This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere and processes that produce weather. The majority of Earth's observed weather is located in the troposphere. Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology consist of the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology. The term ‘meteorology’ has a long history stemming from Aristotle's Meteorology, of the fourth century BC. As late as the 19th century, the full extent of the large-scale interaction of pressure gradient force and deflecting force became known as the cause of air masses moving along isobars. By early 20th century, this deflecting force was named the Coriolis Effect (after Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, who published in 1835 on the energy yield of machines with rotating parts – such as waterwheels).