This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Cartography (from the Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the art and science of map and chart making including topographical, geological, pedological and thematic maps, was essential from the early days of exploration when maps were required to chart the progress of overseas discovery. A map can fulfil any one of four functions because it can:

  • display information that varies across space;
  • act as an information storage tool;
  • provide a mechanism which links different sources of information;
  • be regarded as an object of art.

Maps have been used for some 8000 years and have recently been radically changed as a result of advances in computing technology and remote sensing which enabled GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and in satellite provision which facilitated GPS ...

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