European Welfare States: Comparative Perspectives

Books

Mel Cousins

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Boxes, Figures and Tables

    Boxes
    • 1.1 Definitions of ‘welfare state’ 6
    • 1.2 What is qualitative comparative analysis? 11
    • 3.1 Definitions of ‘globalisation’ 41
    • 3.2 Globalisation and Central and Eastern Europe 46
    • 4.1 What is gender? 58
    • 4.2 Gender and the Beveridge Report 60
    • 4.3 EU law and equality in social security 62
    • 5.1 What is a correlation? 83
    • 6.1 The Gini coefficient 116
    • 7.1 Definitions of ‘retrenchment’ 132
    Figures
    • 5.1 Economic and welfare development, 2001 100
    • 7.1 Welfare expenditures (PPP$) and risk of poverty, 2001 166
    Tables
    • 3.1 Trade openness and foreign investment in selected countries, 2003 45
    • 3.2 Variation in social protection expenditure in 16 European countries, 1960–2001 53
    • 4.1 Women on welfare, 1500–2000 60
    • 5.1 Adoption of welfare programmes in European countries, 1890–1920 81
    • 5.2 Consolidation of welfare states in 1920 84
    • 5.3 Welfare states in 1930 86
    • 5.4 Welfare states in 1950 90
    • 5.5 Welfare states c. 1970 94
    • 5.6 Welfare states c. 1980 95
    • 5.7 Welfare state trajectories, 1980–2000 98
    • 6.1 Income inequality, 1980s to 2001 117
    • 6.2 Poverty rates in Europe, 2001 118
    • 6.3 Effectiveness of welfare payments on household income poverty, 1996 119
    • 7.1 Economy and demography, c. 2002 125
    • 7.2 Labour force, 2001 126
    • 7.3 Welfare state spending and structure, 2001 127
    • 7.4 Gross and net social expenditure, 1997 128
    • 7.5 Gender and household incomes, mid-1990s 129
    • 8.1 Attitudes to the welfare state, 1992 176
    • 8.2 Attitudes to government action on poverty, 1996/7 178
    • 8.3 Attitudes to solidarity, 1996–2001 178
    • 8.4 Willingness to pay more taxes to reduce poverty, 2001 179
    • 8.5 Attitudes to welfare reform, 2001 179
    • 9.1 Demographic data 196

    Acknowledgements

    I would like, in particular, to thank Zoë Elliot for her support in the development and writing of this book. A number of anonymous referees commented on both the original proposal and the text and contributed greatly to the structure of the book. I would also like to thank a number of colleagues who have commented on different sections of the book: Mary Daly, Frans Pennings, and Simon Roberts. The usual disclaimers apply.

  • References

    Abrahamson, P. (1999) ‘The Welfare modelling business’, Social Policy and Administration, 33 (4): 394–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00160
    Abrahamson, P. (2003) ‘The end of the Scandinavian model? Welfare reform in the Nordic countries’, Journal of Societal and Social Policy, 2 (2): 19–36.
    Adema, W. (2001) Net Social Expenditure. Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Paper No. 52. Paris: OECD.
    Adema, W. (2002) Bosses and Babies. Paris: OECD.
    Adorno, T. and Horkheimer, M. (1972) Dialectic of Enlightenment. London: Verso.
    Alber, J. (1981) ‘Government responses to the challenge of unemployment: The development of unemployment insurance in Europe’, in P.Flora and A.J.Heidenheimer (eds), The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick: Transaction.
    Alber, J. (1986) ‘Germany’, in P.Flora (ed.), Growth to Limits. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Allan, J. and Scruggs, L. (2004) ‘Political partisanship and Welfare State reform in advanced industrial societies’, American Journal of Political Science, 48 (3): 496–512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00083.x
    Amenta, E. (1998) Bold Relief: Institutional Politics and the Origins of Modern American Social Policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Andersen, K. (2001) ‘The politics of retrenchment in a social democratic Welfare State’, Comparative Political Studies, 34 (9): 1063–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010414001034009005
    Anderson, L.R.S. (2003) ‘A global social policy?’ PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina.
    Antolín, P., de Serres, A. and de la Maisonneuve, C. (2004) Long-term Budgetary Implications of Tax-favoured Retirement Savings Plans. Economics Department Working Paper 393. Paris: OECD.
    Arts, W. and Gelissen, J. (2001) ‘Welfare States, solidarity and justice principles: Does the type really matter?’, Acta Sociologica, 44 (4): 283–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000169930104400401
    Arts, W. and Gelissen, J. (2002) ‘Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more? A state-of-the-art report’, Journal of European Social Policy, 12 (2): 137–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0952872002012002114
    Arts, W., Halman, L. and van Oorshot, W. (2003) ‘The Welfare State: Villain or hero of the piece?’, in W.A.Arts, L.Halman and J.A.P.Hagenaars (eds), The Cultural Diversity of European Unity: Findings, Explanations and Reflections from the European Values Study. Leiden: Brill.
    Baldwin, P. (1990) The Politics of Social Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511586378
    Baldwin, P. (1996) ‘Can we define a European Welfare State model?’, in B.Greve (ed.), The Scandinavian Model in a Period of Change. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Baradasi, E., Lasaosa, A., Micklewright, J. and Nagy, G. (1999) Measuring the Generosity of Unemployment Benefit Systems. Working Paper 1999/8, Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    Beneria, L. (2001) Changing Employment Patterns and the Informalization of Jobs. Geneva: ILO.
