This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
The Earth sphere which includes water in fresh or saline form in a liquid, solid or gaseous state, consists chiefly of oceans, but technically includes all water in the world, embracing inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters. Approximately 70.8% of the Earth is covered by water and only 29.2% is landmass, so that the abundance of water is a distinguishing feature of Earth as the ‘Blue Planet’ in the solar system. The water of the hydrosphere occurs in several stores of which the oceans are the largest including more than 97% of the world's water, more than 0.6% in ground water, some 1.65% in ice sheets and glaciers, with very small amounts in the atmosphere, on land in lakes and seas (0.0148%) and ...