This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Habitat of Coastal and Marine Fishes (Essential and Critical)

Habitat of coastal and marine fishes (Essential and critical)

Managing habitat has long been recognized in wildlife management as key to maintaining healthy populations (Leopold, 1933). Recognizing that habitat destruction, as in the case of wetland destruction, was responsible for as much as half of the depleted coastal fisheries in United States waters, the US Congress added Essential Fish Habitat provisions to the revision of the Magnuson Act of 1976 (Magnuson-Stevens Act, 1996). Defined by Congress as ‘those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity’, the designation and conservation of essential fish habitats seeks to minimize adverse effects on habitat caused by fishing and non-fishing activities.

‘Habitat’ is a loosely used ecological ...

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