    Beveridge, Sir William (1942) The Beveridge Report. Norwich: HMSO.
    Blackburn, S. (1999) ‘How useful are feminist theories of the Welfare State’, Womens' History Review, 4 (3): 369–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09612029500200174
    Blair, T. and Schroeder, G. (1999) Europe: The Third Way.
    Blekesaune, M. and Quadagno, J. (2003) ‘Public altitudes towards Welfare State policies: a comparative analysis of 24 nations’, European Sociological Review, 19 (5): 415–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/19.5.415
    Bock, G. and Thane, P. (1991) Maternity and Gender Policies: Women and the Rise of the European Welfare States 1880s-1950s. London: Routledge.
    Boeri, T., Börsch-Supan, A. and Tabellini, G. (2001) ‘Would you like to shrink the Welfare State?’, Economic Policy, 9–50.
    Boisard, P., Cartron, D., Valeyre, A. and Gollac, M. (2002a) Time and Work: Duration of Work. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    Boisard, P., Cartron, D., Gollac, M., Valeyre, A. and Besançcon, J.-B. (2002b) Time and Work: Work Intensity. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    Boix, C. and Stokes, S.C. (2003) ‘Endogenous democratization’, World Politics, 55 (4): 517–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/wp.2003.0019
    Börzel, T.A. and Risse, T. (2000) When Europe Hits Home: Europeanization and Domestic Change. European Integration Online Paper 4 (15).
    Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (2000) ‘Reciprocity, self-interest and the Welfare State’, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, 26 (4): 33–53.
    Boyer, R. (2002) Is there a Welfare State Crisis? A Comparative Study of French Social Policy. Geneva: ILO.
    Bradley, D., Huber, E., Mahler, S., Nielsen, F. and Stephens, J.D. (2003) ‘Distribution and redistribution in post-industrial democracies’, World Politics, 55 (2): 193–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/wp.2003.0009
    Bradshaw, J. and Finch, N. (2002) A Comparison of Child Benefit Packages in 22 Countries. Leeds: CDS.
    Brewer, M., Goodman, A., Myck, M., Shaw, J. and Shepherd, A. (2004) Poverty and Income Inequality in Britain: 2004. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    Briggs, A. (1961) ‘The Welfare State in historical perspective’, European Journal of Sociology, 2: 221–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003975600000412
    Bruce, M. (1961) The Coming of the Welfare State. London: Batsford.
    Callan, T., Boyle, G., McCarthy, T., Nolan, B., Walsh, J., Nestor, R. and van de Gaer, D. (2000) Dynamic Effects of a Basic Income: Phase 2 of a Study for the Working Group on Basic Income (unpublished).
    Cameron, D. (1978) ‘The expansion of the public economy: A comparative analysis’, American Political Science Review, 74 (4): 1243–61.
    Carroll, E. (1999) Emergence and Structuring of Social Insurance Institutions. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    Carroll, E. (2003) ‘The clear and present danger of the “globaloney” industry: Globalization concepts in welfare research and social opinion pieces since 1995’, Global Social Policy, 3 (2): 195–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468018103003002007
    Castles, F.G. (ed.) (1993) Families of Nations: Patterns of Public Policy in Western Democracies. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
    Castles, F.G. (1994) ‘On religion and public policy: Does Catholicism make a difference?’, European Journal of Political Research, 25 (1): 19–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1994.tb01199.x
    Castles, F.G. (1998) Comparative Public Policy: Patterns of Post-War Transformation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Castles, F.G. (2004) The Future of the Welfare State: Crisis Myths and Crisis Realities. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199270171.001.0001
    Castles, F.G. and Mitchell, D. (1993) ‘Worlds of welfare and families of nations’, in F.G.Castles (ed.), Families of Nations: Patterns of Public Policy in Western Democracies. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
    Cigno, A., Casolaro, L. and Rosati, F.C. (2000) The Role of Social Security in Household Decisions. Working Paper 394. Munich: CESifo.
    Cippola, C.M. (1976) The Fontana Economic History of Europe, Vol. 6 (2). Glasgow: Collins.
    Clayton, R. and Pontussen, J. (1998) ‘Welfare-State retrenchment revisited’, World Politics, 51 (1): 67–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0043887100007796
    Collier, D. and Messick, R.E. (1975) ‘Prerequisites versus diffusion: Testing alternative explanations of social security adoption’, American Political Science Review, 69 (4): 1299–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1955290
    Condorcet, J.-A.-N. (1795/1988) Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progress de l'esprit humain. Paris: Flammarion.
    Conley, D. (2000) ‘Home ownership, poverty and the Welfare State’. Paper, New York University.
    Council of Europe (1998) Gender Mainstreaming. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
    Cousins, M. (1997) ‘Ireland's place in the worlds of welfare capitalism’, Journal of European Social Policy, 7 (3): 223–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879700700304
    Cousins, M. (2003) The Birth of Social Welfare. Dublin: Four Courts.
    Daly, M. (1997) ‘Welfare States under pressure: Cash benefits in European Welfare States over the last ten years’, Journal of European Social Policy, 7 (2): 129–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879700700204
    Daly, M. (2000) The Gender Division of Welfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Daly, M. (2001) ‘Globalization and the Bismarckian Welfare States’, in R.Sykes, B.Palier and P.M.Prior (eds), Globalization and the European Welfare States: Challenges and Change. London: Macmillan.
