This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Stratigraphy is ‘the arrangement of strata, especially as to geographic position and chronologic order of sequence’ (AGI Glossary, 1987); stratification is rock layering formed during deposition by changes of some kind in the materials being deposited or in the conditions of deposition, also called ‘bedding’; and a stratum is a rock layer so formed (Dunbar and Rodgers, 1954, p. 97), also called a ‘bed’.

Stratigraphy is the study and description of layered rocks (Fig. 28). Groups of these kinds of rocks – which are usually sedimentary in nature – are called strata or, less formally, beds. Beds, in turn, are described according to how they differ from adjoining beds (grain size, fabric, composition, primary colour); their shape; their thickness; their lateral extent; their internal structures; ...

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