Ethical Dimensions of International Management
Publication Year: 1997
Examining the relationship of national-cultural differences to ethical behavior, Ethical Dimensions of International Management helps the reader begin to understand the subtleties and nuances of ethical practices across nations. This innovative work uses short vignettes to illustrate each of its points while comparing and analyzing the primary influences on ethical behavior such as parenting, education, law, organizational cultures, and human resources management. Special features of the book include an extensive review and summary of relevant research literature, exhaustive coverage of a variety of different nationalities and cultures, and a direct comparison between Japan and the United States. Each chapter begins with several short cases and ends with helpful discussion questions. The book concludes with an analysis of the degree to which ethical systems of different ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Culture and Managerial Ethical Behaviors
- Basic Definitions and Approach
- A Model of Culture and Ethical Behaviors
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 2: Comparing Managerial Ethical Practices and Propensities Across Nations
- Group Orientation
- False Information
- Dealing with Competitors
- Gender Equality
- Unions, the Environment, Interests, and Integrity
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 3: National Values and Ethical Situational Predictions
- Dimensions of Culture
- Cultural Metaphors
- Managerial Values
- The Seven Cultures of Capitalism
- Managerial Practices Revisited
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 4: Transmitting Cultural Values: Socialization, Education, and Religion
- Parenting and Socialization
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 5: Secondary Influences on Managerial Behaviors: Laws, HRM Systems, and Organizational Cultures
- Differences in Systems of Laws among Nations
- Human Resource Management Systems as Influences on Managerial Behavior and Practices
- Organizational Culture and Managerial Ethical Behaviors
- Professional Cultures and Codes of Conduct
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 6: Culture and Managerial Ethical Behaviors: An In-Depth Look at Japan
- Japanese Cultural Characteristics
- The Transmission of Culture to Japanese Managers
- Case Studies: Culture and Ethics
- Other Current Ethical Issues in Japan
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 7: Culture and Managerial Ethical Behaviors: An In-Depth Look at the United States
- American Cultural Characteristics
- The Transmission of Culture to American Managers
- Case Studies: Culture and Ethics
- Other Current Ethical Issues in America
- Public and Nonprofit Management
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 8: Cross-Cultural Managerial Ethical Behaviors: Continued Divergence or Toward Greater Convergence?
- Some Arguments for the Continued Divergence in the Ethical Practices of Managers among Nations
- Some Arguements for a Greater Convergence in the Ethical Practices of Managers among Nations
- Will Companies and Managers Become More Ethical in Their Management Practices in the Future?
Sage Series in Business Ethics[Page ii]
Series Editor: Robert A. GiacaloneThe E. Claiborne Robins School of Business, University of RichmondEditorial Board
Norman Bowie University of Minnesota
F. Neil Brady Brigham Young University
Steve Brenner University of Portland
Rogene Bucholz Loyola University-New Orleans
Archie Carroll University of Georgia
Guido Corbetta SDA Bocconi
Terry Ferris University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Clive Fletcher University of London
Donnelson Forsyth Virginia Commonwealth University
Ed Gray Loyola Marymount University
Jerald Greenberg Ohio State University
Robert Hay University of Arkansas
M. David Hoch University of Southwestern Louisiana
John Kilpatrick Idaho State University
Jeanne Liedtka University of Virginia
Alex Michalos University of Guelph, Canada
Dennis Moberg Santa Clara University
Chimezie Obsigweh Norfolk State University
Jean Pasquero University of Quebec at Montreal
Stephen L. Payne Eastern Illinois University
Barry Posner Santa Clara University
Joanne Preston Pepperdine University
Paul Rosenfeld Navy Personnel Research & Development Center
James Schweikart University of Richmond
Linda Trevino Pennsylvania State University
Henk J. L. van Luijk The Netherlands School of Business
Scott Vitell University of Mississippi
Donna Wood University of Pittsburgh
Dan Worrell Appalachian State University
Copyright © 1997 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Carroll, Stephen J., 1930-
Ethical dimensions of international managment / Stephen J. Carroll and Martin J. Gannon.
p. cm.—(Sage series in business ethics)
Includes bibliographical references and idex.
ISBN 0-8039-5543-X (acid-free paper).—ISBN 0-8039-5544-8 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
1. International business enterprises—Management—Moral and ethical aspects. 2. Business ethics. I. Gannon, Martin J. II. Title. III. Series.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
97 98 99 00 01 02 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Acquiring Editor: Marquita Fleming
Editorial Assistant: Frances Borghi
Production Editor: Sherrise Purdum
Production Assistant: Karen Wiley
Typesetter & Designer: Andrea D. Swanson
Indexer: Cristina Haley[Page viii]
This book is dedicated to our parents and teachers who especially exemplified principles of integrity and ethical behavior and by so doing served as models of emulation for us and many others: Helene Carroll, Stephen Carroll, Sr., Catherine A. Gannon, Leo W. Gannon, Marvin Dunnette, George England, James Jenkins, Thomas Mahoney, Donald Paterson, George Seltzer, Dale Yoder, the late Brother Bernard Rodolf, S. J., and Clarence C. Walton.
