This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  

Earth Spheres

Earth spheres

Earth and its environment can be thought of as composed of a series of spheres, rather like concentric shells or layers, although some are not discrete and overlap with others. Such division of Earth's environments into a series of spheres is a useful way of subdividing material and information as the basis for study by different disciplines. Because air, land, water, and living things are the main ingredients of environmental systems it was the spheres of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere which were first identified by Suess in 1875. At that time this provided a way of identifying those spheres of the Earth's environment concerned with air, rocks, water and life, thus providing the subject matter for the environmental sciences. The atmospher had ...

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