    Dean, M. (1995) ‘Governing the unemployed self in an active society’, Economy and Society, 24 (4): 559–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149500000025
    Dion, M. (2005) ‘The political origins of social security in Mexico during the Cárdenas and Ávila Comacho administrations’, Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, 21 (1): 59–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/msem.2005.21.1.59
    Docherty, T. (1993) Postmodernism: A Reader. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Duncan, S. (1995) ‘Theorizing European gender systems’, Journal of European Social Policy, 5 (4): 263–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879500500401
    Ebbinghaus, B. (2003) ‘How the cases you choose limit the questions you ask’, paper presented at the European Consortium for Political Research Conference, Marburg.
    Ebbinghaus, B. and Manow, P. (2001) ‘Introduction: Studying varieties of capitalism’, in B.Ebbinghaus and P.Mannow (eds), Comparing Welfare Capitalism. London: Routledge.
    Employment Taskforce (2003) Jobs, Jobs, Jobs: Creating More Employment in Europe. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    Esping-Andersen, G. (1985) Politics Against Markets. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity.
    Esping-Andersen, G. (1997) ‘Hybrid or unique? The Japanese Welfare State between Europe and America’, Journal of European Social Policy, 7 (3): 179–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879700700301
    Esping-Andersen, G. (1999) Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198742002.001.0001
    Esping-Andersen, G., Gallie, D., Hemerijck, A. and Myles, J. (2001) A New Welfare Architecture for Europe? Report to the Belgian presidency of the EU.
    European Commission (1994) White Paper on Growth, Competitiveness and Employment. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    European Commission (1999) A Concerted Strategy for Modernising Social Protection. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    European Commission (2001a) Employment in Europe 2000. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    European Commission (2001b) ‘Reforms of pension systems in the EU: An analysis of the policy options’, European Economy, 171–222.
    European Commission (2002) Social Protection in Europe 2001. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    European Commission (2003a) Adequate and Sustainable Pensions. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    European Commission (2003b) Communication on Immigration, Integration and Employment. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    European Commission (2004a) Making Work Pay. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    European Commission (2004b) Development of a Methodology for the Collection of Harmonised Statistics on Childcare. Brussels: European Commission.
    Eurostat (2002) ‘Women and men reconciling work and family life’, Statistics in Focus, 9.
    Eurostat (2003) ‘How women and men spend their time’, Statistics in Focus, 12.
    Evans, M., Eyre, J., Millar, J. and Sarre, S. (2003) New Deal for Lone Parents: Second Synthesis Report of the National Evaluation. Leeds: CDS.
    Fahey, T. (2002) ‘The family economy in the development of welfare regimes: A case study’, European Sociological Review, 18 (1): 51–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/18.1.51
    Ferge, Z. (2001) ‘Welfare and “ill-fare” systems in central-eastern Europe’, in R.Sykes, B.Palier and P.M.Prior (eds), Globalization and European Welfare States. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Ferrera, M. (1993) EC Citizens and Social Protection. Brussels: EC Commission.
    Ferrera, M. (1996) ‘The “southern model” of welfare in social Europe’, Journal of European Social Policy, 6 (1): 17–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879600600102
    Ferrera, M., Hemerijck, A. and Rhodes, M. (2000) ‘The future of social Europe’. Report for the Portuguese presidency of the EU.
    Flaquer, L. (2000) Family Policy and Welfare State in Southern Europe. Working Paper 185. Barcelona: ICPS.
    Flora, P. (1986) ‘Introduction’, in P.Flora (ed.), Growth to Limits. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Flora, P. and Alber, J. (1981) ‘Modernization, democratization, and the development of Welfare States in Western Europe’, in P.Flora and A.J.Heidenheimer (eds), The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick: Transaction.
    Flora, P. and Heidenheimer, A.J. (eds) (1981) The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America. New Brunswick: Transaction.
    Fölster, S. (1996) Social Insurance Based on Personal Savings Accounts. Working Paper 454. Stockholm: Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research.
    Fölster, S., Gidehag, R., Orszag, M. and Snower, D. (2002) Assessing Welfare Accounts. Discussion Paper 533. Bonn: IZA.
    Förster, M.F. and d'Ercole, M. (2005) Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries in the Second Half of the 1990s. Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper 22. Paris: OECD.
    Frank, A.G. (1998) ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Frye, T. (2003) ‘State spending and globalization(s) in the post-Communist world’.
    Fultz, E., Ruck, M. and Steinhilber, S. (2003) The Gender Dimensions of Social Security Reform in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: ILO.
    Gallie, D. and Paugam, S. (2002) Social Precarity and Social Integration. Brussels: EU Commission.
    Garrett, G. (1998) Partisan Politics in the Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625633
    Garrett, G. and Mitchell, D. (1999) Globalization and the Welfare State. Working Paper 1999–04. Yale: Leitner Program.
    Gauthier, A. (2001) ‘The impact of public policies on families and demographic behaviour’, paper presented at the ESF/EURESCO Conference, Bad Herrenalb.
    Geanakoplos, J., Mitchell, O.S. and Zeldes, S.P. (1998) ‘Would a privatized social security system really pay a higher rate of return?’, in J.Arnold, S.Graetz and A.Munnell (eds), Framing the Social Security Debate. Washington, DC: Brooking Institution Press.