It is difficult to identify two topics that have been more frequently discussed—and either directly or indirectly accorded prominent attention—in very recent years in business schools and business itself than those of ethics and culture. Ethics, of course, has been an important topic since ancient times and, although such writings as Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics are still widely read and discussed, ethics in business is of more recent vintage. We now have courses on ethics in business schools, laws governing ethicality in business behaviors, codes of ethics in companies, and even some journals focusing on business ethics at both the academic and the practitioner levels. With the ever increasing globalization of business, we also have a renewed interest in national cultural differences and their influence on international business operations, which is reflected in a significant increase in the number of academic courses and journals devoted to these topics.
This book examines the issue of the relationship of national cultural differences to ethical behaviors. One might legitimately ask: Why is an investigation of the relationship of cultural differences to ethical differences important? Perhaps the best place to begin the search for an answer is to analyze why it is important to study ethical behaviors at all. One reason for doing so is that ethical behavior in a society has a significant influence on critical social and economic outcomes. Societies must have some degree of trust before they will cooperate with one another in any type of extended relationship. Predictability is necessary for cooperation and for social and economic investments that will not provide a payoff for many years, and clearly predictability is associated with a perception that certain ethical standards of behavior are a given in a society and across societies.[Page x]
Such ethical norms or standards of behavior may be incorporated officially into the laws of the nation but they may also be unofficial in the sense that they consist of the internal standards that govern daily behavior. One of the reasons why there have been so many difficulties in moving from collectivist to market-oriented economies in the former Soviet Union and Eastern European economies is that ethical systems currently operating appear to be insufficiently supportive of the development of trust. Also, the ethical standards of a nation are related to other economic factors, such as the willingness of organizations from other nations to invest in that country or to join in partnerships with that country's enterprises. Furthermore, a nation's ethical standards and behaviors can be associated with the amount of internal conflict or social turbulence in that nation, which can directly affect the country's quality of life.
Thus, we feel that the relationship between national cultures and ethical behaviors may help to account for some of the variation that we can observe among nations in terms of their economic progress, their political stability, and the quality of life of their people. Also, studying the relationship between cultural factors and ethical standards and behaviors can help us predict how the ethical norms of a nation may change over time in response to alterations in culture. Knowledge of the manner in which culture affects a society's ethical standards and behaviors can also promote a better understanding of the nature of other societies, which, in turn, can reduce ethnocentrism, racism, stereotypes, and other cognitive biases that militate against human understanding and cooperation in general.
This book is structured around a model of culture and ethical behaviors of managers (see Figure 1.1). In Chapter 1, we explain our research approach for validating this model. We point out that because of the absence of data on ethical behavioral or decisional differences among managers in different nations, we must use an eclectic approach that combines several sources of data, which include surveys, actual published cases on unethical decisions by managers in many countries, and published descriptive information on the many characteristics of nations around the world that we wish to compare.
With respect to the structure of the book, the remainder of the first part, dealing with ethical differences, includes two chapters, one that compares managerial ethical practices across nations, and one that analyzes differences among nations with respect to values and other cultural characteristics. The next part of the book describes primary influences on ethical behavior, such as parenting and educational systems, and secondary influences, such as law, human resource management or HRM systems, and organizational cultures. In the third part [Page xi]of the book, we then provide in-depth treatments featuring case studies of the ethical systems of the United States and Japan. Our original plan was to discuss two additional nations, but space limitations prevented us from doing so. (However, we do present extensive information on specific countries throughout the book.) Thus, we chose two nations that are quite different culturally to discuss this issue of national managerial ethical orientations in some depth. Part III concludes with an analysis of the degree to which ethical systems of different nations may converge or diverge in the coming years.
Given the sensitive nature of the topics addressed in this book, we feel strongly that the reader should understand our backgrounds and values. Neither of us can be described, or has ever been accused of being, radical partisans in any area, including politics and education, but we do react negatively to true believers who feel that their viewpoint represents the only valid truth. We have taught on the same faculty for 28 years, have had extensive consulting experiences in a large number of business firms and governmental agencies, and have traveled, lived with, and taught students and managers in several nations. Most important, we were both attracted to the field of management because it provided an outlet for pursuing many significant and diverse but interrelated intellectual topics, and we have published extensively in the areas of human resource management, business strategy, organizational behavior, and cross-cultural management. Given our close intellectual interests and friendship, we welcomed the opportunity to work together on this book, as we believe strongly that ethics—particularly the development of trust among people of all types—is central to human existence. This book has given us the opportunity to explore our mutual interests in management and ethics in some depth, and for this we are grateful.
