This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Cycles are extremely important in the biosphere and lithosphere. Since material essentially cannot be created or destroyed on the Earth's surface, materials must cycle. And these cycles are involved in geochemical and biogeochemical processes. These cycles occur on timescales of 100s of millions of years to a day or less. Botkin and Keller discussed the cycles of nature and they are summarized them below. Several of these cycles are considered in more detail in other entries.

Geologic cycle. Over the several billion year history of the Earth, the surface of the Earth has constantly changed due to physical and biogeochemical forces. Taken together these changes are called the geologic cycle. The tectonic cycle involves the movement of large plates in the lithosphere, the outer surface ...

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