    Gelissen, J. (2000) ‘Popular support for institutional solidarity: A comparison between European Welfare States’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 9: 285–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2397.00140
    Genschel, P. (2002) ‘Globalization, tax competition and the Welfare State’, Politics and Society, 30 (2): 245–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0032329202030002003
    Geurts, S., Kompier, M. and Gründemann, R. (2000) ‘Curing the Dutch disease? Sickness absence and work disability in the Netherlands’, International Social Security Review, 53 (4): 79–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-246X.00106
    Gilbert, B. (1966) The Evolution of National Insurance in Great Britain. London: Michael Joseph.
    Gilbert, B. (1970) British Social Policy 1914–1939. London: Batsford.
    Ginn, J., Street, D. and Arber, S. (eds) (2001) Women, Work and Pensions, Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Girvetz, H. (1968) ‘Welfare State’, in D.L.Sill (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan.
    Goodin, R.E., Headey, B., Muffels, R. and Dirven, H.-J. (1999) The Real Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490927
    Graham, C. (2002) Public Attitudes Matter. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Green-Pedersen, C. (2001) ‘Welfare-State retrenchment in Denmark and the Netherlands, 1982–1998: The role of party competition and party Comparative Political Studies, 34 (9): 963–85.
    Green-Pedersen, C. (2002a) The Politics of Justification. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    Green-Pedersen, C. (2002b) ‘What to make of the Dutch and Danish “miracles”’, in B.Södersten (ed.), Globalization and the Welfare State. London: Palgrave.
    Green-Pedersen, C. (2004) ‘The dependent variable problem within the study of Welfare-State retrenchment: Defining the problem and looking for solutions’, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 6 (1): 3–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1387698042000222763
    Green-Pedersen, C. and Lindbom, A. (2002) ‘Politics within paths: The trajectories of Danish and Swedish pension systems’, paper presented at a conference.
    Green-Pedersen, C., van Kersbergen, K. and Hemerijck, A. (2001) ‘Neo-liberalism, the “Third Way” or what? Recent Social Democratic welfare policies in Denmark and the Netherlands’, Journal of European Public Policy, 8 (2): 307–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501760110041604
    Guillen, A.M. (1999) Pension Reform in Spain (1975–1997): The Role of Organized Labour. EUI Working Papers EUF 99/6. Florence: EUI.
    Guillén, A.M. and Álvarez, S. (2002) ‘Southern European Welfare States facing globalization: Is there social dumping?’, in R.Sigg and C.Behrendt (eds), Social Security in the Global Village. New Brunswick: Transaction.
    Guillén, A.M. and Álvarez, S. (2004) ‘The EU's impact on the Spanish Welfare State’, Journal of European Social Policy, 14 (3): 285–99.
    GuillénA., Álvarez, S., and Adao e Silva, P. (2002) Redesigning the Spanish and Portuguese Welfare States: The Impact of Accession into the European Union. Working Paper 85. Harvard: Centre for European Studies.
    Habermas, J. (1989) Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT.
    Hacker, J. (2004) ‘Privatizing risk without privatizing the Welfare State’, American Political Science Review, 98 (2): 243–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003055404001121
    Hall, P.A. (2003) ‘Aligning ontology and methodology in comparative research’, in J.Mahoney and D.Rueschemeyer (eds), Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Harris, J. (1977) William Beveridge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Haverland, M. (2001) ‘Another Dutch Miracle? Explaining Dutch and German pension trajectories’, Journal of European Social Policy, 11 (4): 308–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892870101100402
    Hay, C., Watson, M. and Wincott, D. (1999) Globalisation, European Integration and the Persistence of European Social Models. Working Paper 3/99. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
    Heien, T. and Hofäcker, D. (1999) How do Welfare Regimes Influence Attitudes? Working Paper No. 9. Bielfield: University of Bielfield.
    Herbertson, T.T. and Orszag, J.M. (2003) The Early Retirement Burden. Discussion Paper 816. Bonn: IZA.
    Hicks, A. (1999) Social Democracy and Welfare Capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Hicks, A. and Kenworthy, L. (1998) ‘Cooperation and political economic performance in affluent democratic capitalism’, American Journal of Sociology, 103 (6): 1631–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/231403
    Hinrichs, K., Offe, C. and Wiesenthal, H. (1988) ‘Time, money and Welfare-State capitalism’, in J.Keane (ed.), Civil Society and the State. London: Verso.
    Hirst, P. and Thompson, G. (1997) ‘Globalization in question: International economic relations and forms of public governance’, in J.R.Hollingsworth and R.Boyer (eds), Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Holzmann, R., MacKellar, L. and Rutkowski, M. (2003) ‘Accelerating the European reform agenda’ in R.Holzmann, M.Orenstein and M.Rutkowski (eds), Pension Reform in Europe. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/0-8213-5358-6
    Hong, Y.-S. (1998) Welfare, Modernity, and the Weimar State, 1919–1933. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Huber, E. and Stephens, J.D. (2000) ‘Partisan governance, women's employment, and the Social Democratic service state’, American Sociological Review, 65 (3): 323–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657460
    Huber, E. and Stephens, J.D. (2001) Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Huberman, M. and Lewchuck, W. (2002) European Economic Integration and the Labour Compact, 1850–1913, Scientific Series 2002s-34. Montréal: Cirano.
    ILO/Eurodata (2001) Database on the Cost of Social Security (1949–1993). Geneva: Mannheim.
