This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
The region surrounding the Earth's North Pole and usually thought of as comprising all areas north of the Arctic circle (latitude 66½° N). The word ‘arctic’ derives from the Greek arktos meaning bear, and the area includes the ice-covered Arctic ocean, parts of Canada, Greenland, Russia, Alaska, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland, a total area of 14,056,000 km2, equivalent to twice the size of Australia. This is an environment with 24 hours of darkness in December (the Arctic winter) and 24 hours of daylight in June (during the Arctic summer), the warmest monthly mean temperature does not exceed 10°C and the mean monthly temperature of the coldest month is below 0°C. The tree line, the northern limit of trees, approximates to the southern ...