There are several distinctive features of this book, and these include the development and justification for the basic model, presented in Chapter 1, around which the book is structured; the very large number of short cases (at least 200) that can be found in every chapter; the numerous short examples that we use to illustrate our points; the extensive and intensive review and summary of the relevant research literature; the focus on a large number of nations; and the direct comparison of two very different nations, Japan and the United States, in terms of their ethical orientations. We have attempted to make the book reader-friendly not only through the use of case studies and examples but also by presenting discussion questions at the end of each chapter and starting each chapter with short cases.
We would like to thank several individuals for their help with this book. Bob Giacalone has been a patient and helpful Series Editor, as has been our [Page xii]Sage editor, Marquita Flemming … and so on. Of course, we accept responsibility for any errors that might have occurred and would be grateful if the reader would bring them to our attention.
References[Page 192]1991). Law and justice. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.(1973). Management and labor: The Japanese solution. Tokyo: Kodansha International.(1985). Kaisha, the Japanese corporation. New York: Basic Books., & (1991). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Boston: PWS-Kent.(1995). Women managers: Moving up and across borders. In O.Shenkar (Ed.), Global perspectives of human resource management (pp. 165194). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (1994). Languageshock. New York: Morrow.(1994). Managing corporate ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.(1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (1992). Ethics in Nigerian culture. Ibadan, Nigeria: Heinemann.(American Chamber of Commerce in Japan. (1973). Doing business in Japan. Tokyo: Author.1991, May 20). Hefty bonuses for hefty gains. Wall Street Journal, p. A18.(1993). Strategic human resource management. Ft. Worth, TX: Dryden., , & (1992, June 13–14). Japanese students’ attitudes toward employment in Japanese firms and foreign subsidiary firms located in Japan. In K.Takeuchi (Ed.), Corporate activities in the era of global economy (pp. 173–183). Tokyo: Keizai University International Symposium., , , , , & ([Page 193]1993). Presumed superior: Individualism and American business. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1992a, February). At work in the powerhouse of Europe. Personnel Management, pp. 32–35.(1992b, March). The land of social welfare. Personnel Management, pp. 33–35.(1989). The perceived legitimacy of managerial influence: A twenty-five year comparison. Journal of Business Ethics, 8(4), 231–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383336, & (1991). Managing internationalization at corporate level: The case study of Fiat. Unpublished paper, Bocconi School, Milan, Italy.(1984). Managerial behavior in Japan and the U.S.A.: A cross-cultural survey. Tokyo: Japan Productivity Center., , , & (1985). The international infant formula controversy: A dilemma in corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 4, 181–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00705617(1955). Notes of a native son. Boston: Beacon.(1990). International business: Introduction and essentials (, & (4th ed.). Homewood, IL: BPI/Irwin.1993). International business. Homewood, IL: Irwin., & (1994). Great Britain. In R.B.Peterson (Ed.), Managers and national culture (pp. 42–68). Westport, CT: Quorum Books., & (1994, June 20). Something's rotten in France, Spain Business Week, pp. 54–55., , & (1967). A model for ethics in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 31, 20–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1249296(1988). America. London: Verso.(1987). A comparison of the ethical behavior of American, French, and German managers. Columbia Journal of World Business, 22, 87–95., & (1956). Work and authority in industry. New York: John Wiley.(1946). Chrysanthemum and the sword. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1994). Unhealthy charities. New York: Basic Books., & (1992). Business ethics in America. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(1978). Native Americans. In J.Higham (Ed.), Ethnic leadership in America (pp. 119–149). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1992, August). Finding a new raison-d'être. Personnel Management, pp. 40–43.([Page 194]1989). Sociological justice. New York: Oxford University Press.(1982). The one minute manager. New York: William Morrow., & (1995, January). The horse murders. Vanity Fair, pp. 92–101, 138–140.(1987). Corporate fraud: A case study in organizations in contemporary society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1993). The legal, ethical and international environment of business (, & (2nd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West.1989). Roger Boisjoly and the Challenger disaster: The ethical dimensions. Journal of Business Ethics, 8, 217–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383335, , & (1989). The Chinese. London: Penguin.(1985). How are responses to verbal insults related to cultural collectivism and power distance?Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16, 111–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002185016001009, , , & (Bottomley, G., & DeLepervanche, J. (Eds.). (1984). Ethnicity, class and gender in Australia. London/Sydney: Allen & Unwin.1944). Foreign influences in American life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.(1992). Can we afford international human rights?Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 515–521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00881444(1993). Understanding culture's influence on behavior. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(1990). Are the Japanese good global competitors?Columbia Journal of World Business, 25, 5–11., & (1995, March 13). The lesson from Barings’ strait. Business Week, pp. 30–32., , , (1917). Russell H. Conwell and his work. Philadelphia: John C. Winston.(1994, May 9). The victim: The living hell of life on the firing line. Business Week, p. 68.