    Immergut, E.M. (1992) Health Politics: Interests and Institutions in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Immervoll, H. and O'Donoghue, C. (2001) Welfare Benefits and Work Incentives. Working Paper No. EM 4/01. Cambridge: EUROMOD.
    Iversen, T. (1998) ‘The choices for Scandinavian social democracy in comparative perspective’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 14 (1): 59–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/14.1.59
    Iversen, T. (2001) ‘The dynamics of Welfare State expansion: Trade openness, deindustrialization and partisan politics’, in P.Pierson (ed.), The New Politics of the Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Iversen, T. (2005) Capitalism, Democracy and Welfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511758645
    Iversen, T. and Cusack, T. (2000) ‘The causes of Welfare State expansion: deindustrialization or globalization?’, World Politics, 52: 313–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0043887100016567
    Janoski, T. and Hicks, A.M. (eds) (1994) The Comparative Political Economy of the Welfare State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Jenson, J. (1997) ‘Who cares? Gender and welfare regimes’, Social Politics, 7 (4): 182–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sp/4.2.182
    Jütte, R. (1994) Poverty and Deviance in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kangas, O. (1991) The Politics of Social Rights. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    Kautto, M. and Kvist, J. (2002) Distinct or Extinct? Nordic Welfare States in the European Context. Working Paper 7. Copenhagen: Danish National Institute of Social Research.
    Kelstrup, M. (2001) The European Union and Globalisation: Reflections on Strategies of Individual States. Working Paper. Copenhagen: COPRI.
    Kemeny, J. (1995) ‘Theories of power in “The three worlds of welfare capitalism”’, Journal of European Social Policy, 5 (2): 87–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879500500201
    Kemmerling, A. (2002) The Employment Effects of Different Regimes of Welfare State Taxation. Discussion Paper 02/8. Köln: MPIfG.
    Kemmerling, A. (2003) Report on the Social Dimension of Ezoneplus. Working Paper 13. Berlin: Ezoneplus.
    Kennedy, K.A., Giblin, T. and McHugh, D. (1988) The Economic Development of Ireland. London: Routledge.
    Kerr, C., Dunlop, J.T., Harbison, F. and Myers, C.A. (1960) Industrialism and Industrial Man. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Kim, H. (2000) Do Welfare States Reduce Poverty? Working Paper 233. Luxembourg: Luxembourg Income Study.
    King, M.C. (2002) Strong Families or Patriarchal Economies? EUI Working Papers TRSC 2002/14. Florence: EUI.
    Korpi, W. (1980) ‘Social policy strategies and distributional conflict in capitalist democracies’, West European Politics, 3 (3): 296–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388008424288
    Korpi, W. (1989) ‘Power, politics, and state autonomy in the development of social citizenship: Social rights during sickness in eighteen OECD countries since 1930’, American Sociological Review, 54: 309–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095608
    Korpi, W. (2000) ‘Faces of inequality: gender, class and patterns of inequalities in different types of Welfare States’, Social Politics, 7 (2): 127–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sp/7.2.127
    Korpi, W. and Palme, J. (1998) ‘The paradox of redistribution and strategies of equality’, American Sociological Review, 63 (5): 661–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657333
    Korpi, W. and Palme, J. (2003) ‘New politics and class politics in Welfare State regress: A comparative analysis of retrenchment in 18 countries, 1975–1995’, American Political Science Review, 97 (3): 425–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003055403000789
    Koven, S. and Michel, S. (1990) ‘Womanly duties: Maternalist politics and the origins of Welfare States in France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States, 1880–1920’, American Historical Review, 95: 1076–1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2163479
    Koven, S. and Michel, S. (eds) (1993) Mothers of a New World, Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States. London: Routledge.
    Král, J. (2004) ‘The role of private pensions in the Czech pension reform’, in Reforming Public Pensions: Sharing the Experience of OECD and Transition Countries. Paris: OECD.
    Leisering, L. (2003) ‘Nation state and Welfare State: An intellectual and political history’, Journal of European Social Policy, 13 (2): 175–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0958928703013002005
    Lewis, J. (1992) ‘Gender and the development of welfare regimes’, Journal of European Social Policy, 2 (3): 159–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095892879200200301
    Lewis, J. (1997) ‘Gender and welfare regimes: Further thoughts’, Social Politics, 7 (4): 160–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sp/4.2.160
    Lewis, J. (2002) ‘Gender and Welfare State change’, European Societies, 4 (4): 331–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1461669022000022324
    Lindert, P.H. (1998) ‘Poor relief before the Welfare State: Britain versus the Continent, 1780–1880’, European Review of Economic History, 2: 101–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1361491698000069
    Lis, C. and Soly, H. (1979) Poverty and Capitalism in Pre-industrial Europe. Brighton: Harvester.
    Lowe, R. (2004) The welfare state in Britain Since 1945. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    McIntosh, M. (1978) ‘The state and the oppression of women’, in A.Kuhn and A.Wolpe (eds), Feminism and Materialism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Mácha, M. (2002) ‘The political economy of pension reform in the Czech Republic’, in E.Fultz (ed.), Pension Reform in Central and Eastern Europe. Geneva: ILO.
    Mackie, T. and Rose, R. (2000) International Almanac of Electoral History. London: Macmillan.
    Maddison, A. (1991) Dynamic Forces in Capitalist Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Maître, B., Whelan, C.T. and Nolan, B. (2002) Household Income Packaging in the European Union: Welfare State Income and Welfare Regime. EPAG Working Paper 35. Colchester: University of Essex.
