This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Climatologists have developed methods to organize atmospheric observations into classifications of phenomena. There are basically three types of classifications used in climatology. First, there are empirical systems such as the Köppen classification which is an empirical system based on observations of temperature and precipitation (shown below is a recent version labelled the Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification) (Fig. 13). These are two of the easiest measurable climate characteristics and long-term historical data exists for the Earth. Climates are grouped based on annual averages and seasonal extremes. Second, there are genetic classification systems, e.g., synoptic types, based on the recurrence of various weather types that are more directly controlling the character of climates. A genetic system relies on information about the climatic elements of air masses, ...