This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global hemispherical solar radiation at the Earth's surface, observed since the beginning of systematic measurements in the 1950s. The effect varies by location, but worldwide it is of the order of a 5% reduction over three decades (1960 to 1990). This trend may have reversed during the past decade. The temporary disappearance of contrails due to plane groundings after the September [Page 394]11, 2001 attacks in New York City, USA and the resulting increase in diurnal temperature range provided empirical evidence of the effect of thin ice clouds on the Earth's surface energy budget (Fig. 78). Global dimming creates a cooling effect that may have partially masked the effect of greenhouse gases on ...