(1994). Strategies for successful organizational downsizing. Human Resource Management, 33(2), 189–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930330204(1992, April). It's the climate that counts. Personnel Management, pp. 32–35.(1981). Business and society: Managing corporate social performance. Boston: Little, Brown.(1984). Social responsibility of management, modules in management. Chicago: Science Research Associates.(1987, March-April). In search of the moral manager. Business Horizons, pp. 7–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0007-6813(87)90002-4([Page 195]1987). What can HRM do to help U.S. firms cope with current change pressures? Some ideas from the Pacific Basin nations. Human Resources Planning, 3, 115–124.(1990). High technology companies and the multiple management approach. In L.R.Gomez-Mejia & M.W.Lawless (Eds.), Organizational issues in high technology management. New York: JAI Press.(1992, June). Recent trends in U.S. HRM systems: Implications for Japanese subsidiary firms in America. In K.Takeuchi (Ed.), Corporate activities in the era of global economy (pp. 82–97). Tokyo: Keizai University International Symposium.(1990, January). Aligning executive human resource management with innovation strategies: An empirical study of industrial firms. In M.W.Lawless & L.R.Gomez-Mejia (Eds.), Strategic leadership in high technology organizations (pp. 237–247). Proceedings of Second Annual Conference on Managing the High Technology Firm, Boulder, CO., , & (1987). Performance enhancement through mentoring. In C.E.Schneider, R.W.Beatty, & L.S.Baird (Eds.), The performance management sourcebook (pp. 3–11). Amherst, MA: Human Resource Development Press., , & (1995). Do business students from different nations but with the same business educational experiences perceive ethical situations differently? Working paper, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland., & (1982). Performance appraisal and review systems. Chicago: Scott, Foresman., & (1982). Current problems with Japanese human resource management systems. In Symposium: Japanese management: A realistic assessment of its potential for design and management of U.S. industrial firms. Annual Meetings, Academy of Management, New York., & (1973). Management by objectives. New York: Macmillan., & (1976). Organizational behavior. Chicago: St. Clair., & (1992). A menu of moral issues: One week in the life of the Wall Street Journal. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 255–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00872167, & (1995, Winter). Singapore: Emerging national identity in a global city (IHJ. Bulletin 15). International House of Japan, pp. 6–8.([Page 196]1981). Culture, contingency, and capitalism in the cross-national study of organizations. In L.L.Cummings & B.M.Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 3, pp. 303–356). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.(1983). The Japanese mind. New York: Fawcett Columbine.(1996, January 15). Disconnected: How AT&T is planning to put 40,000 members of its workforce out of service. Time, pp. 44–45.(1992). Cultural and socioeconomic constraints on international codes of ethics: Lessons from accounting. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 687–700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01686349, , & (1989). Strategies for learning: Small group activities in American, Japanese, and Swedish industry. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1992). An ethical analysis of organizational power at Salomon Brothers. Business Ethics Quarterly, 2(3), 367–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3857539(Companies receive symbolic wrist slap. (1992, May 28). Asahi Evening News, p. 1.The Confucius Connection. (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00220021870180020021994). Disclosure. New York: Random House.(1991, June 17). How much CEOs really make. Fortune, pp. 72–80.(1993). The psychodynamics of work and organizations. New York: Guilford.(1978). The Japanese. In J.Higham (Ed.), Ethnic leadership in America (pp. 36–63). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1993). European women in business and management. London: Paul Chapman., & (1994, August). Issue-contingent effects on ethical decision making: A cross-cultural comparison. Proceedings of Academy of Management Meetings, Dallas, TX., , & (1986). Business ethics ((2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.1993). Competing with integrity in international business. New York: Oxford University Press.(1992). Do company ethics training programs make a difference? An empirical analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 719–727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01686353, & (1991). The kata factor. Phoenix, AZ: Phoenix Books.(1994). International management. New York: HarperCollins.(1988). Confucian ethics and Japanese management practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 4, 575–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00382789(1985). Multinational decision-making reconciling international norms. Journal of Business Ethics, 4, 357–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00381779(1989). The ethics of international business. New York: Oxford University Press.([Page 197]1994). Toward a unified conception of business ethics: Integrative social contracts theory. Academy of Management Review, 19, 252–284., & (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence and implications. The Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 65–91., & (1989). How the Japanese learn to work. London: Routledge., & (1994, April 3). In Japan where mom knows best. Washington Post Education Review, p. 16.(1912). The financier. New York: New American Library.(1986). The Japanese school: Lessons for industrial America. New York: Praeger.(1965). The elementary forms of the religious life. New York: Free Press. (Original work published 1915)(1936/1841). Essays. Reading, PA: Spencer.(1975). The manager and his values. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.(1992). Cross-border acquisitions and shareholder wealth: Evidence from U.S. and foreign stock markets. Working paper, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland., , & (1976). America: The view from Europe. San Francisco: San Francisco Book Co.(1994). Negotiating with the Americans. In L.Catlin & T.White (Eds.), International business: Cultural sourcebook and case studies (pp. 29–31). Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern.(1991). Managinga diverseworkforce. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(1991). The code of the warrior. New York: Harper Perennial.(1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley., & (1988). Mindsets. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.(1984, May 14). How to snoop on your competitor. Fortune, pp. 28–33.(1989). Human resource management: Text and cases. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (1936/1771). The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Reading, PA: Spencer.(1988). Corporate strategy and the search for ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (1995, December 11). Did IBM unit bribe officials in Argentina to land a contract?Wall Street Journal, p. Al.(1993). Crime and punishment in American history. New York: HarperCollins.([Page 198]1994, March 10). Chinese executive executed for bribery. The Washington Post, p. C3.(1994). Understanding global cultures: Metaphorical journeys through 17 countries. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452224886, & Associates. (1993). Three modern novelists: Soseki, Tanizaki, Kawabata. Tokyo: Kodansha International.(1991). Pinto fires and personal ethics: A script analysis of missed opportunities. The Journal of Business Ethics, 10.(1983). Foreign corrupt practices: A manager's guide. Columbia Journal of World Business, 18(3), 89–94.(1984, Winter). The foreign corrupt practices act: A new perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, pp. 107–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490498(1991, May 6). Whose company is this?Time, p. 48., & (1991). Ethics and working with the Japanese: The entrepreneur and the “elite course.” California Management Review, pp. 25–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41166659(1993). EEO law and personnel practices. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452224718(1989). Beyond culture. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1990). Understanding cultural differences. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press., & (1994, June 21). In Japan, bankruptcy is a moral offense. Wall Street Journal, p. A23.(1992, December 22). Japan's business cartels are starting to erode but change is slow. The Wall Street Journal, p. Al., & (1993). The seven cultures of capitalism. New York: Doubleday., & (1991). Managing Japanese workers. Tokyo: The Japan Institute of Labor.(1992). Why Irish firms are smiling. Personnel Management, pp. 38–41.(Harbison, F., & Myers, C.A. (Eds.). (1959). Management in the industrial world. New York: McGraw-Hill.1991). Management mistakes and successes ((3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.1992/1850). The scarlet letter. New York: Knopf.(1985). Italian labyrinth. New York: Penguin.(1992). What's ethical in business?New York: McGraw-Hill.(Higham, J. (Ed.). (1978). Ethnic leadership in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.[Page 199]1994). International business. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin.(1980a). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1980b, Summer). Motivation, leadership, and organizations: Do American theories apply abroad?Organizational Dynamics, 2, 42–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(80)90013-3(1991). Culture and organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1988). The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16, 15–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(88)90009-5, & (1992). Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 286–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393392, , , & (1992, December). New priorities for Dutch HRM. Personnel Management, pp. 42–48.(1994). Moral leadership in business. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin.(1995). Trust: The connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20, 379–403.(1993). International law for business. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1994). International law for business. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1990). Gaijin kaisha, running a foreign business in Japan. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.(1978). Afro-American. In J.Higham (Ed.), Ethnic leadership in America (pp. 91–118). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1986). A general theory of marketing ethics. Journal of Macromarketing, 6, 5–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/027614678600600103, & (1994, June 6). Riding crop and slurs: How Wall Street dealt with a sex bias case. Wall Street Journal, pp. Al, A6.(1984). Daisy Miller. New York: Penguin.(1972). Victims of groupthink. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(Japan's high-tech spies. (1982, July 5). Newsweek, pp. 47–49.1988). Women: World-class managers for global competition. Academy of Management Executive, 11(1), 11–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1988.4275576, & (1995). Instrumental stakeholder theory: A synthesis of ethics and economics. Academy of Management Review, 20, 404–437.(1990). Cultural adjustment of international students. Psychological Science, 1(2), 133–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1990.tb00082.x, & (1990). Family and home based intervention. In R.Brislin (Ed.), Applied cross-cultural psychology (pp. 121–141). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.([Page 200]1970). The emerging Japanese superstate. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.(1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.(1994). The Japanese work group. In H.C.Triandis, M.D.Dunnette, & L.M.Hough (Eds.). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (, & (2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 609–646). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.1979). A history of Japanese literature (3 Vols.). Tokyo: Kodansha International.(1989). Funny business: An outsider's year in Japan. New York: Prentice Hall.(Kelley, L., & Shenkar, O. (Eds.). (1993). International business in China. London: Routledge.1987). Managing corporate culture through reward systems. Academy of Management Executive, 1, 99–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1987.4275817, & (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson., & (1994). Resolving cross-cultural ethical conflict: Exploring alternative strategies. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 31–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00877152, & (1994). Human dilemmas in work organizations. New York: Guilford.(1993). Tribes. New York: Random House.(1993). Poland. In R.B.Peterson (Ed.), Managers and national culture (pp. 178–208). Westport, CT: Quorum Books., & (1988). Management in China during and after Mao in enterprises, government, and party. New York: Walter de Gruyter.(1990). Do corporate codes of ethics reflect national character? Evidence from Europe and the United States. Journal of International Business Studies, 4, 512–539., & (1991). Federal regulation of personnel and human resource management. Boston: PWS-Kent., & (1995, January 6). Louisiana company's officers admit fouling the Mississippi. Washington Post, p. A2.(1992). The content and focus of Canadian codes of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 31–38., & (1994, June 13). Selling the woman-child. U.S. News & World Report, p. 27.(1922). Babbitt. New York: New American Library.(1967). Tally's corner: A study of negro streetcorner men. Boston: Little, Brown.(1989). Employee work attitudes and management practice in the U.S. and Japan: Evidence from a large comparative study. California Management Review, 32(1), 89–105.([Page 201]1986). Organizational structures in Japanese and U.S. manufacturing. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 338–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392827, , & (1990). Office ladies/factory women: Life and work at a Japanese company. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.(1978). The Germans. In J.Higham (Ed.), Ethnic leadership in America (pp. 64–90). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1991). A cross-cultural comparison of the ethics of business students. Journal of Business Ethics, 10, 141–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383617, & (1976). The gamesman. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1952/1513). The prince (Luigi Ricci, Trans.). New York: New American Library.(1992). Western manager, Japanese boss. Intersect, 8, 11–16.(1995a). How strategic is HRM?Human Resource Management, 34, 253–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930340203, & (1995b). Which executive human resource management practices for the top management team are associated with higher firm performance?Human Resource Management, 34, 497–512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930340403, & (1995a, January). HRM update. Companies already complying with $1-million deduction cap. HRMagazine, p. 18.(1995b, January). HRM update. Mentoring with an “equality” twist. HRMagazine, p. 16.(1993). International trade and competition law in Japan. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(1993). Ethics and the gender equality dilemma for U.S. multinationals. Journal of Business Ethics, 12, 701–708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00881384, & (1990). An empirical investigation of a general theory of marketing ethics. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18, 163–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02726432, & (1961). The achieving society. New York: Van Nostrand.(1969). Motivating economic achievement. New York: Free Press., & (1988). Ethical perceptions of Hong Kong Chinese business managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 835–845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383046, & (1993). South Korea. In R.B.Peterson (Ed.), Managers and national culture (pp. 287–300). Westport, CT: Quorum Books., & (1957). Collected plays. New York: Viking-Penguin.(1990). Plant closing: Ethics root in American law. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 665–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383393([Page 202]1965). Studies in management education. New York: Springer.(1988). Organizational behavior: Performance and productivity. New York: Random House.(1988). On becoming American. New York: Paragon House.(1995). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in medical ethics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1974). The management of compensation. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole., & (1970, January-February). Is management exportable?Columbia Journal of World Business, 439–455.(1950). Long day's journey into night. New Haven: Yale University Press.(1957). The iceman cometh. New York: Random House.(1989). The organizational culture perspective. Chicago: Dorsey.(1990). Corruption and business in present day Venezuela. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 555–566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383211(1982). In search of excellence. New York: Harper & Row., & (Peterson, R.B. (Ed.). (1993). Managers and national culture: A global perspective. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.1993). United States. In R.B.Peterson (Ed.), Managers and national culture: A global perspective (pp. 14–48). Westport, CT: Quorum Books., & (1985). Intrapreneuring. New York: Harper & Row.. (1987). Ethics in American companies: A managerial perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(5), 383–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00382895, & (1993). Women and men in management ((2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1991). Multinational corporate social policy process for ethical responsibility in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Business Ethics, 10, 527–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383351(1988). Attitudes towards business ethics of future managers in the U.S. and Israel. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 941–949., & (1989). Made in Japan and other Japanese “business novels.”Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.(1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.(1996). Individualism-collectivism orientations and preferences for human resources management practices: An empirical study. Working paper, College of Business and Management, University of Maryland., & ([Page 203]1943). The fountainhead. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.(1957). Atlas shrugged. New York: Signet.(1993). International business law: Text, cases, and readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1992). Japan: The coming collapse. New York: Harper Business.