This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.  



Recycling is the most visible of the resource-conserving quartet of Re-use, Repair, Refuse and Recycle, where ‘refuse’ means to decline to acquire goods and services rather than to create refuse. It is not a new idea: most pre-industrial societies practice recycling and re-use as a normal way of using materials. In many such groups, iron for example was a precious metal which had to be re-used as many times as possible and so the blacksmith was a key member of the community. It is still common to see the waste heaps of the cities of developing nations being picked over for every scrap of saleable and re-usable material. Only in western industrial countries since the 19th century has the availability of material goods been so ...

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