This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
In the environmental sciences ergodicity arises from the substitution of spatial variations for temporal ones. Because it is often difficult to determine how environment changes over time then arranging present spatial sequences as equivalent to temporal change can be helpful. It has been employed, especially for relatively small-scale systems, because changes occur over much longer time periods than the time of empirical observations and because until recently dating techniques were unable to give precise dating for stages of environmental change. Space-time substitution underlay attempts to deduce stages in drainage network development. Slope profiles from coastal cliffs where there has been protection from coastal erosion were used to construct sequences of possible slope evolution. The ergodic hypothesis was applied by using the distribution of thermokarst ...