This unique addition to reference literature provides an introduction to the major concepts and contemporary issues that are essential for students of environmental science and environmental studies to know. With over 200 entries authored by world-class names like Anthony Brazel, John Day and Edward Keller, this text is divided into six sections: Environmental Science, Environments, Paradigms & Concepts, Processes & Dynamics, Scales & Techniques, and Environmental Issues.
Geothermal energy is energy obtained from the natural heat from the interior of Earth. Geothermal energy was used as early as 1904 in Italy and today is being used in over twenty countries around the world. Today, tens of millions of people receive their electricity from geothermal sources at costs that are competitive with fossil fuels. Most geothermal energy projects involve utilization of high-heat sources such as very hot water and steam, but low temperature geothermal energy is also being used. For example, ground water at a normal ambient temperature of Earth can be considered a source of geothermal energy. The temperature of ground water at depths of about 100 metres is about 13°C, which admittedly is cold for a bath. However, ...