This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
The cryosphere is that part of the Earth's surface where water is in a solid form, usually as snow or ice, and includes glaciers, ice shelves, snow, icebergs, and snow fields. Cryogenic processes involve freeze-thaw processes which include frost wedging (by shattering, riving, scaling and splitting), frost heaving, frost creeping, frost sorting, nivation, and solifluction or gelifluction. Periglacial environments are affected by cryogenic processes, which include the croystatic pressures developed on freezing of the active layer and cryturbation which is the process whereby soils, rock and sediments in the active layer can be deformed as a result of the cryogenic processes.
The snow, ice, frozen ground and sea-ice of the cryosphere can play a significant role in the global climate system and therefore in climate ...