    Malthus, T.R. (1798/1992) An Essay on the Principles of Population. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mares, I. (2003) The Politics of Social Risk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Marshall, T. (1950/1992) Citizenship and Social Class. London: Pluto Press.
    Mau, S. (2001) Patterns of Popular Support for the Welfare State. Discussion Paper FS III 01–405. Berlin: WZB.
    Mishra, R. (1977) Society and Social Policy: Theoretical Perspectives on Welfare. London: Macmillan.
    Mitchell, D. (1991) Income Transfers in Ten Welfare States. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Mittelman, J.H. (2000) The Globalization Syndrome. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Morel, N. (2003) ‘Care policies and Welfare State transformation’, paper presented at the RC19 Conference, Toronto.
    Moreno, L. (2002) Spain's National Background Report. Madrid: WRAMSOC.
    Moreno, L. and Arriba, A. (1999) Welfare and Decentralization in Spain. EUI Working Papers EUF 99/8. Florence: EUI.
    Moreno, L. and Sarasa, S. (1992) The Spanish ‘Via Media’ to the Development of the Welfare State. Working Paper 92–13. Madrid: Instiuto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados.
    Morgan, K. (2003) ‘The politics of mothers' employment’, World Politics, 55: 259–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/wp.2003.0013
    Morgan, K. and Zippel, K. (2003) ‘Paid to care: The origins and effects of care leave policies in Western Europe’, Social Politics, 10 (1): 49–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxg004
    Muffels, R. and Dirven, H.-J. (2001) ‘Marketization of social security in the Netherlands’, in J.Dixon and M.Hyde (eds), The Marketization of Social Security: International Perspectives. Westport, CT: Quorum.
    Müller, K. (2002a) ‘Between state and market: Czech and Slovene pension reform in comparison’, in E.Fultz (ed.), Pension Reform in Central and Eastern Europe. Geneva: ILO.
    Müller, K. (2002b) The Political Economy of Pension Reform in Central and Eastern Europe. Paris: OECD.
    Mulligan, C.B., Gil, R. and Sala-I-Martin, X. (2002) Social Security and Democracy. Working Paper No. 8958. Cambridge: NBER.
    Myles, J. and Pierson, P. (2001) ‘The comparative political economy of pension reform’, in P.Pierson (ed.), The New Politics of the Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Myles, J. and Quadagno, J. (2002) ‘Political theories of the Welfare State’, Social Service Review, 34–57.
    Nickell, S., Nunziata, L., Ochel, W. and Quintini, G. (2002) The Beveridge Curve: Unemployment and Wages in the OECD from the 1960s to the 1990s. London: CEPR.
    O'Connor, J. (1973) The Fiscal Crisis of the State. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    O'Connor, J.S. (1993) ‘Gender, class and citizenship in the comparative analysis of Welfare State regimes’, British Journal of Sociology, 44 (3): 501–518. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591814
    O'Rourke, K.H. and Williamson, J.G. (2002) ‘When did globalization begin?’, European Review of Economic History, 6: 23–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1361491602000023
    OECD (1994) Jobs Study. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (1997) Employment Outlook. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (2000) Employment Outlook. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (2003) Main Economic Indicators. Paris: OECD.
    OECD (2004) Social Expenditure Database 1980–2001. Paris: OECD.
    Offe, C. (1984) Contradictions of the Welfare State. Cambridge: MIT.
    Offe, C. (1992) ‘A non-productivist design for social policies’, in P.van Parjis (ed.), Arguing for Basic Income. London: Verso.
    Orenstein, M.A. and Haas, M.R. (2002) Globalization and the Development of Welfare States in Post-Communist Europe. Discussion Paper 2002–02. Cambridge: BCSIA.
    Orloff, A.S. (1993a) ‘Gender and the social rights of citizenship: The comparative analysis of gender relations and Welfare States’, American Sociological Review, 58 (3): 303–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095903
    Orloff, A.S. (1993b) The Politics of Pensions. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.
    Orloff, A.S. (1996) ‘Gender and the Welfare State’, Annual Review of Sociology, 22: 51–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.51
    Orszag, J.M. and Snower, D. (2002) From Unemployment Benefit to Unemployment Accounts. Discussion Paper 532. Bonn: IZA.
    Paine, T. (1796/1992) ‘Agrarian Justice’, in Rights of Man, Common Sense and Other Political Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Palme, J. (1990) Pension Rights in Welfare Capitalism. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    Parker, H. (1994) ‘Citizen's income’, Citizen's Income Bulletin, 17: 4–8.
    Pedersen, S. (1993) Family, Dependence and the Origins of the Welfare State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Peillon, M. (1995) ‘Support for welfare in Ireland: Legitimacy and interest’, Administration, 43 (3): 3–21.
    Pensions Commission (2004) First Report. London: HMSO.
    Pierson, C. (1998) Beyond the Welfare State?London: Blackwell.
    Pierson, P. (1994) Dismantling the Welfare State?Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Pierson, P. (1996) ‘The new politics of the Welfare State’, World Politics, 48 (2): 143–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/wp.1996.0004
    Pierson, P. (2000) ‘Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics’, American Political Science Review, 94 (2): 251–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2586011
    Pierson, P. (ed.) (2001) The New Politics of the Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198297564.001.0001
    Potček, M. (1997) ‘Splitting the Welfare State: The Czech and Slovak cases’, Social Research, 64 (4): 1549–87.
