughlin, M. J., & Nolet, V. (2005). Accounting for the performance of students with disabilities on statewide assessments. Journal of Special Education, 39(2), 8696.
    Marino, M. T. (2009). Understanding how adolescents with reading difficulties utilize technology-based tools. Exceptionality, 17(2), 88102.
    Marshall, K. (2012). Fine-tuning teacher evaluation. Educational Leadership, 70(3), 5053.
    Martin, J. E., Van Dycke, J. L., Christensen, W. R., Greene, B. A., Gardner, J. E., & Lovett, D. L. (2006). Increasing student participation in IEP meetings: Establishing the self-directed IEP as an evidence-based practice. Exceptional Children, 72(3), 299316.
    Martinez, D. C., Conroy, J. W., & Cerreto, M. C. (2012). Parent involvement in the transition process of children with intellectual disabilities: The influence of inclusion on parent desires and expectations for postsecondary education. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(4), 279288.
    Maryland State Department of Education (n.d.). Co-teaching tools and resources. Retrieved from http://marylandlearninglinks.org/1007
    Marzano, R. J. (2002). Language, the language art, and thinking. In J. Flood, D. Lapp, J. R. Squire, & J. M. Jensen (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 687716). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Marzano, R. J. (2011). Research base and validation studies on The Marzano evaluation model. Retrieved from http://www.marzanoevaluation.com/files/Research_Base_and_Validation_Studies_Marzano_Evaluation_Model.pdf
    Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Norland, J. J., Berkeley, S., McDuffie, K., Tornquist, E. H., & Connors, N. (2006). Differentiated curriculum enhancement in inclusive middle school science: Effects on classroom and high-stakes tests. Journal of Special Education, 40, 130137.
    Maxwell, L. (2014, April 24). Test supports for ELLs: Differences between PARCC and Smarter Balanced [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/learning-the-language/2014/04/test_supports_for_english-lear.html
    McLeskey, J. (2011). Supporting improved practice for special education teachers: The importance of learner-centered professional development. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 24(1), 2635.
    McTigue, E. M., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2011). The “responsive classroom” approach and its implications for improving reading and writing. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 27(1-2), 524.
    Meadan, H., Shelden, D. L., Appel, K., & DeGrazia, R. L. (2010). Developing a long-term vision: A road map for students’ futures. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(2), 814.
    Measures of Effective Teaching Project. (2014). Project reports. Retrieved from http://www.metproject.org/reports.php
    Minnici, A. (2014, Spring). The mind shift in teacher evaluation: Where we stand—and where we need to go. American Educator, 2226.
    Mooney, J. (2007). The short bus: A journey beyond normal. New York, NY: Holt.
    Morcom, V. E., & MacCallum, J. A. (2012). Getting personal about values: Scaffolding student participation towards an inclusive classroom community. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 16(12), 13231334.
    Murawski, W. W. (2012). Ten tips for using co-planning time more efficiently. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(4), 815.
    Murawski, W. W., & Spencer, S. A. (2011). Collaborate, communicate, and differentiate! How to increase student learning in today’s diverse schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    National Association for the Education of Young Children (2014). Developmentally appropriate practice. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/DAP
    National Center for Education Statistics. (2014). English language learners. In The condition of education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgf.asp
    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (2005). Income of U.S. workforce projected to decline if education doesn’t improve. Retrieved from http://www.highereducation.org/reports/pa_decline/pa_decline.pdf#search=%22 minorities%22
    National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. (2014). Guide to evaluation products. Retrieved from http://resource.tqsource.org/gep/gepsearchresult.aspx
    National Council on Teacher Quality Teacher Prep Review. (2014). 2014 teacher prep review: A review of the nation’s teacher preparations programs. Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Teacher_Prep_Review_2014_Report
    National Drop-Out Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities. (2013). An analysis of states’ FFY 2011 annual performance report data for indicator B2 (dropout). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ndpc-sd.org/documents/NDPC-SD_FFY_2011_Indicator_B-2_summary.pdf
    New York State United Teachers. (2012). Teacher evaluation and development evaluation process workbook. Latham, NY: Author.
