This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



The word troposphere stems from the Greek ‘tropos’ for ‘turning’ or ‘mixing’. Troposphere is the lowermost portion of Earth's atmosphere. It is the densest layer of the atmosphere and contains approximately 75% of the mass of the atmosphere and almost all the water vapour and aerosol. The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface up to the tropopause where the stratosphere begins. The region of the atmosphere where the lapse rate changes from positive (in the troposphere) to negative (in the stratosphere), is defined as the tropopause. The tropopause is the boundary region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. By measuring the temperature change with height through the troposphere and the stratosphere, one identifies the location of the tropopause. In the troposphere, temperature decreases with altitude. ...

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