    Potček, M. (2004) ‘EU accession and Czech social policy’, Journal of European Social Policy, 14 (3): 253–66.
    Poulantzas, N. (1973) Political Power and Social Class. London: New Left Books.
    Poulantzas, N. (1976) ‘The Capitalist State: A reply to Miliband and Laclau’, New Left Review, 95: 63–83.
    Powell, M. (2004) ‘In search of the dependent variable: Welfare change in Europe’, Paper. University of Bath.
    Przeworski, A., Alvarez, M., Cheibub, J.A. and Limongi, F. (1996) ‘What makes democracies endure?’, Journal of Democracy, 7 (1): 39–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.1996.0016
    Quadagno, J. (1988) The Transformation of Old Age Security. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Radaelli, C. (2000) Whither Europeanization? Concept Stretching and Substantive Change. European Integration Online Paper4 (8).
    Ragin, C. (1994) ‘Introduction to qualitative comparative analysis’, in T.Janoski and A.M.Hicks (eds), The Comparative Political Economy of the Welfare State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rake, K. and Daly, M. (2002) Gender, Household and Individual Income in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the USA and the UK. Working Paper 332. Luxembourg: LIS.
    Rayner, E., Shah, S., White, R., Dawes, L. and Tinmsley, K. (2000) Evaluating Jobseeker's Allowance: A Summary of the Research Findings. Leeds: CDS.
    Rein, M. and Turner, J. (2001) ‘Publicprivate interactions: Mandatory pensions in Australia, the Netherlands and Switzerland’, Review of Population and Social Policy, 10: 107–153.
    Rimlinger, G. (1971) Welfare Policy and Industrialization in Europe, America and Russia. New York: John Wiley.
    Ringen, S. (1987) The Possibility of Politics. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Rodrik, D. (1997) Has Globalization Gone Too Far?Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.
    Rose, N. (1996) ‘The death of the social? Re-figuring the territory of government’, Economy and Society, 25 (3): 327–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149600000018
    Ross, F. (1999) ‘Beyond Left and Right: The New Partisan Politics of the Welfare State. EUI Working Papers EUF 99/4. Florence: EUI.
    Rothstein, B. (1992) ‘Labormarket institutions and working-class strength’, in S.Steinmo, K.Thelen and F.Longstreth (eds), Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Said, E. (1993) Culture and Imperialism. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Sainsbury, D. (1996) Gender, Equality and Welfare States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511520921
    Sainsbury, D. (1999) Gender and Welfare State Regimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198294166.001.0001
    Saxonberg, S. and Sirovátka, T. (2004) ‘The role of social policy in seeking the balance between work and family after Communism’, paper presented at the ISA Conference, Paris.
    Scharpf, F.W. (2000) ‘The viability of advanced Welfare States in the international economy: Vulnerabilities and options’, Journal of European Public Policy, 7 (2): 190–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/135017600343160
    Schludi, M. (2003) Chances and Limitations of ‘Benchmarking’ in the Reform of Welfare State Structures: The Case of Pension Policy. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
    Schmid, G. (1998) Transitional Labour Markets: A New European Employment Strategy. Discussion Paper FS I 98–06. Berlin: WZB.
    Schwartz, H. (n.d.) ‘Down the wrong path: Path dependence, increasing returns and historical institutionalism’, Paper. University of Virginia.
    Scott, J.A. (1986) ‘Gender: A useful category of historical analysis’, American Historical Review, 91 (5): 1053–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1864376
    Shalev, M. (2002) ‘Limits of and alternatives to multiple regression in macrocomparative research’, paper presented at a conference.
    Siim, B. (1987) ‘The Scandinavian Welfare State: Towards sexual equality or a new kind of male domination?’, Acta Sociologica, 30 (3/4): 255–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000169938703000303
    Sirovátka, T. and Rabušic, L. (1998) The Czech Welfare State and its Legitimacy. Vienna: SOCCO.
    Sirovátka, T., van Oorschot, W. and Rabušic, L. (1998) Welfare State Solidarity and Support: The Czech Republic and the Netherlands. Vienna: SOCCO.
    Sjöberg, O. (2000a) Duties in the Welfare State. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    Sjöberg, O. (2000b) ‘Unemployment and unemployment benefits in the OECD 1960–1990’, Work, Employment and Society, 14 (1): 51–76.
    Skocpol, T. (1985) ‘Bringing the state back in: Strategies of analysis in current research’, in P.Evans, D.Rueschemeyer and T.Skocpol (eds), Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628283
    Skocpol, T. (1992) Protecting Soldiers and Mothers. Cambridge: Belknap.
    Skocpol, T. and Ritter, G. (1991) ‘Gender and the origins of modern social policies in Britain and the United States’, Studies in American Political Development, 5: 36–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0898588X0000016X
    Sleebos, J. (2003) Low Fertility Rates in OECD Countries: Facts and Policy Responses. Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper 15. Paris: OECD. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/568477207883
    So, A.Y. (1990) Social Change and Development: Modernization, Dependency and World-System Theories. Newbury Park: Sage.
    S0rensen, A. (2002) ‘Gender equality in earnings at work and at home’, in M.Kautto, T.Fritzell, B.Hvinden, J.Kvist and H.Uusitalo (eds), Nordic Welfare States in the European Context. London: Routledge.
    Sörensen, K. and Bergqvist, C. (2002) Gender and the Social Democratic Welfare Regime. Stockholm: National Institute for Working Life.