    New York State United Teachers. (2013). NYSUT’s teacher practice rubric. Latham: NY: Author.
    Nidus, G., & Sadder, M. (2011). The principal as formative coach. Educational Leadership, 69(2), 3035.
    No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115 State 1425 et seq. (2001).
    O’Brien, C. (2007). Using collaborative reading groups to accommodate diverse learning and behavior needs in the general education classroom. Beyond Behavior, 16(3), 715.
    Ochoa, A., & Cadiero-Kaplan, K. (2004). Towards promoting biliteracy and academic achievement: Educational programs for high school Latino English language learners. High School Journal, 87(3), 2743.
    Olkin, R. (2002). Could you hold the door for me? Including disability in diversity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 130137.
    Otis-Wilborn, A., Winn, J., Griffin, C., & Kilgore, K. (2005). Beginning special educators’ forays into general education. Teacher Education and Special Education, 28(3/4), 143152.
    Palincsar, A. S., Magnusson, S. J., Cutter, J., & Vincent, M. (2002). Supporting guided-inquiry instruction. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 34(3), 8891.
    Palmer, D. S., Fuller, K., Arora, T., & Nelson, M. (2001). Taking sides: Parent views on inclusion for their children with severe disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67(4), 467484.
    PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. (1972). Public Interest Law Center of Philadelphia. Retrieved from http://www.pilcop.org/pennsylvania-association-for-retarded-citizens-parc-v-commonwealth-of-pennsylvania/
    Parrish, P., & Stodden, R. A. (2009). Aligning assessment and instruction with state standards for children with significant disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(4), 4656.
    Parrish, T. B., Merickel, A., Perez, M., Linquanti, R., Socias, M., & Spain, A. (2006, January). Effects of the implementation of Proposition 227 on the education of English learners, K–12: Findings from a five-year evaluation (Final Report for AB 56 and AB 1116). Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.
    Piaget, J. (2003). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(S1), S8S18.
    Praisner, C. L. (2003). Attitudes of elementary school principals toward the inclusion of students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69(2), 135145.
    Pullin, D. (2005). When one size does not fit all: The special challenges of accountability testing for students with disabilities. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 104(2), 199222.
    Purnell, P. G. (2007). Strategies for creating inclusive and accepting middle school classrooms. Middle School Journal, 39(1), 3237.
    Putnam, J., Markovchick, K., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1996). Cooperative learning and peer acceptance of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 741752.
    Ragan, A., & Lesaux, N. (2006). Federal, state, and district level English language learner program entry and exit requirements: Effects on the education of language minority learners. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 14, 20.
    Rea, P. J., McLaughlin, V. L., & Walther-Thomas, C. (2002). Outcomes for students with learning disabilities in inclusive and pullout programs. Exceptional Children, 68, 203223.
    Reardon, S. F., & Galindo, C. (2009). The Hispanic-White achievement gap in math and reading in the elementary grades. American Educational Research Journal, 46(3), 853891.
    Restrepo, M. A, Castilla, A. P., Schwanenflugel, P. J., Neuharth-Pritchett, S., Hamilton, C. E., & Arboleda, A. (2010). Effects of a supplemental Spanish oral language program on sentence length, complexity, and grammaticality in Spanish-speaking children attending English-only preschools. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(1), 313.
    Rhode Island Federation of Teachers and Health Professionals. (2012). Rhode Island Innovation Consortium Educator Evaluation & Support System innovation evaluation model descriptors of practice/rubrics. Providence, RI: Author.
    Rice, N., Drame, E., & Owens, L. (2007). Co-instructing at the secondary level: Strategies for success. TEACHING Exceptional Children. 39(6), 12-18.