(1992). Reframing the organization: Why implementing total quality is easier said than done. Academy of Management Review, 19, 565–584., , , & (1989). Japanese transplants: In search of a balanced and broader perspective. Columbia Journal of World Business, 24, 17–20.(1981). The Japanese. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1988). The Japanese today. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University-Press.(1994). Moral development in the professions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1988). A reader's guide to Japanese literature: From the eighth century to the present. Tokyo: Kodansha International.(1993). Corporate institutionalization of ethics in the United States and Great Britain. Journal of Business Ethics, 12, 301–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01666534, & (1991). The impact of management by objectives on organizational productivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 322–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.2.322, & (1995). Ralph Waldo Emerson: Preacher and lecturer. Westport, CT: Greenwood.(1986, February). Deming: Shogun of quality control. Magazine for Financial Executives, pp. 25–31.(1993, March 1). The cleanup of Italy Inc.Business Week, pp. 50–51.(1992, February 13). Shareholder proposals on pay must be aired, SEC to tell 10 firms. Wall Street Journal, p. A1.(1994, November 30). Destitute on paper, a Japanese tycoon is “too big to fail.” Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A16.(1985). Culture and related corporate realities: Text, cases and readings on organizational entry, establishment, and change. Homewood, IL: Irwin.(1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1983). Interactional psychology and organizational behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 5, 1–31.(1949). Varieties of labor relations. Harvard Business Review, 27, 125.(1988). Foreign corrupt practices act: A legal and moral analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 789–796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00411027([Page 204]1989). Moral issues in business (, & (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.1988). Practical ethics (AMA Management Briefing). New York: AMA Membership Publications Division.(1992). Linking groupthink to unethical behavior in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 651–662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01686345(1906). The jungle. New York: Bantam.(1994, March 7). When the house lights go up and the jobs are gone. Washington Post Business, p. 17.(1992). Attitudes toward business ethics held by Western Australian students: A comparative study. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 745–752. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00872306(1995, November 3). A beer tampering scare in China shows a peril of global marketing. Wall Street Journal, p. B1.(1958). The religions of man. New York: Harper & Row.(1991). The world's religions. San Francisco: HarperCollins.(1995). Intra and inter organizational cooperation. Toward a research agenda. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 7–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256726, , & (1992). Japanese fairy tales. New York: Dover.(Sokaiya link seen in death of Fuji executive, (1994, March 2). Japan Times, p. 2.1993). Ethics and excellence. New York: Oxford University Press.(1992). Fetal protection: Law, ethics and corporate policy. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 731–752. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00872304, & (1993). The moral legitimacy of intellectual property claims: American business and developing country perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 12, 157–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00871935(1991). American cultural patterns (, & (2nd ed.). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.1990). Bulls in the China shop. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.(1990). The morality of software piracy: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 655–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00383392, , & (1994). Ethical aspects of “Japanese leadership style.” Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 135–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00881582, & (1904). The history of the Standard Oil Company. New York: Macmillan.(1987). The Japanese: Portrait of a nation. New York: Meridian.(1995). Procedural justice in performance appraisal: A field test of the due process metaphor for performance appraisal systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 495–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393795, , , , & ([Page 205]1993). Japan. In B.Peterson (Ed.), Managers and national culture: A global perspective (pp. 257–286). Westport, CT: Quorum Books.(1991, August). Human resource management in offshore manufacturing plants: A comparison of American and Japanese macquiladoras in Mexico. Presented at Symposium: Research in Progress, Academy of Management Annual Meetings, Miami, FL., , & (1981). Interactional psychology and research on human behavior in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 6, 569–576.(That eye-popping executive pay. (1994, April 25). Business Week, pp. 52–58.The victim: The living hell of life on the firing line. (1994, May 9). Business Week, p. 68.1995). From bureaucratic to network organization: Organizational change and the outcomes of Team Aer Lingus. Doctoral thesis, University of Limerick, Ireland.(1989). Preschool in three cultures: Japan, China, and the United States. New Haven: Yale University Press., , & (de. (1945). Democracy in America: Vol. II. The social influence of democracy. New York: Knopf. (Original work published 1840)1995). True faith and allegiance: The burden of military ethics. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.(1976). Management: Contingencies, structure, and process. Chicago: St. Clair., & (1994). Managing organizational behavior (, , & (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.1994). Managing organizational behavior (, , & (3rd ed.). London: Blackwell.1986). Tough choices: Managers talk ethics. New York: John Wiley.(1994). Cross-cultural industrial and organizational psychology. In H.C.Triandis, M.D.Dunnette, & L.M.Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology ((2nd ed., Vol. 4, pp. 103–172). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.1993). Riding the waves of culture. Homewood, IL: Irwin.(1989). Bhopal, India and Union Carbide: The second tragedy. Journal of Business Ethics, 8, 439–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00381810, , & (U.S. Department of Commerce. (1980, September). Report of the president on expert promotion functions and retentional expert disincentive. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.1984). Japanese culture (([Page 206]3rd ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.1990). The general theory of marketing ethics: A partial test of the model. Research in Marketing Annual, 10, 237–266., & (1992, Fall). The globalization of business ethics: Why America remains distinctive. California Management Review, pp. 30–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41166711(1930). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (T. Parsons, Trans.). New York: Scribner.(1995). Social and cultural psychiatry of Jamaicans. In I.Al-Issa (Ed.), Handbook of culture and mental illness (33–50). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.(1992). Corporate codes of ethics and sales force behavior: A case study. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 753–760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00872307, & (1992). Business ethics judgements: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Business Ethics, 11, 671–678. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01686347, & (1992). Ethical dilemmas in organization development: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 289–295., & (1987). The Japanese educational challenge: A commitment to children. New York: Free Press.(1991). Japanese management: Tradition and transition. London: Routledge.(1995, November 3). U.S. bars Daiwa Bank and indicts institution. Wall Street Journal, p. A1., , 8¢ (1985, June 9). White collar crime: Booming again. New York Times, p. 4.(1994). The moral sense. New York: Free Press.(1990). Japan as anything but number one. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.(1994). The moral animal: Evolutionary psychology and everyday life. New York: Pantheon.(1986). Values and interorganizational influence: A comparative study of Taiwanese, Japanese, and American firms in Taiwan (Doctoral dissertation, Temple University). University Microfilms International.(1989). Case study research: Design and methods. London: Sage.(1989). Leadership in organizations ((2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.1988). Foreign lawyers in Japan: A case study in transnational dispute resolution and marginal reform. Law in Japan, 21, 84–21. pp. 84–91.(1993). Perceived ethical values of Malaysian managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 12, 331–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01666537, & (1994). An intimate history of humanity. New York: HarperCollins.(
About the Authors[Page 223]
Stephen J. Carroll completed his BA at UCLA and his MA and PhD at the University of Minnesota. He is author or coauthor of more than 12 books and monographs and more than 100 published papers. The books and monographs include Management by Objectives, The Management of Compensation, Management: Contingencies, Structure and Process, Managing Organziational Behavior, Performance Appraisal and Review Systems, Management, Human Resource Management in the 1980s, Cases in Management, Development of Management Performance, and The Design and Implementation of Pension Plans. The papers have been published in many outlets including Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Californial Management Review, Human Resource Management, Industrial Relations, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Business, Personnel Psychology, and Public Opinion Quarterly. He has been a consultant to more than 40 business or government organizations. He has been elected a fellow in the Academy of Management, The American Psychological Association, and the American Psychological Society. His professional and administrative experience includes positions as chairman, Personnel/Human Resources Division of the Academy of Management; Chair Faculty of Management and Organization, University of Maryland; co-director, Center for Innovation, University of Maryland; Distinguished Scholar-Teacher, University of Maryland; Fulbright Research Professor in Japan; and editorial board, Academy of Management Journal.
Martin J. Gannon, who received his PhD from Columbia University, is Professor of Management, College of Business and Management, University of [Page 224]Maryland at College Park. In this college he has also served as Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, chairperson of the Faculty of Management and Organization, and co-director of the Small Business Development Center. He has also been the Senior Research Fulbright Professor at the Center for Higher Education and Work in West Germany; the John F. Kennedy/Fulbright Professor at Thammasat University, Bangkok; and a visiting faculty member at the London Business School, Bocconi University (Italy), University College Dublin, and the University of Kassel (Germany). He has written 75 articles that have been published in journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, The Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, California Management Review, International Journal of Management, Industrial Relations, and several others. His 10 authored or coauthored books include Managing Without Traditional Methods: International Innovations in Human Resource Management; Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 17 Countries; The Dynamics of Competitive Strategy; Management; Strategic Management Skills; and Organizational Behavior. He is a past president and fellow, Eastern Academy of Management. He has also been past chairperson of the Human Resource Division of the Academy of Management. Throughout his career, he has served as a management trainer and consultant to a number of private firms and government agencies, including Chemical Bank, The Upjohn Company, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, American Federation of Government Employees, and the U.S. General Accounting Office, and has taught managers and students in Europe and Asia.