This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



A microclimate is the distinctive climate of a small-scale area (see scale dimensions in Table 6), such as a garden, park, hill, valley, coast, forest, or part of a city. The weather variables in a microclimate, such as radiation, temperature, rainfall, wind or humidity, may be subtly different from the conditions prevailing over the area as a whole and from those that might be reasonably expected under certain types of pressure or cloud cover. There are several controlling attributes that drive microclimate conditions and fall under the categories (1) radiative, (2) aerodynamic, (3) thermal, and (4) moisture (Table 7).

Table 6 Scales of climate

Table 7 Determinants of microclimate conditions
RadiativeAlbedo, emissivity, surface temperature, surface geometry
AerodynamicRoughness, upwind obstacles
ThermalConductivity, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal admittance
MoistureStatus in soil, vegetation ...
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