    Rivera, C., & Collum, E. (2004, January). An analysis of state assessment policies addressing the accommodation of English language learners. Issue paper prepared for the National Assessment Governing Board, Washington, DC.
    Robertson, K., & Ford, K. (2008). Language acquisition: An overview. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org article/26751/
    Robertson, K., & Lafond, S. (2008). Getting ready for college: What ELL students need to know. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/28377/
    Rose, D., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Available online at http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ideas/tes/
    Sailor, W., Zuna, N., Choi, J., Thomas, J., McCart, A., & Roger, B. (2006). Anchoring schoolwide positive behavior support in structural school reform. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 1830.
    Salend, S. J. (2011). Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices (
    7th
    ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson.
    Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A conceptual framework (Tech. Rep. No. 2003–1). Irvine: University of California, Linguistic Minority Research Institute.
    Scarcella, R. (2008, August). Defining academic English. Webinar presented for the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Retrieved from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/webinars/event/1/
    Schöen, D. (1984). The reflective practitioner. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Schultz, E. K., Simpson, C. G., & Lynch, S. (2012). Specific learning disability identification: What constitutes a pattern of strengths and weaknesses? Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 18(2), 8797.
    Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2007). Science learning in special education: The case for constructed versus instructed learning. Exceptionality, 15(2), 5774.
    Seo, S., Brownell, M., Bishop, A., & Dingle, M. (2008). An examination of beginning special education teachers’ classroom practices that engage elementary students with learning disabilities in reading instruction. Exceptional Children, 75(1), 97122.
    Shady, S. A., Luther, V. L., & Richman, L. J. (2013). Teaching the teachers: A study of perceived professional development needs of educators to enhance positive attitudes toward inclusive practices. Education Research and Perspectives, 40(1), 169191.
    Shanahan, T. (2013). Letting the text take center stage. Washington, DC: American Educator. Retrieved from http://www.aft.org//sites/default/files/periodicals/Shanahan.pdf
    Sherwin, G. H., & Schmidt, S. (2003). Communication codes among African American children and youth: The fast track from special education to prison? Journal of Correctional Education, 54(2), 4552.
    Shevin, M., & Klein, N. K. (2004). The importance of choice-making skills for students with severe disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 29(3), 161168.
    Shippen, M. E., Flores, M. M., Crites, S. A., Patterson, D., Ramsey, M. L., Houchins, D. D., & Jolivette, K. (2011). Classroom structure and teacher efficacy in serving students with disabilities: Differences in elementary and secondary teachers. International Journal of Special Education, 26(3), 3644.
    Shook, A. C., Hazelkorn, M., & Lozano, E. R. (2011). Science vocabulary for all. Science Teacher, 78(3), 4549.
    Shurr, J., & Taber-Doughty, T. (2012). Increasing comprehension for middle school students with moderate intellectual disabilities on age-appropriate texts. Education and Training inAutism and Developmental Disabilities, 47(3), 359372.
    Silva, J., & Contreras, K. (2011). The year we learned to collaborate. Educational Leadership, 69(2), 5458.
    Smith, T. J., Dittmer, K. I., & Skinner, C. H. (2002). Enhancing science performance in students with learning disabilities using cover, copy, and compare: A student shows the way. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 417426.
    Simkins, T., Coldwell, M., Caillau, I., Finlayson, H., & Morgan, A. (2006). Coaching as an in-school leadership development strategy: Experiences from leading from the middle. Journal of In-Service Education, 32, 321340.
