This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Biogeochemical Cycles

Biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical cycling is the cycling of elements that is affected by a combination of biological, chemical, and geological processes. This cycling is a result of inputs to an ecosystem and the internal cycling within the ecosystem. Inputs can come from rain, runoff, dust, and other materials. A major input to the biogeochemistry of the ocean, and thus of the earth, is the addition of materials to ocean water at the mid-ocean ridges. Chemicals cycle internally in ecosystems, passing through air, water, soil, and organisms. Research on biogeochemical cycling often focuses on the ‘big six’ elements that are the basic building blocks of life. These are carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. Biological activity greatly affects biogeochemical cycling of carbon and other materials ...

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