This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Much of the circulation of the oceans, especially in water deeper than a few hundred metres is driven by density differences between water masses. Density of ocean water is mostly related to temperature and salinity. Circulation caused by these density differences is called Thermohaline Circulation. This type of circulation is responsible for the circulation of water in the ocean. Thermohaline circulation is responsible for vertical water movements in the ocean and for circulation of the oceans a whole. Ocean water is stratified with the densest water at the bottom (very cold, high salinity water) and the least dense water at the surface (warmer, lower salinity water). The differences in density give rise to a number of different water masses which do not mix ...