    Staehr Fenner, D. (2013a, December 12). Deciding how much background knowledge to provide for ELLs [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.colorincolorado.org/2013/12/12/determining-how-much-background-knowl edge-to-provide-for-ells/
    Staehr Fenner, D. (2013b, March 6). ELLs are everyone’s kids: The role of collaboration in CCSS [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.colorincolorado.org/2013/03/06/ells-are-everyones-kids-the-role-of-collaboration-in-the-ccss/
    Staehr Fenner, D. (2013c, November 26). Your role in the Common Core: Advocating for ELLs [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.colorincolorado.org/2013/11/26/your-role-in-the-common-core-advocating-for-ells/
    Staehr Fenner, D. (2014). Advocating for English learners: A guide for educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Staehr Fenner, D., & Snyder, S. (2014, February 27). Common Core curriculum rubric: Meeting the needs of ELLs [Blog]. Retrieved from http://blog.colorincolorado.org/2014/02/27/common-core-curriculum-rubric-meeting-the-needs-of-ells/
    Staehr Fenner, D., Kozik, P., & Cooper, A. (2014). Evaluating teachers of all learners. Leadership, 43(4), 812.
    Stanovich, P. J., & Jordan, A. (1998). Canadian teachers’ and principals’ beliefs about inclusive education as predictors of effective teaching in heterogeneous classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 98(3), 221238.
    Staples, K. E., & Diliberto, J. A. (2010). Guidelines for successful parent involvement: Working with parents of students with disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 42(6), 5863.
    Stecker, P. M., Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2005). Using curriculum-based measurement to improve student achievement: Review of research. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 795819.
    Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Tucker, P. D., & Hindman, J. L. (2007). What is the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement? Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 20(3-4), 165184.
    Suarez-Orozco, C., Suarez-Orozco, M., & Doucet, F. (2004). The academic engagement and achievement of Latino youth. In J. Banks & C. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 420437). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Suter, J. C., & Giangreco, M. F. (2009). Numbers that count: Exploring special education and paraprofessional service delivery in inclusion-oriented schools. Journal of Special Education, 43(2), 8193.
    Swail, W. S., Cabrera, A. F., Lee, C., & Williams, A. (2005). Part III: Pathways to the bachelor’s degree for Latino students. Washington, DC: Educational Policy Institute.
    Swedeen, B. L. (2009). Signs of an inclusive school: A parent’s perspective on the meaning and value of authentic inclusion. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 5(3), 1.
    Tankersley, M., Niesz, T., Cook, B. C., & Woods, W. (2007). The unintended side effects of inclusion of students with learning disabilities: The perspectives of special education teachers. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14, 135144.
    Taylor, A. S., Peterson, C. A., McMurray-Schwartz, P., & Guillou, T. S. (2002). Social skills interventions: Not just for children with special needs. Young Exceptional Children, 5(4), 1926.
    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (2010). TESOL/NCATE standards for the recognition of initial TESOL programs in P–12 ESL teacher education. Alexandria, VA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.tesol
    Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling in social context. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (1997). School effectiveness for language minority students. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.
    Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. P. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. Santa Cruz: University of California, Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.
    Thompson, S. J., Johnstone, C. J., & Thurlow, M. L. (2002). Universal design applied to large scale assessments (Synthesis Report 44). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.
    Thurlow, M. L., Lazarus, S. S., Thompson, S. J., & Morse, A. B. (2005). State policies on assessment participation and accommodations for students with disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 232240.
    Timothy W. v. Rochester, New Hampshire, Sch. Dist., 875 F.2d 954 (1st Cir.), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 983 (1989).
    Tinkler, B. (2002). A review of literature on Hispanic/Latino parent involvement in K–12 education. Retrieved from http://www.huildassest.org/products/latinoparentreport/latinopafentrept.htm
    Tobin, R. (2007). Interactions and practices to enhance the inclusion experience. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(5), Article 5. Available at http://journals.cec.sped.org/tecplus/vol3/iss5/art5
    Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism: The role of professional orientation and trust, Educational Administration Quarterly, 45, 217247.
    Tschannen-Moran, B., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2010). Evocative coaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Tschannen-Moran, B., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2011). The coach and the evaluator. Educational Leadership, 69(2), 1016.
    Turnbull, H. (2005). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act reauthorization: Accountability and personal responsibility. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 320326.
