European Welfare States: Comparative Perspectives


Mel Cousins

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
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    List of Boxes, Figures and Tables

    • 1.1 Definitions of ‘welfare state’ 6
    • 1.2 What is qualitative comparative analysis? 11
    • 3.1 Definitions of ‘globalisation’ 41
    • 3.2 Globalisation and Central and Eastern Europe 46
    • 4.1 What is gender? 58
    • 4.2 Gender and the Beveridge Report 60
    • 4.3 EU law and equality in social security 62
    • 5.1 What is a correlation? 83
    • 6.1 The Gini coefficient 116
    • 7.1 Definitions of ‘retrenchment’ 132
    • 5.1 Economic and welfare development, 2001 100
    • 7.1 Welfare expenditures (PPP$) and risk of poverty, 2001 166
    • 3.1 Trade openness and foreign investment in selected countries, 2003 45
    • 3.2 Variation in social protection expenditure in 16 European countries, 1960–2001 53
    • 4.1 Women on welfare, 1500–2000 60
    • 5.1 Adoption of welfare programmes in European countries, 1890–1920 81
    • 5.2 Consolidation of welfare states in 1920 84
    • 5.3 Welfare states in 1930 86
    • 5.4 Welfare states in 1950 90
    • 5.5 Welfare states c. 1970 94
    • 5.6 Welfare states c. 1980 95
    • 5.7 Welfare state trajectories, 1980–2000 98
    • 6.1 Income inequality, 1980s to 2001 117
    • 6.2 Poverty rates in Europe, 2001 118
    • 6.3 Effectiveness of welfare payments on household income poverty, 1996 119
    • 7.1 Economy and demography, c. 2002 125
    • 7.2 Labour force, 2001 126
    • 7.3 Welfare state spending and structure, 2001 127
    • 7.4 Gross and net social expenditure, 1997 128
    • 7.5 Gender and household incomes, mid-1990s 129
    • 8.1 Attitudes to the welfare state, 1992 176
    • 8.2 Attitudes to government action on poverty, 1996/7 178
    • 8.3 Attitudes to solidarity, 1996–2001 178
    • 8.4 Willingness to pay more taxes to reduce poverty, 2001 179
    • 8.5 Attitudes to welfare reform, 2001 179
    • 9.1 Demographic data 196


    I would like, in particular, to thank Zoë Elliot for her support in the development and writing of this book. A number of anonymous referees commented on both the original proposal and the text and contributed greatly to the structure of the book. I would also like to thank a number of colleagues who have commented on different sections of the book: Mary Daly, Frans Pennings, and Simon Roberts. The usual disclaimers apply.

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