This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Urban Environments

Urban environments

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990 an urban area can be defined as a ‘man-made environment encroaching and replacing a natural setting and having a relatively high concentration of people whose economic activity is largely non-agricultural’ whereas the US Census bureau definition is areas with more than 386 people per km2. Why are environmental scientists interested in such urban environments?

First because so many people live in them. Just 2% of the world's surface is built up, but since 2000 these areas include >50% world's population, compared with just 14% in 1920 and 2% in 1850; it is estimated that they could include 60% by 2025. Some countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and the UK, already have >80% ...

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