    Standing, G. (1999) ‘Global feminization though flexible labor: A theme revisited’, World Development, 27 (3): 583–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X%2898%2900151-X
    Steinmo, S. and Watts, J. (1995) ‘It's the institutions stupid! Why comprehensive national health insurance fails in America’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 20 (2): 329–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/03616878-20-2-329
    Stephens, J. (1979) The Transition from Capitalism to Socialism. London: Macmillan.
    Struyven, L. and Steurs, G. (2003) The Competitive Market for Employment Services in the Netherlands. Paris: OECD. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/723322815642
    Suhrcke, M. (2001) Preferences for Inequality: East vs. West. Discussion Paper 150. Hamburg: HWWA.
    Svalfors, S. (2004) ‘Class, attitudes and the Welfare State’, Social Policy and Administration, 38 (2): 119–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2004.00381.x
    Swank, D. (2002a) Global Capital, Political Institutions, and Policy Change in Developed Welfare States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613371
    Swank, D. (2002b) ‘European welfare states: Regionalization, globalization and social policy change’, in T.Brewer, P.A.Brenton and G.Boyd (eds), Globalizing Europe: Deepening Integration, Alliance Capitalism and Structural Statecraft. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Swank, D. (2003) ‘Withering welfare? Globalization, political economic institutions and the foundations of contemporary Welfare States’, in L.Weiss (ed.), States in the Global Economy: Bringing Domestic Institutions Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Swank, D. and Martin, C. (2001) ‘Employers and the Welfare State’, Comparative Political Studies, 34 (8): 889–923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010414001034008003
    Swenson, P. (2002) Capitalists against Markets: The Making of Labor Markets and Welfare States in the United States and Sweden. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0195142977.001.0001
    Sykes, R. (1998) ‘Studying European social policy — issues and perspectives’, in R.Sykes and P.Alcock (eds), Developments in European Social Policy. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Sykes, R., Palier, B. and Prior, P.M. (eds) (2001) Globalization and European Welfare States: Challenges and Change. Houndmills: Palgrave.
    Taylor-Gooby, P. (1985) ‘The politics of welfare: Public attitudes and behaviour’, in R.Klein and M.O'Higgins (eds), The Future of Welfare. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Taylor-Gooby, P. (ed.) (2004) New Risks, New Welfare. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/019926726X.001.0001
    Therborn, G. (1993) ‘Beyond the lonely nation state’, in F.G.Castles (ed.), Families of Nations. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
    Therborn, G. (1995) European Modernity and Beyond. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222317
    Titmuss, R.M. (1974) Social Policy. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Triplett, J.E. and Bosworth, B.P. (2003) ‘Productivity measurement issues in service industries’, FRBNY Economic Policy Review, September: 23–33.
    United Nations (2000) Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Population?New York: UN.
    United Nations Development Programme (1997) Human Development Report. New York: UNDP.
    Usui, C. (1994) ‘Welfare state development in a world system context: Event history analysis of first social insurance legislation among 60 countries, 1880–1960’, in T.Janoski and A.M.Hicks (eds), The Comparative Political Economy of the Welfare State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Van der Veen, R., van der Trommel, W. and de Vroom, B. (2000) ‘Institutional change of Welfare States’, in H.Wagenaar (ed.), Government Institutions: Effects, Changes and Normative Foundations. The Hague: Kluwer.
    Van Kersbergen, K. (1995) Social Capitalism. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203429587
    Van Oorschot, W. (1998) ‘From solidarity to selectivity: The reconstruction of the Dutch social security system 1980–2000’, Social Policy Review, 10: 183–202.
    Van Riel, B., Hemerijck, A. and Visser, J. (2002) Is There a Dutch Way to Pension Reform? Working Paper WP 202. Oxford: Oxford Institute of Ageing.
    Vodopivec, M., Wörgötter, A. and Raju, D. (2003) Unemployment Benefit Systems in Central and Eastern Europe: A Review of the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
    Wallerstein, M. and Western, B. (2000) ‘Unions in decline: What has changed and why’, Annual Review of Political Science, 2: 355–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.3.1.355
    Walters, W. (1994) ‘The discovery of “unemployment”: New forms for the government of poverty’, Economy and Society, 23: 265–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149400000006
    Weber, M. (1949) The Methodology of the Social Sciences. Glencoe: Free Press.
    Weber, M. (1978) Economy and Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
    Weinert, P., Baukens, M., Bollerot, P., Peschi-Gapenne, M. and Walwei, U. (2001) Employability: From Theory to Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Weir, M. and Skocpol, T. (1985) ‘State structures and possibilities for “Keynesian” responses to the Great Depression in Sweden, Britain, and the United States’, in P.Evans, D.Rueschemeyer and T.Skocpol (eds), Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Welfare Commission (2002) The Balance Sheet for the 1990s. Stockholm: Ministry of Health and Social Affairs.
    Wennemo, I. (1994) Sharing the Costs of Children. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research.
    Wildeboor Schut, J.M., Vrooman, J.C. and de Beer, P.T. (2001) On Worlds of Welfare. The Hague: Social and Cultural Planning Office.
    Wilensky, H.L. (1975) The Welfare State and Equality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    World Bank (1994) Averting the Old Age Crisis. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
    World Bank (2000) Balancing Protection and Opportunity: A Strategy for Social Protection in Transition Economies. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
    World Bank (2003) Social Protection Sector Strategy: From Safety Net to Springboard. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website