    U.S. Department of Education. (2009). Race to the top (Executive summary). Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/executive-summary.pdf
    U.S. Department of Education. (2010). College- and career-ready standards and assessments. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/blueprint/faq/college-career.pdf
    U.S. Department of Education. (2013). The biennial report to Congress on the implementation of the Title III State Formula Grant Program, School Years 2008–10. Retrieved from http://www.ncela.us/files/uploads/3/Biennial_Report_0810.pdf
    U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Consolidated state performance reports. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/account/consolidated/index.html#sy11-12
    Understanding Language. (2012). Persuasion across time and space: Analyzing and producing persuasive texts. Retrieved from http://ell.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/ela_archives/understanding_language_materials_Jan2013.pdf
    Valdés, G., Kibler, A., & Walqui, A. (2014, March). Changes in the expertise of ESL professionals: Knowledge and action in an era of new standards. Alexandria, VA: TESOL International Association.
    Valle, J. W., & Connor, D. J. (2011). Rethinking disability: A disability studies approach to inclusive practices. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
    Voltz, D., & Collins, L. (2010). Preparing special education administrators for inclusion in divers, standard-based contexts: Beyond the council for exceptional children and the interstate school leaders licensure consortium. Teacher Education Special Education, 33(1), 7082.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Waldron, N. L., McLeskey, J., & Redd, L. (2011). Setting the direction: The role of the principal in developing an effective, inclusive school. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 24(2), 5160.
    Walqui, A. (2000). Context counts in second language learning. http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/99/
    Wang, M. C., & Baker, E. T. (1985–1986). Mainstreaming programs: Design features and effects. Journal of Special Education, 19, 503521.
    Watkins, E., & Liu, K. K. (2013). Who are English language learners with disabilities? In K. Liu, E. Watkins, D. Pompa, P. McLeod, J. Elliott, & V. Gaylord (Eds.), Impact: Feature issue on educating K-12 English language learners with disabilities, 26(1). Retrieved from http://ici.umn.edu/products/impact/261/2.html
    Weishaar, P. M. (2010). Twelve ways to incorporate strengths-based planning into the IEP process. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(6), 207210.
    Whitehurst, G., Chingos, M., & Lindquist, K. (2014). Evaluating teachers with classroom observations: Lessons learned in four districts. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, Brown Center on Education Policy.
    Wiener, J., & Tardif, C. Y. (2004). Social and emotional functioning of children with learning disabilities: Does special education placement make a difference? Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19(1), 2032.
    Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005a). Backward design. In Understanding by design (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 1334). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005b). Introduction. In Understanding by design (
    2nd
    ed., pp. 111). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
    Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005c). Understanding by design (
    2nd
    ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Will, M. (1986). Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility. Exceptional Children, 52, 411415.
    Williams, T., Hakuta, K., & Haertel, E. (2007). Similar English learner students, different results: Why do some schools do better? A follow-up analysis based on a large-scale survey of California elementary schools serving low-income and EL students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource.
    Willingham, D. T. (2008). Should learning be its own reward? American Educator, 31(4), 2935.
    Willner, L. S., Rivera, C., & Acosta, B. D. (2008). Descriptive study of state assessment policies for accommodating English language learners. Arlington, VA: George Washington University Center for Equity and Excellence in Education.
    Wilson, G. L., & Blednick, J. (2011). Teaching in tandem. Arlington, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Winters, C. A. (1997). Learning disabilities, crime, delinquency, and special education placement. Adolescence, 32(126), 451462.
    Wonacott, M. E. (2003). Employment of people with disabilities (Eric Digest 247). Columbus, OH: Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED478950)
    Wood, D. J., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(2), 89100.
    Zehler, A., Fleischman, H., Hopstock, P., Stephenson, T., Pendzick, M., & Sapru, S. (2003). Descriptive study of services to LEP students and LEP students with disabilities (Vol. I, Research Report). Arlington, VA: Development Associates.
    Zepeda, S. J. (2007). Instructional supervision: Applying tools and concepts. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website