This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Glacial Environments

Glacial environments

Glacial environments refer to environments at, or near, the margins of glaciers and include a variety of forms and processes associated with cold climate phenomena. Included is permafrost, which is perennially frozen ground, that melts in the upper layers for part of the year. When we speak of glacial environments, we may also include paraglacial conditions, or cold conditions associated with cold climate, as well as proglacial conditions, or land found in front or at the margins of glacial ice.

From a perspective of the glacial environments, the ground that is permanently frozen containing permafrost is perhaps of most significance to environmental science. The area covered by permafrost, whether it is continuous permafrost or discontinuous, is widespread around the globe, particularly at the ...

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